Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


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Volume7,Issue1

1. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of phenolic compounds  from Phoenix dactylifera L and evaluation in vitro of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity
Laouini Salah Eddine, Ladjel Segni, Ouahrani Mohammed Ridha
Abstract
The present study was undertaken on optimization  extraction of phenolic compounds in the leaves of Ghars variety from Phoenix dactylifera L by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) using ethanol, methanol, hexane and chloroform as the extraction solvent. This study investigated the influence of various parameters time (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min), temperature of extraction ( 30, 40, 50 and  60 °C), volume of solvent on the extraction (40, 60, 80 and 100 ml) in composition of extracts. Phenolic content, proanthocyanidins were investigated.  The antioxidant properties of the extracts were analyzed by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), superoxide radical scavenging(O) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assays. Positive effect of increase of the sonication time and/or temperature on the scavenging activity of the extracts against free DPPH radicals and thus lower IC50 values was demonstrated. Strong linear correlation of DPPH radical scavenging capacities of the extracts with content of phenolic  was established. FRAP values significantly correlated with total proanthocyanidins content in the extracts. the extracts of 20 min was presented the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory for or time and the volume of 80 ml give the optimum fraction between the powder plant and solvent. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 80 ml of ethanol as extraction volume, 20 min of extraction time and 60 °C of ultrasonic temperature. It was concluded that ultrasonic extracts of Ghars variety from Phoenix dactylifera L of hold considerable potential against free radical toxicity by virtue of their polyphenolic constituents, and might have significant clinical roles in prospect.
Abstract Online: 01-Dec-2014

2. A Study on Ardisia solanacea for Evaluation of Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties
Mohammad Nurul Amin, Shimul Banik, Md. Ibrahim, Md. Mizanur Rahman Moghal, Mohammad Sakim Majumder, Rokaiya Siddika, Md. Khorshed  Alam, Shamima Nasrin Anonna
Abstract
The present study was conducted to detect possible phytochemicals and evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, thrombolytic, anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Ardisia solanacea. Phytochemical screening was carried out using the standard test methods of different chemical group. For investigating the antioxidant activity, two complementary test methods namely DPPH free radical scavenging assay and total phenolic content determination were carried out. For the evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity, disc diffusion method, and to determine the thrombolytic activity, the method of Prasad et al., 2007 with minor modifications were used. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity was done using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The anthelmintic study was carried out by the method of Ajaiyeoba et al. [10] with minor modifications. The extracts were a rich source of phytochemicals. In DPPH free radical scavenging test, the petroleum ether soluble fraction showed the highest free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value 40.04μg/ml. while compared to that of the reference standards ascorbic acid . Ardisia solanacea was also found as a good source of total phenolic contents.  Morever, the extracts revealed moderate antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 400 μg/disc. By comparing with the negative control the mean clot lysis % was significant (p value <0.0009). In cytotoxic activity test, the petroleum ether soluble fraction showed significant cytotoxic potential (LC50 value of 0.703 μg/ml) among all the fractions comparing with that of standard vincristine (0.544 μg/ml). The crude extract of Ardisia solanacea produced a significant anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner and the activity of crude extract was comparable with that of standard drugs. Therefore, further studies are suggested to determine the active compounds responsible for the pharmacological activities of the plant extracts.
Abstract Online: 01-Dec-2014

3. Is Dietary Phytochemical Index in Association with the Occurrence of Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Changes in Lipid Accumulation Product Index? A prospective Approach in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Mottaghi A., Bahadoran Z., Mirmiran P., Mirzaei S., Azizi F.
Abstract

Background: The present study aimed to determine effect of the phytochemical index (PI) score on the incidence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index in adults.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline and after 3 years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess food intake at baseline. Dietary PI was calculated based on the modified method developed by McCarty.Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, dietary PI were inversely associated with changes in waist circumference (β= -0.08, P<0.01), serum triglycerides (β= -0.07, P<0.01) and LAP (β= -0.09, P<0.01) after 3 years. Risk for occurrence of HTW phenotype in participants with highest compared to lowest dietary PI was significantly reduced (OR=0.5, 95% CI= 0.26-0.96).Conclusion: Higher phytochemical intake is associated with lower occurrence of HTW phenotype.
Abstract Online: 01-Dec-2014

4. Cardiovascular Potential of  Lauraceae Family : A Brief Review
Oliveira Filho, AA, Fernandes, HMB, Assis, TJCF
Abstract
Lauraceae is a large family of woody plants (except the herbaceous parasite, Cassytha) with about 50 genera and 2500 to 3000 species distributed throughout tropical to subtropical latitudes. Twenty two genera are found in Brazil, distributed in rain forests as well as in restingas and cerrados. Lauraceae plants have the extremely important economic value. Previous studies showed that some species of the Lauraceae family were found to exhibit useful biological activities such as antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumour, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, fungicidal, cytotoxic, and cruzain inhibitory activities and antiviral. Besides these biological activities, the Lauraceae plants are characterized by having various steels on the cardiovascular system, based on that, this study aimed to develop a literature review in order to address all the studies on the cardiovascular effects of the species of this family.
Abstract Online: 01-Dec-2014

5. Purification and Characterization of Riboflavin Binding Protein From Egg White of Coot (Fulica atra)
Madhukar Rao K, B. Satheesh Kumar, Bindhu Rajan, J. Madhukar, M S K Prasad
Abstract
Riboflavin binding protein (RfBP) was isolated from the eggs of Fulica atra. The protein was purified in two steps, DEAE- Sepharose ion exchange chromatography and gelfilteration on Sephadex G-100. The holoprotein had an absorption spectrum characteristic of flavoproteins. The purity of the protein was judged by SDS-PAGE technique. A single band on the slab and cylindrical gels revealed that the protein was pure .comparison of the mobility of RfBp with that of the standard molecular weight marker proteins suggested that RFBP from the egg white of fulica atra had a molecular weight close to 29 Kd.
Abstract Online: 06-Dec-2014

6. Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Studies of Adenanthera pavonina L.
Ghosh Partha, Chowdhury Habibur Rahaman
Abstract
Pharmacognostic, total phenolic and antioxidant studies of Adenanthera pavonina L. (family Mimosaceae) have been carried out. The leaves and bark of this plant are used by the tribal people for curing various ailments and diseases. The parameters like micromorphology, anatomy, phytochemical screening and physical constant have been considered here for pharmacognostic evaluation of different parts of this plant. The stomata are of strictly paracytic type and hypostomatic. Stomatal index is 12.61 and frequency is 158.5/mm². Palisade ratio is 8.2. Non-glandular trichomes are present on both surfaces of the leaf. Xylem axial parenchyma is paratracheal type. Uniseriate, biseriate and multiseriate types of ray structure are found. Perforation plates of the vessel elements are simple and obliquely placed, pits simple, tails present. Fibres are thick walled with pointed tips. Histochemical localization study revealed the presence of tannins, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, lignin, cellulose, etc. in various tissue zones of the stem like vascular bundles, cortex, phloem, etc. The methanolic extracts of leaf and bark showed positive tests for carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, etc. Moisture content of leaf and bark drug is 54.6% and 34.5% respectively. Ash value is 15.85% for leaf and it is 21.55% for bark powder. In leaf, percentage of acid soluble and water soluble ash is 81.53% and 42.45%, respectively. Percentage of acid soluble and water soluble ash in bark is 81.33% and 39.65%, respectively. Amount of total phenolics in leaf is 8.53mg/g and in bark, it is 8.51 mg/g. DPPH scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of leaf and bark (200mg/mL methanol) is 32.31% and 30.23% ascorbic acid equivalent, respectively. This study will provide some diagnostic features by which the crude drug of this plant can easily be identified.
Abstract Online: 08-Dec-2014

7. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Leaves and Fruits of Commiphora caudata Engl.
Prasanna Anjaneya Reddy L, Narasimha Reddy B, Bhakshu MD L, Venkata Ratnam K, Veeranjaneya Reddy L
Abstract
The leaf and fruit essential oils were obtained from Commiphora caudara Engl. were examined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Fifteen compounds from leaf oil and thirty compounds from oil were identified which represents 100% and 99.97% respectively. The major components of leaf essential oil are β-pinene (33.70%), cychlofenchene (17.84%) and α-terpineol (10.40%) whereas the fruit oil contain verbenone (8.18%), 3-carene (9.90%), cychlofenchene (16.97%) and dihydrocarveol (19.58%) as the major components. The essential oil exhibited broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity  which is concentration dependent and 10 µL of  the leaf oil shown the inhibition zones ranging from 8.5-19.5 mm for leaf and 9.0 -26.2 mm for fruit oils. The MIC were ranged from 4.2-10.0 µL/mL for leaf and 3.3-10.0 µL/mL for fruit oils. Fruit oil exhibited strong inhibition activity (26.2 mm zone of inhibition) compared to standard anti-fungal drug Amphotericin B (24.0 mm) against Candida rugosa. The essential oils exhibited significant DPPH scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner (5-20 µL). Leaf and fruit oils displayed 50% scavenging capacity (IC50) with 20 µL and 15 µL respectively. Total anti-oxidants of leaf and fruit oils calculated in terms of ascorbic acid equivalents were: 18.1 ± 2.7 and 184.3 ± 5.6 g/kg, respectively. This is the first report on the chemical profiles, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of C. caudata leaf and fruit essential oils.
Abstract Online: 10-Dec-2014


8. Antimicrobial Profile of Antidiabetic Drug – Berberine
Tatyasaheb Patil, Snehal Patil, Shreedevi Patil, Anuprita Patil
Abstract
Berberine is a plant alkaloid with long standing history of medicinal use in traditional Chinese, native American medicine as well as in indigenous Indian medicines. It is bright yellow coloured Iso quinolone alkaloid and is a chief alkaloid found in roots, stem and bark of bereberis species.  It is procured from roots of B. aristata, B. petiolaris, B vulgaris, B.aquifolium, B. thumbergii, B. asiatica and hydrastis Canadensis.
Abstract Online: 10-Dec-2014

9. A Review: Phenolics and Nitrogenous Compounds Isolated from Cyperus Species (Part I)
Mohamed A. Gamal, Kamal M. K. Hani, Elhady S. Sameh, Ibrahim R. M. Sabrin
Abstract
Species belonging to the family Cyperaceae are an important source of active constituents with biological activity. Cyperaceae is a family of monocotyledonous known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses or flowering plants rushes. The family comprises about 4000 species described in about 90 genera. These species are widely distributed in tropical Asia and tropical South America. While, sedges may be found growing in all types of soils, many are associated with wet lands or poor soils. The genus Cyperus includes about 600 species, some of which are used in folk medicine, the most important one is Cyperus rotundus L. In this review we focused on the phenolics and nitrogenous constituents isolated from different Cyperus species growing in Egypt.
Abstract Online: 18-Dec-2014

10. Phytochemical Composition and In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Piper hymenophyllum Miq. : A Rare Wild betel
Venkata Ratnam, L. Md. Bhakshu, R.R. Venkata Raju
Abstract

The present aim of the study is to evaluate chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the fruits of Piper hymenophyllum Miq. GC-MS analysis of the hydro distilled oil resulted in the identification of 15 compounds in fruit constitutes 98.65% of the oil. (E) phytol (21.87%), dihydro terpineol (17.42), α – terpineol (13.93%), trans-piperitol (9.66%), endo-fenchol (4.09%), camphene (3.92%) and γ-terpinen (3.91%) were the major compounds of fruit oil. The fruit essential oil was tested against human pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Among the tested microorganisms, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneuminiae exhibited highest sensitivity and strongly inhibited at very low MIC indicating the efficacy of the fruit oil on the Gram negative bacteria. In conclusion, essential oil obtained from P. hymenophyllum fruit showed beneficial effects to inhibit tested human pathogenic organisms by in vitro methods.
Abstract Online: 19-Dec-2014

11. A Review on Anti Microbial Herbs in Siddha Medicine
K. Kanakavalli
Abstract
Microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, virus, protozoa are present everywhere in the soil, water, atmosphere and on the body surfaces are solely responsible for large number of infectious diseases in mankind. Commonly infectious organisms attacks, respiratory tract, Gastro intestinal tract, Urogenital tract, Skin etc. The use of antibiotics against these infections cause many adverse effects. This leads to the use of medicinal plants to treat the infections. Many of the herbs possess anti microbial activity against the dreadful microorganisms. Siddha medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicines, treats the infections with herbs (mooligai), Inorganic substances (thathu) and animal products (Jeevam). Many of the Siddha formulations possess the herbs which has antimicrobial activity helps to treat acute and chronic infections. This article reviews on antimicrobial property possessing herbs in siddha medicine. This review has offered herbs in siddha medicines as an antimicrobial agent for further research to treat the acute and chronic infections.
Abstract Online: 24-Dec-2014

12. Novel Approach of Isolation of Tannins From the Fruit Rind of Terminalia chebula and Punica granatum and its Synergistic Antidiabetic Activity Against Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats.
Sampath V, Mani N
Abstract

To evaluate the synergistic effect of tannins from the fruit rind of Terminalia chebula and Punica granatum against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. The equal blent of tannins enriched extract of HCP (From Terminalia Chebula and Punica granatum fruit rind) at doses of 250mg /kg bw and 500mg/kg bw were administrated orally to streptozotocin (120mg/kg bw) induced diabetic rats for 28days. The various parameters were studied including fasting blood glucose, body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase levels (CK) and histochemical analysis of pancreas in normal, treated diabetic rats. The HCP (Tannins enriched extract) at diverse dosage (250 and 500mg/kg bw) showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin and creatine kinase (CK) levels. The body weight also significantly increased upon treatment with HCP. Histopathology study exhibited that the β-cell damage in the pancreatic was prevented in the HCP treated diabetic rats. Acute toxicity study revealed that HCP was safer and non-toxic nature. From the compilation of study results, it was concluded that the HCP at dosage of 500mg/kg bw exhibit significant antidiabetic activity and it may be a promising antidiabetic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Also the HCP prevent the β-cell damage and induce the insulin secretion in the pancreatic.
Abstract Online: 25-Dec-2014

13. A Review: Terpenoidal Compounds Isolated from Cyperus Species (Part II)
Mohamed A. Gamal, Kamal M. K. Hani, Ibrahim R. M. Sabrin
Abstract
This is a second part of a review and is mainly a compilation of different classes of terpenes isolated from Egyptian Cyperus species. The genus Cyperus is a large genus of the sedge family, Cyperaceae. Members of Cyperaceae are monocotyledon, grass-like, flowering plants, commonly found in wet areas and known as sedges. The Cyperaceae is rich in secondary metabolites. The genus Cyperus species are widely distributed all over the world. The most common species includes Cyperus rotundus L. In this review we surveyed the different terpenoids constituents isolated from cyperus species growing in Egypt.
Abstract Online: 27-Dec-2014

14. Comparative Evaluation of In-vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Alcoholic Polyherbal Extract IMMU 4plus.
K.Radha, Padmaja V, Ajithkumar P, Helen William
Abstract
Development of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic microbes necessitates a search for new antimicrobial agents from other sources ,including plants .Four indigenous plants viz Azadirachta indica (Meliacea), Centella asiatica (Apiaceae), Tinospora cordifolia(Menispermaceae),& Withania somnifera (Somnifera) traditionally known for immunomodulatory  activity were evaluated for  antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains  Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Klebsiella pneumonia  and antifungal  activity against  Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. IMMU 4plus formulation which is on the way of development, may be used as an adjuvant along with other immunomodulatory agents to  produce broad spectrum  antimicrobial activity along with other therapeutic properties.
Abstract Online: 30-Dec-2014

15. In-Vitro Comparative Study of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities: A Case Study of Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ocimum gratissimum
Londhe A. M., Kulkarni A. S., Lawand R. V.
Abstract
Tulsi is known as queen of medicinal plants. Its numerous varieties are available. In this study comparison is done between three species of tulsi: Krishna tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum), Rama tulsi (Ocimum gratissimum) and Kapur tulsi (Ocimum kilimandscharicum). Method: The antimicrobial activity of leaf distillate of O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum, O. kilimandscharicum family Lamiaceae was studied against Bacillus cereus, Bacilus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. The inhibitory effect of leaf distillates was compared with the standard antibiotic penicillin and antifungal Fluconazole. Result: Among all the ocimum species O. kilimandscharicum is effective antibacterial agent against B. cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, while leaf distillate of O. gratissimum is effective as antifungal against A. niger. Conclusion: This study would be useful to give guidelines to the pharmacist for preparation of specific and more effective antimicrobial formulations by using particular ocimum species.
Abstract Online: 08-Jan-2015

16. Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Bioactivities of Extracts of Aerial Part of Evolvulus Nummularius
Tamilarasan, S. Sivamani, A. S. Maheshwari, T.P. Rajesh
Abstract

Objective: To investigate in vitro bioactivities of methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts of E. nummularius and its phytochemical analysis. Methods: The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals and H2O2. Cytotoxic activity was tested against hep G2 cell lines using MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion assays. The haemolytic activity was determined using agar diffusion techniques on blood agar plate, thrombolytic activity by clot disruption. Standard phytochemical screening tests for saponins, tannins, terepenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and glycosides were also conducted. Results: Among the different extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract of E. nummularius showed potential in vitro bioactivities and phytochemical constituents. Conclusions: Further work will be carried out to find biologically active compounds that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals.
Abstract Online: 08-Jan-2015

17. Study of Bactericidal potency of Smilax glabra rhizome
Willy Shah, R. N.Jadhav, Mukesh Pimpliskar, Vikas Vaidya
Abstract
Smilax glabra rhizome is well known traditional medicine and widely used throughout the world for its therapeutic use in a wide range of ailments. The present work was aimed to determine the antibacterial potential of this plant. The two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of   methanol, chloroform, n-hexane and acetonitrile extract of the rhizome of S.glabra and it revealed that it inhibits the Gram positive organism namely Staphyllococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis while Gram negative organism like Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were found to be resistant to all the extracts.
Abstract Online: 09-Jan-2015

18. Secondary Metabolites from Campylospermum oliverianum (Farron), Campylospermum glaucum (Tiegh) and Campylospermum dybowskii (Van Tiegh)
Dominique Serge Ngono Bikobo, Auguste Abouem A Zintchem, Norbert Mbabi Nyemeck II, Alex de Théodore Atchade, Gaetan Bayiha Ba Njock, Paul Mosset,  Dieudonné Emmanuel Pegnyemb
Abstract
According to some specialists, the Ouratea genus has traditionally included the genera Campylospermum, Rhabdophyllum and Idertia of the Ochnoideae clade. Moreover, some other authors consider this relationship as controversial, partially due to the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework. Secondary metabolites can appear as chemotaxonomic markers; thus, a bridge can be applied in phylogeny between genetics and morphology. In order to evaluate chemotaxonomic position of Campylospermum and Ouratea genera, detailed chemical investigations on C. oliverianum, C. glaucum and C. dybowskii afforded several classes of known compounds (3, 4, 5, 7, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 29, 30 and 31), most of them were previously isolated from the Ouratea genus, hence strengthening the generic concept which suggests that the Campylospermum genus seems to be closed to Ouratea’s one.
Abstract Online: 12-Jan-2015

19. Diuretic & Anti-urolithic activity of Some Crude Extracts
Farah-Saeed, Mehjabeen, Sikandar Khan Sherwani, Noor-Jahan, Mansoor Ahmad
Abstract
Eight crude extracts were evaluated for the presence of diuretic and anti-urolithiasis activity. Diuretic activity was carried out on rats and all extracts exhibited significant diuretic activity while A. montana (300 mg) and U. ursi (300 mg) showed better diuretic activity i.e. 2.59±0.0033 and 2.65±0.0033 respectively in comparison to other test drugs,  A. mellifica, C. virosa, D. purpurea, S. nigra, T. occidentalis, U. urens and control drug, Furosemide. Prominent anti-urolithic activity was shown by U. ursi (95.7%), A. montana (80.2%), D. purpurae (91.2%) and C. virosa (91.2%) extracts while no anti-urolithic activity was found in the extracts of U. urens, A. mellifica, S. nigra and T. occidentalis. Our present study revealed the usefulness of crude extracts as safe and efficacious diuretic and anti-urolithic drugs.
Abstract Online: 12-Jan-2015

20. Screening of Volatile Compounds of Brotowali (Tinospora crispa) And AntifungalActivity Against Candida albicans
Warsinah, Harwoko, Nuryanti
Abstract
Brotowali (Tinospra crispa) has antifungal potential of Candida albicans against. This plant contains a compounds was  berberine, Columbine, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids as antipyretic, analgesic, antiparasitic, antiseptic, antifungal, antidiabetic and antitumor. The research was conducted by means of extraction and fractionation of stem brotowali with solvent n – hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate with increasing polarity. Each fractions in Thin layer chromatography (TLC) to see the profile of the chromatogram and the same profile combined into one fraction then subsequently tested of the fungus C. albicans activity by diffusion method and the combined active fractions were identified by UV – Vis and GC-MS. Based on the results obtained TLC 5 fractions F1 – F5 was combined, then the antifungal activity test results showed that the fraction of one (F1) has antifungal activity C. albicans against with inhibitory potential of 27.73 ± 0.16 %. Identification results based on UV – Vis spectra of F1 containing the OH groups, aliphatic CH, carbonyl group (C = O), methylene    (- CH2) and the CO group. GC -MS identification showed the phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and terpenoids. Compounds that are antifungal is Hexadecanoid and 9.12 Octadecadienoic acid
Abstract Online: 14-Jan-2015

21. Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Entire Khella Plant (Ammi visnaga.L.) A member of Palestinian Flora
Jaradat Nidal Amin, Abualhasan Murad, Al-Masri Motasem, Speih Reem Ibrahem, Johari Mona Ass’ad, Awad May Ayed
Abstract
Objectives: In the developing countries, a large number of people depend on the traditional folk medicine as primary substances in their healthcare systems especially rural areas healers and patients from centuries. An estimated 35,000 to 70,000 plant species are used for medicinal and therapeutic purposes in the world. The objectives of this study were to screen the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities also to evaluate antioxidant property of the Ammi visnaga(L.) Lam. entire plant. Methods: The Ammi visnaga plant was phytochemically screened (acetone, methanolic and aqueous) for the presence of phytogenic chemicals and, their effect on 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) was used to determine their free radical scavenging activity. Broth microdilution method was applied to detect antibacterial activity and determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous and organic extracts of   Ammi visnaga (L.).  The antimicrobial activity was examined against 3 reference strains namely:  Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923),Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853).  Moreover, MIC against  Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strain was included. Results: The results showed that Ammi visnaga methanolic extract contains a mixture of phytochemical classes as proteins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids and revealed that this plant has high antioxidant activity (IC50=6 µg/ml). While aqueous extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (MIC= 25 mg/ml),  E. coli (25 mg/ml), P. aeruginosa (25 mg/ml) and  A. baumannii (50 mg/ml).  Organic extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) showed stronger inhibition of bacterial growth, where MIC values for S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were 0.35, 2.78, 5.56 and 5.56 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that the Ammivisnaga (L.), especially organic extract, exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates and has high antioxidant activity and therefore it can provide natural source of antibacterial drugs and antioxidants and can be useful in preventing various diseases including cancer.
Abstract Online: 14-Jan-2015

22. A Comparative Study of Prepared and Marketed Asokarista with respect to Physicochemical Parameters and Phytochemical Markers
Mishra Shikha, Aeri Vidhu
Abstract
In the present study, the quality control parameters specified in API were evaluated for two reputed commercial brands in comparison to laboratory formulated preparation. All the formulations were estimated for lyoniside and lyoniresinol content at various time intervals. The formulation was prepared by decocting the bark with water and fermenting it with Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. The samples were kept at ambient conditions. It was analyzed during processing (Decoction), at beginning of storage and then at 30, 60 and 90 days. The physicochemical parameters specified in API were evaluated and assay was done in terms of phytochemical marker (Lyoniside and lyoniresinol) of main component, Saraca asoca using validated HPLC method. The formulation completed in 8 days and it complied with pharmacopoeial limits. The physicochemical properties of the formulation modify with the progress in days. Lyoniside was present in decoction however its content decreased during fermentation. Upon storage, the content of lyoniresinol increased. The authors conclude that use of incubator produces identical formulation in lesser duration and during the processing, chemical marker of main component, Saraca asoca converts to its aglycone, Lyoniresinol. Also substantial quantity of elemental iron and calcium has been detected in the formulations, a reputed Gynecological medicine.
Abstract Online: 20-Jan-2015

23. In vitro Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Analyses in Different Plant Parts of Syzium cumini
Sanzida Mubassara, Kalyan Kumar Biswas, Md. Muksedul Hasan, Md. Ibrahim Hossain, Sudip Paul
Abstract
Syzium cumini has been traditionally used in folk medicine for various purposes. The present study was conducted in the leaves, barks, fruits and pulps of S. cumini plant to evaluate their phytochemical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties. Ethanolic extracts of all these plant materials were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and tannins as the chemical class present in the extracts.  The results suggested the phytochemical properties of the plant for curing various ailments. The antimicrobial activity of the various extracts was tested against standard strains and clinical isolates of some bacteria using the disc diffusion method. The extracts showed inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical isolates of the Gram-negative bacteria such as Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholera also showed some vulnerability to the extracts. The leaf and bark extracts were found to be more potent antimicrobial than the pulp and seed extracts. Preliminary antioxidant activities of the extracts were also conducted and found that pulp extract has the highest antioxidant activity reflected by total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and total reducing power among the various parts of the plant followed by seed, bark and leaf extract. The findings from the study provide a support for the use of various parts of the plant in traditional medicine and for its further investigation.
Abstract Online: 22-Jan-2015

24. Review on Ethno-Medicinal Plants of Odisha for the Treatment of Malaria
Mamata Pani, Gayatri Nahak, Rajani Kanta Sahu
Abstract
Malaria is currently a public health concern in many countries in the world due to factors such as chemotherapy faced by resistance, poor hygienic conditions, poorly managed vector control programmes and no approved vaccines. The survey identified 33 medicinal plant species from 24 families which were used for the treatment of malaria in the study area. Presently, it is important that a developing nations like Odisha to document uses of medicinal plants in all communities, which are still largely unexplored. This is because of old folks area usually custodians of such information and with the fast disappearance of traditional cultures and natural resources arising from urbanization and industrialization of these areas, such information could be lost forever. Documentation of this kind of information will be beneficial in general healthcare, ecological control, forest conservation of endangered species, research and providing leads to plants with useful medicinal properties.
Abstract Online: 22-Jan-2015

25. A New Approach for Predicting Antioxidant Property of Herbal Extracts
Rasha Saad , Fadli Asmani, Mohamed Saad, Maryam Hussain, Jiyauddin Khan, Mohammed Kaleemullah, Nordin Bin Othman, Ali Tofigh , Eddy Yusuf
Abstract
This study was conducted in order to determine if the herbal extract having antioxidant property. The major princible is to find out if there is any relationship between electrical current conductivity and antioxidant property of the ten Malaysian medicinal plants. The objective of this study achieved by  measuring the antioxidant property of the herbal extracts, as well as to measure the ability of the herbal extracts to conduct an electrical current. Ten herbs were selected randomly, Strobilaunthus crispa, Pereskia sacharosa, Ehretia laevis, Plectranthus ambinicus, Orthosiphon staminous, Androghophis panculata, Persicaria odorata, Clinacantus nutans, Curry leaves and Frankincense. They were identified and prepared for extraction. The methanol extracts were obtained by ultrasonification extraction method. The antioxidant property was carried out using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) reagent. The pH was measured using a pH meter and the phytochemical elements were also tested. Finally the electrical current conductivity was measured using a basic electrical circuit connection and the calculations of each herbal extract were obtained. The results show that all the extracts have significant amount of electrical conductivity ranging from (0.06 – 0.12 Ω·cm). All the extracts consist of high antioxidant property and that these extracts contain abundant amount of elements. This study found that there is a relationship between the electrical current conductivity and the antioxidant property. This introduces a possible new tool, which is electrical current conductivity as a predictor for the antioxidant property.
Abstract Online: 26-Jan-2015

26. Evaluation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Leucaena leucocephala
Preeti Sharma, Savita Chaurasia
Abstract
Objective:The generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals in human is suggested to contribute to the wide range of pathological disturbances such as, inflammations, cancer, diabetes and arthritis. Therefore the present study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Leucaena leucocephala.Methods:Three different solvent extractsof both plants were used in thestudy toevaluate their TPC by using Folin Coilteau reaction and flavonoid contents were determined by AlCl3 assay. The antioxidant potential was determined using four different test including metal chelation, reducing power, superoxide anion scavenging and by hydroxyl radical scavenging assay.Results:Total phenol content ranged from 7.51±.02 to 12.06±.03 mg GAEg-1 (Gallic acid equivalent) for A.oppositifoliaand13.40±.08 to 28.49±.02mg GAEg-1for L. leucocephalawhile total flavonoid ranged 0.373±0.04 to 1.325±0.08 mgQEg-1 (Quercetin equivalent) for A.oppositifoliaand 2.806±0.05 to 3.587±.003 mg QEg-1for L. leucocephala. All the extractsunder study exhibited good antioxidant activity in concentration dependent manner. Among all extracts methanolic extract of A. oppositifolia andchloroform extract of L. leucocephala exhibited better Fe2+ chelating activity with IC50  0.065 and 0.112 mg/ml respectively,Fe (III) to Fe (II) reducing capacity with IC50 0.23 and 0.42 mg/ml and superoxide anion scavengingpotential with IC500.425 and 0.675 mg/ml. In scavenging of hydroxyl radical A. oppositifolia acetone and L. leucocephala methanolic extract was most effective one with an inhibitory effect of 83.22 % ±.03 and 85.47 % respectively at 1.0 mg/ml (IC50 0.12 & 0.25 mg/ml). Conclusion:All the extractsA.oppositifoliaand L. leucocephalaleaves is potentiallygood source of antioxidant, which are found to be quite promising as a multipurpose medicinal agent. Phenolic and flavonoids contents are suggested to be responsible for antioxidant potential.
Abstract Online: 30-Jan-2015

27. Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis, In vitro Reducing Power and Anti-oxidant Activity of Methanol Leaf Extract of Acanthus ilicifolius
G.A. Gayathri, Gayathri Mahalingam, R. Nathiya
Abstract
Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the phytochemical constituents of the methanol leaf extract of Acanthus ilicifolius and to examine reducing power with antioxidant activity of the extract by in vitro method. Methods: Leaf extract was prepared by maceration method. Then the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of these extracts was carried out by applying standard procedures.  Reducing power of the prepared extract was determined by Oyaizu method.  In order to determine the in vitro scavenging ability of the extract against free radicals, anti-oxidant activity was determined by DPPH method.  Results: The extract was found to be rich in phytochemicals.  The content of alkaloids and saponins was 16.26 ± 0.22%, 3.82 ± 0.06% respectively. The total phenolics (292.62 ± 0.50mg/g of GAE) and flavonoids (44.15 ± 0.30 mg/g of QE) was found to be higher in this extract.  It showed that the plant extract had a higher level of antioxidant and reducing property even at lower concentrations due to its hydrogen donating capability. Conclusion: The present study proves that the methanol leaf extract of Acanthus ilicifolius is a potent antioxidant and having high reducing power.  Hence this extract found to be a valuable source of drugs to treat diseases caused by oxidation.
Abstract Online: 30-Jan-2015

28. Phytochemical Screening and Antifungal Activity of Phases Obtained From the Extracts of Juglans Regia L., Lawsonia Inermis L. and Pistacia Lentiscus L.
Mansour-Djaalab H., Djerrou Z., Bensari C. , Djaalab I ., Kahlouche-Riachi F. , Ghoribi L., Hamdi-Pacha Y
Abstract
The present work aimed to evaluate the anti-dermatophyte activity and to investigate the chemical composition of Pistacia lentiscus leaves (PLE), Lawsonia inermis (LIN) and the bark of Juglans regia (JRE). A bioguided phytochemical screening has revealed the presence of four major chemical groups (tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids and saponins) in total extracts of our three selected plants. These chemical groups are known for their antimicrobial activities could be responsible for the observed antifungal activities.The TLC on silica gel and polyamide and the HPLC have confirmed the results of characterization of reactions. The resulting chromatograms revealed under UV before and after the detection Neu reagent gave an idea about the nature of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids. Revelation to the Liebermann-Burchard reagent and FeCl3 showed the presence of sterols,  terpenes and tannins. Flavonoids extracts of phases of ethyl acetate, ED, water and 1B identified by UV-Visible spectrophotometry confirm the presence of molecules of Flavonol, Flavone, Chalcone, Aurone, Isoflavone present in the three plants. The activity of the extracts obtained by successive phases of confrontation was notable for Candida albicans, single strain inhibited by most of the different fractions (ED, AC and 1B) of three plants. This partition has enabled us to confront the possible consequences of phytochemical fractionation and loss induced activity.
Abstract Online: 31-Jan-2015

29. Synergistic Interaction Of Cannabis And Garlic With Commercial Antibiotics
Pralay Sankar Chakarborty, Himal Sapkota, Pranav Kumar Prabhakar
Abstract

Plants are known to be the source of many bioactive chemical compounds. Medicinal plants were used by people of ancient cultures without knowledge of their active ingredients. The common practice of taking crude extract orally is laden with hazards as the extracts may contain some toxic constituents. For current study we have selected four traditional medicinal plants, Calendula officinalis (Marigold), Cannabis sativa (cannabis), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi). Among these four plants, cannabis and garlic has shown clear zone of inhibition and they have also show the synergistic combination with commercial antibiotics, gentamicin and vancomycin. As a result the dose of commercial drugs and so the side effects caused by these commercial drugs can be reduced with the use of combination with phytochemicals. Pharmacodynamics studies of the combinations need to be performed to decide on the effective dosage.
Abstract Online: 31-Jan-2015

30. Guazuma tomentosa: A Valuable Medicinal Plant
Minakshi Sharma, Shruti Chopra, Shyam Baboo Prasad
Abstract
The use of medicinal plants as therapeutic agents presumably predates the earliest documented history. Guazuma tomentosa is one of very important medicinal plant. It is also known as Guazuma umbifolia (commonly known as mutamba or guacimo) belonging to family Sterculiaceae. It is widely found in areas such as the Caribbean, South American, Central America, Mexico and some parts of India. More or less all of the parts of tree, containing diverse chemical constituents, were used in the treatment of various indications and pathophysiological disorders. In last few decades extensive research work had been carried out on this valuable medicinal plant. The present publication deals with up-to-date phytochemical and pharmacological review on Guazuma tomentosa.
Abstract Online: 31-Jan-2015






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research