Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


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Volume7,Issue2

1. Phytochemical Analysis of Warburgia ugandensis Sprague using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) Spectroscopy
Were P. S., Waudo W., Ozwara H.S., Kutima H.L.
Abstract
The increasing resistance to convention medicine by disease agents has resulted in tremendous interest in herbal medicine.  Through pharmacognosy, plants have been shown to exhibit diverse antimicrobial effects due to the presence of secondary metabolites. One such plant that has been shown to display antiplasmodial properties is Warburgia ugandensis, a popular plant used in herbal medicine by many Kenyan communities. Warburgia ugandensis, a Canaleaceae, also known as the East African greenheart, is a species of evergreen tree native to Africa and a highly valued species within the traditional health systems of the communities where it naturally grows. The plant is rich in sesquiterpenes, which have been shown to be antimicrobial. In our present study, we have established, through Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectrometry that W. ugandensis contains bioactive compounds including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and terpenes; justifying its use in herbal medicine and presenting it as a suitable candidate for development of a phytomedicine.
Abstract Online: 02-Feb-2015

2. Quantification of Solasodine in Callus and Suspension Cultures of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. by RP-HPLC
Zafar Rasheeduz, Humayun Parisa
Abstract
In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to develop callus and suspension cultures from different organs of the plant and a modified, simple, rapid, accurate, robust and selective HPLC method for the determination of solasodine in natural leaf, stem, root, callus and suspension cultures of leaf, stem and root of the plant to check the possibility of increased content of solasodine in cultures. The callus and suspension cultures of different organs of Solanum xanthocarpum were developed using different combinations and concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-benzyl adenine (6BA) and kinetin. The analytes were separated on ODS Hypersil C-18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 10 µm particle size) using an isocratic elution of methanol – water (65:35) buffered with 20 mM phosphate (pH – 3.5) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1 ml min−1 and wavelength was absorbed at 205 nm by using U.V. detector. The calibration curve showed good linearity over a range of 0.5 – 500 µg/ml and the mean recoveries ranged from 99.26 to 99.92%. The stem callus developed on MS basal medium supplemented with 2,4-D, IAA, Kinetin and NAA (1.5ppm each) showed the maximum amount of solasodine (0.062% w/v) when compared with natural stem (0.048% w/v) and its suspension cultures (0.027% w/v). The increased amount of solasodine was quantified and validated for good linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness by HPLC.
Abstract Online: 02-Feb-2015

3. Effect of Metformin Vs. Eclipta alba on Blood Glucose Level in Diabetic Patients
Sazia, Sarvesh Singh, Pratap Shankar, Rajendra Nath, Amod Kumar Sachan, Rakesh Kumar Dixit
Abstract
With advantage of a quick relief allopathic drugs are causing for serious disease with long or short term relief. To avoid these side effects, its need to move towards the Ayurvedic treatment by natural products. Previous studies showing use of many natural product against the lethal diseases. Diabetes is also a such type of emerging disease, needs to be cured by allopathic as well as ayurvedic drugs.  Present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of herbal drug Eclipta alba with an allopathic drug metformin against the diabetes.
Abstract Online: 02-Feb-2015

4. Pharmacognostical Evaluation and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. Leaves
Joshi A., Giri R. , Pathak A.K.
Abstract
The leaves of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. showed high values of ash, calcium, potassium and fibres and microscopy reavealed presence of starch and calcium oxalate. The prelimnary phytochemical screening of leaves revealed presence of flavonoids,alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, carbohydrates, steroids & triterpenes etc. in different extracts.
Abstract Online: 05-Feb-2015

5. Chrysin, a Natural Flavonoid Attenuates Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuronal Loss Associated with Amyloid β (25-35) – induced Oxidative stress – An Experimental Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Aishwarya V., Sumathi T.
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly. AD is characterized with loss of hippocampal and cortical neurons resulting in memory and cognitive impairment. In our study intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25–35 induced the neurodegeneration in rats. Administration of Aβ25–35 (10μg/rat) resulted in poor memory retention in behavioral tasks but does not show significant difference in motor deficit, which was assessed using Rota-rod test. Aβ25–35 administration also caused marked oxidative stress as denoted by significant increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE), decrease in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Vitamin C (Vit C). Administration of Chrysin (CN) at doses 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight restored memory impairment observed in the Aβ25–35 induced rats. Treatment with CN could mitigate oxidative damage, as evident by decreased levels of TBARS, AChE and restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Histopathological sections of the hippocampal region showed the extent of neuronal loss in Aβ25–35 induced rats and its restoration upon administration of CN. From the results we suggest that CN might have neuroprotective effect in alleviating Aβ25–35 induced oxidative stress in rats.
Abstract Online: 07-Feb-2015

6. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies of Celosia argentea, L. Leaf
Karthiyayini R., Nithiya
Abstract
Extraction of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants permits demonstration of their physiological activity. The plant selected for the study is Celosia argentea ( family Amaranthaceae) which is used traditionally for  dysentery, menstrual bleeding ,  fatigue, atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the parameters to determine the quality of the plant C. argentea.    These studies comprises of organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, Physico chemical analysis and preliminary phytochemical screening. The study contributes to the development of standardization parameters of herbal drugs used in our system of medicine.
Abstract Online: 09-Feb-2015

7. Evaluation of HPTLC Fingerprints of Flavanoids and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants of Lamiaceae Family
Asha.D, Lizzy Mathew, Rishad. K.S.
Abstract
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical constitution, antioxidant activity and flavanoid profiling of methanolic extracts of aerial parts of four important herbs of Lamiaceae family Ocimum basilicum L.., Mentha arvensis L., Hyptis suaveolens L.(Poit.) and Coleus aromaticus Benth.. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids, Triterpenoids, Steroids, Cardiac glycosides  and Alkaloids. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts were determined by quantitative analysis of phenol & DPPH radical scavenging assay. The flavanoid profiles of these plants were also studied using HPTLC and data were analysed using WinCATS 4 software.  The estimation of phenol showed the maximum in Coleus aromaticus Benth. (36mg/g) followed by  Mentha arvensis L. and Hyptis suaveolens L.(Poit.) (24mg/g). The highest value for  DPPH assay was recorded in Mentha arvensis L.(37.01%) followed by Hyptis suaveolens L.(Poit.) (35.76%) while comparatively lower amount (18.17%) with Ocimum basilicum L. Comparative study of the extracts, successfully demonstrated significant variation of different phenolic compounds and also non enzymatic antioxidant activity in the four plant species . The fingerprint profile generated by HPTLC could be useful for future reference in discriminating the plant species and also detecting adulteration and substitution of raw drugs in Indian systems of medicine.
Abstract Online: 09-Feb-2015

8. Phytochemical Analysis, In-Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Flower Petals of Rosa damascena
Tatke P, Satyapal U S, Mahajan D C, Naharwar V
Abstract
Rosa damascena commonly called as Rose is one of the most important plant for the pharmaceutical, flavour and fragrance industries. Rose petals extract and rose water is commonly used for skin enhancement by the cosmetics industry. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Rosa damascena flower petals. Individual aqueous and methanol extract were prepared by Soxhlet extraction method. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, tannins, phenols and alkaloids. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content was also determined. The hydrogen donating ability of the extracts were measured in the presence of 1,1- diphenyl- 2- picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The IC50 values of aqueous and methanol extract were 8.30µg/ml and 4.85 µg/ml respectively by DPPH method and 70.90µg/ml and 47.18µg/ml respectively by Griess assay method. The IC50 values were comparable with standard ascorbic acid. Antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by the agar diffusion method against 9 species of bacteria and fungi: Staphylococcus aureus, Sterptococcus pyogens, Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Klebsiella aerogens, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Both extracts were found to be effective against all the bacteria except Aspergillus niger. Methanol extract showed good antimicrobial activity at 40 mg whereas aqueous extract showed good antimicrobial activity at 80 mg when compared with standard Chloramphenicol and Fluconazole. The presence of flavanoids and phenolic compounds in the Rosa damascena flower extracts may have contributed to the antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
Abstract Online: 10-Feb-2015

9. Evalauation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Pistacia lentiscus L. Fatty Oil in Rats Intoxicated by Carbon Tetrachloride.
Zineb Maameri, Zouhir Djerrou, Sihem Halmi, Hadria Djaalab, Foulla Riachi, Youcef Hamdipacha
Abstract
The aim of the present study was the evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil in rats intoxicated by carbon tetrachloride (CCL4).  The study was conducted on 24 Wistar rats divided randomly to 4 groups. The first served as negative control (normal or CRL), the second intoxicated with CCl4 (CCl4 group), the 2 other groups were intoxicated by CCL4 and treated orally by 2ml/kg or 5ml/kg of PLFO (PLFO1 and PLFO2 groups). The results showed a significant elevation of ALT and AST enzymes in CCl4 group. PLFO2 recorded an aggravation of transaminases when compared to CCl4.  However, PLFO1 has shown a significant decrease of AST with comparison to CCl4. We conclude that the use of PLFO to prevent hepatotoxicity has resulted in a partial activity by decreasing significantly ALT enzyme with the dose of 2ml/kg. However, the dose of 5ml/kg was found to aggravate the hepatic alterations by increasing significantly both of ALT and AST enzymes.
 Abstract Online: 10-Feb-2015

10. Phytochemical Screening of Food Plants Eaten by Sympatric Apes (Gorilla beringei graueri and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Inhabiting Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo) and their Potential Effect on Gastro Intestinal Parasites
Kamungu S., Basabose K., Bagalwa M., Bagalwa B., Murhabale B., Yamagiwa, J.
Abstract
Animals have dietary strategies that aid in the suppression or control of disease and wounds. In Kahuzi-Biega National Park, only a few plant species have been observed regularly to be consumed by apes and constitute their basic staple food. Some plants have active constituents that may play an important role in diseases treatment. Phytochemical screening was conducted on 9 plant species most common in the diets of Kahuzi apes.  The presence of important bioactive chemical components, including saponins, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, quinons and glycosids, well known for their role in disease treatment, were isolated.  Bromatological analyses of selected fruits most preferred by both apes were also conducted and some fruits were found to be rich in, important nutritional components such as lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Intestinal parasites of these apes were also investigated.  A total of 19 different parasite species were identified fresh apes fecal samples collected in their home range. The prevalence rates of Coccidies were 94 and 93.4 % in Gorilla and chimpanzees fecal samples, respectively in the most prevalent parasites in both sympatric ape species.  Protozoa and Nematoda parasite groups were the most observed.  This study suggests that fruits preferentially eaten by gorillas and chimpanzees inhabiting Kahuzi-Biega National park contain essential chemical constituents that may be effective in parasite disease control maintenance and nutrition purpose
 Abstract Online: 12-Feb-2015

11. Anticancer Activity of Bioactive Compounds from Kaempferia rotunda Rhizome Against Human Breast Cancer
Sri Atun, Retno Arianingrum
Abstract
Kaempferia rotunda known as kunci pepet or kunir putih in Indonesia, has been traditionally used in as abdominal pain, sputum laxative, wounds, and diarrhea colic disorder. This study was conducted to determine anticancer activity of bioactive compounds from Kaempferia rotunda rhizome against human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. The isolation of bioactive compounds from methanol extract K. rotunda was carried out by chromatographic method, and the structure was elucidated based on spectroscophy method. The in vitro cytotoxicity test was done on human breast cancer T47D cell lines by MTT ([3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. In vivo activity assay was done by xenografting female Balb C mice with human breast cancer T47D cell implantation into the mamae fat-pad. In vitro cytotoxicity assay against human breast cancer of chloroform extract of K. rotunda and pinostrobin (1) showing their IC50 were 41.72 µg/ mL and 59.8 µg/ mL respectively. In vivo assay of chloroform extract of K. rotunda and pinostrobin (1) by xenografting female Balb C mice showed the average of cancer incidence for each group is 50-100%. The growth of cancer volume from each groups appear on the fourth day, and reach a maximum cancer volume after the seventh day. The fastest cancer volume decrease occurred in group treatment with chloroform extract of K. rotunda in the dose of 500 mg/Kg bw, and group treatment with pinostrobin (1) in the dose of 20 mg/Kg bw. The bioactive compounds can repair breast tissue histopathology, and suppress c-Myc expression on mice with T47D breast cancer xenograft. These findings proved that K. rotunda rhizome is potential to be developed as breast cancer chemotherapeutic agent.
 Abstract Online: 13-Feb-2015

12. Chemical Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Phases Obtained from Extracts of Artemisia herba alba, Marrubium vulgare and Pinus pinaster
Kahlouche-Riachi F. , Djerrou Z., Ghoribi L., Djaalab I. , Mansour-Djaalab H., Bensari C., Hamdi-Pacha Y

Abstract
The objective of this study is the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial activity of Artemisia herba alba, Marrubium vulgare and Pinus pinaster. The antibacterial potential of different fractions of ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and 1 butanol extracts of the three plants were tested on four strains of bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of phytochemical screening showed a rich and varied composition of secondary metabolites: flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, sterols, coumarins and saponins which have characterized all the crude extracts, while alkaloids particularize Pinus pinaster. This result was confirmed by analytical thin layer chromatography on some secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and sterols of the three phases obtained after exhaustion of three plant extracts with organic solvents of increasing polarity. The TLC on polyamide gel revelation by NEU reagent, allowed to assume that the plants tested contain various flavonoïds. The chromatographic analysis on silica plate has highlighted several fluorescences with the NEU reagent, reagent of Liebermann-Burchard and FeCl3 suggesting the presence of flavonoids, terpenes, sterols and tannins. Spectral analysis of methanol extracts advance the predominance of natural flavonoids: Flavonol, Flavone, Flavanone, Flavanol or Anthocyane. The antibacterial activity of different fractions performed on solid agar medium showed little or no effect; this implies that the antibacterial activity proved with crude extracts of these plants in previous studies is probably due to a synergistic action in chemical ingredients present in the extracts.
 Abstract Online: 13-Feb-2015

13. In-vitro Antiurolithiatic Activity of Kalanchoe pinnata Extract
Rohan Sharadanand Phatak, Anup Subhash Hendre
Abstract
Background: Upto date, the scientific documentation regarding in-vivo antiurolithiatic activity of Kalanchoe pinnata has been reported, although it has not reported for in-vitro antiurolithiatic activity up till now. Objective: To explore anti-urolithiatic activities of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves extract by utilizing different in-vitro models. To investigate the inhibitory effect of extract on in vitro crystallization through analyzing nucleation and aggregation assays. Material and Methods: Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata fresh leaves was prepared and arranged in the different concentrations. Homogenous precipitation method was used to prepare artificial stones such as calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate and semi-permeable membrane of eggs was used as dissolution bags. Dissolution models were incubated in 72hrs and after that, the entire content in dissolution bags was estimated spectrophotometrically. The inhibitory activity of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves extract on the nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals and the rate of aggregation in calcium oxalate crystals was determined by spectrophotometric assay. Results:In dissolution models, the extract of Kalanchoe pinnata has greater capability to dissolve calcium oxalate while Cystone standard has shown better demineralization for calcium phosphate rather than extract of Kalanchoe pinnata. Cystone exhibited strongly inhibitory action in the nucleation assay rather than aggregation assay. The extract of Kalanchoe pinnata exhibited inhibitory action in both of nucleation and aggregation assays to significant level. Discussion: The present investigation will be supportive to the scientific documentation related in-vitro studies. Correlation between in-vitro and in-vivo studies may be helpful to understand the molecular mechanism of litholysis process and to reveal phytochemicals of the extract responsible for dissolving or disintegrating renal calculi. Conclusion: Kalanchoe pinnata extract exhibited significant in-vitro anti-urolithiatic activity.
 Abstract Online: 16-Feb-2015

14.Antioxidant Activities in Various Peel Extracts of Four Varieties Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Using DPPH, FRAP Assays
Fidrianny I, Sari P I , Wirasutisna K R
Abstract
The objectives of this research were to study antioxidant activities from various extracts of rambutan peels using two methods of antioxidant assays which were DPPH (2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power); and correlation of total flavonoid, phenolic, and carotenoid content in various extracts of rambutan peels with DPPH antioxidant activities and FRAP capacities. Extraction was performed by reflux apparatus using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant capacities were tested using DPPH and FRAP assays. Determination of total flavonoid, phenolic, and carotenoid content was performed by spectrophotometer UV-visible and their correlation with DPPH antioxidant activities and FRAP capacities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. Ethyl acetate extract of lebak bulus rambutan peels (LB2) had the highest DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 3.5 µg/mL, while ethyl acetate extract of binjai rambutan peels (BJ2) had the highest FRAP capacity with EC50 77.1 µg/mL. N-hexane extract of binjai rambutan peels (BJ1) had the highest total flavonoid (3.46 g QE/100 g), ethyl acetate extract of lebak bulus rambutan peels (LB2) had the highest phenolic content (40.9 g GAE/100 g), and n-hexane extract of rapiah rambutan peels (RP1) had the highest carotenoid content (0.61 g BE/100 g). There was a positively high correlation between total phenolic content with their antioxidant activity using DPPH and FRAP assays. The DPPH scavenging activities in various peel extracts from four varieties rambutan gave linear result with FRAP capacities.
 Abstract Online: 16-Feb-2015

15. L-Theanine, an aminoacid in tea augments Methylmerucry (Global pollutant) induced Biochemical, Behavioural and Histological changes in rat cerebellum
Sumathi T.  Christinal J.
Abstract
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. L-Theanine is a relatively uncommon amino acid found almost exclusively in green tea leaves. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of L-Theanine (LT) on MeHg induced oxidative stress in cerebellum of rats. Male Wistar rats were administered with MeHg orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days. Experimental rats were given MeHg and also administered with LT (100 mg/kg, orally) 1 hour prior to the administration of MeHg for 21 days. After treatment period, MeHg exposure significantly decreased the level of glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and, glutathione peroxidase. Whereas, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of glutathione reductase were found to be increased. Behavioural changes like decreased motor coordination, increased immobility, decreased tail flick responses and decreased locomotor activities were also observed along with Histopathological alterations. All the above behavioural, biochemical and histopathological changes were found to be reversed by pretreatment with LT.
 Abstract Online: 18-Feb-2015

16. Evalution of Antiplasmodial and Antifungal Activity of Morinda Morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh (Rubiaceae), an Ivoirian Traditional Medicinal Plant
Kipré GR, Bagré I, Silué KD, Bla KB,  Philippe Grellier, Allico Joseph Djaman
Abstract
Morinda morindoides (Rubiaceae) is an indigenous tree of West Africa. This tree is used in Côte d’Ivoire against malaria.In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiplasmodial and antifungal activity of the leaves of M morindoides. M morindoides leaves were collected, air dried and made into a fine powder. Aqueous extracts (Aqe), ethanol (Eeth), ethyl acetate (EAc) and acetate-water (EAc-H2O) were performed. EAch extract was tested on Plasmodium falciparum and Aspergillus fumigatus.IC50 values of different extracts is ranked in the following order: 6.1 (EAc)
 Abstract Online: 18-Feb-2015

17. Extraction and Immunomodulatory Screening of Fish Oil on Cyprinus carpio.
Yashashri R. Hingmire, Laxmi B. Mane
Abstract
The proposed work describe the extraction of oil from fish species. Fish species used for oil extraction Cyprinus carpio.  The Asst. Commissioner of Fishery, Government Department Of Fishery Office  Sangli Authentificated  the fish species. Type of free fatty acid present differs to great extent from species to species or according to its water environment. For extraction of fish oil methanol & chloroform  in ratio (2:1) was used. For isolation of active phytochemical constituent from fish oil done by using cyclohexane, methanol, chloroform in ratio (5:2:4) mobile system. Immunomodulatory activity perform on swiss albino mice In immunomodulatory activity, it shows that Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response in terms of increase in the mean difference of paw thickness in mm, compared with vehicle control & negative control. Heightened delayed type hypersensitivity reaction suggest activation of cellular immune system.
 Abstract Online: 26-Feb-2015

18. Anti Staphylococcus aureus Activity of the Aqueous Extract and Hexanic Fraction of Thonningia sanguinea (Cote ivoire).
Dinzedi Mbengui Rubens, Okou Obou Constantin, Akakpo-Akue Moevi, Guessennd Kouadio Nathalie, Touré Daouda, Nguessan Jean David, Dosso Mireille, Djaman Allico Joseph
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts and hexanic fraction of Thonningia sanguinea, against clinical isolates of anti Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA). Methods: The confirmation of the MRSA by disk diffusion method (cefoxitin 30 μg) according to the methods of CA-SFM, 2009. The agar dilution and broth dilution method was used for the determination of the antimicrobial parameters (MIC and MBC) on these sensitive and MRSA strains. Results: The results showed that the inhibition zone diameter of Thos methanolic extracts for S. aureus ATCC 25923, MSSA and MRSA were (16.50 ± 0.29) mm, (17.30 ± 0.30) mm and (14.0) mm respectively. While the inhibition zone diameter of the hexanic fraction were (22.33 ± 0.33) mm, (22.0) mm and (19.33 ± 0.33) mm respectively for S. aureus ATCC 25923, MSSA and MRSA. The MIC and the MBC were showed value ranged from 0,26 ± 0,07 to 0,45 ± 0,17 mg/ml (MIC) and 1,04 ± 0,26 to 1,30 ± 0,26 mg/ml (MBC). Screening phytochemical showed the presence of Flavonoids, Alkaloid, Steroid, Terpenoids, gallic Tannins and Saponins. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that methanolic extract of Thonningia sanguinea can be used in treating staphylococci infectious diseases.
 Abstract Online: 27-Feb-2015

19. Antibacterial Activity of Olive (Olea europaea ) Leaves and Arugula (Eruca sativa) Seeds Extract
Salma Nassrullah Malik
Abstract
Crude extracts from olive leaves and arugula seeds were screened for its in vitro antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion method against three bacteria (, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus cereus). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) have been determined. Gallic acid was used as a standard drug for the study of antibacterial activity. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some active substances flavonoids, saponins and steroid, to express the desired activities. Results show that the methanol extract was active against all 5 bacterial strains. The methanol extract of olive leaves and arugula seeds showed good antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition 3-8mm. The most sensitive bacteria were bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus. The arugula seeds extract had higher antibacterial activity than olive leaves extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the olive leaves and arugula seeds extract on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus were 80 and 40  µg/ml, respectively, and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the olive leaves and arugula seeds extract on S. aureus and B. cereus were 60 and 600 µg/ml, respectively. These results suggest that leaves of olive and seeds of arugula have interesting antibacterial activities.
 Abstract Online: 01-March-2015

20. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Urginia  indica, Alhagi maurorum , Crinum asiaticum and Prosopis cineraria
Soni L K,  Jain S K,  Dobhal S,  Parasher P, Dobhal MP
Abstract
The free radical scavenging activity of  methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Urginia  indica, Alhagi maurorum, Crinum asiaticum and Prosopis cineraria were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Ascorbic acid used as standard antioxidant. The results showed that the methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of Alhagi maurorum and chloroform extract of Urginia indica showed significant antioxidant activity and their radical scavenging activity approached the activity of standard.
 Abstract Online: 03-March-2015

21. In vitro α- amylase and α- glucosidases inhibitory effects of some extract plants
Ayat amiri, Mohamad Ebrahim Azemi, Mohamad javad khodayar, Foroogh Namjoyan
Abstract
Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level caused due to deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin action. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy in the postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetesPlants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. three plants of Teucrium species of were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. Also Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor.Three plant extracts showed inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidases, The α-amylase inhibitory activities of extracts were Phoenix dactylifera > Quercus brantii > Capparis spinosa.  And also α-amylase inhibitory activities were Q. brantii > Ph. dactylifera > C. spinosa. According to the results, Ph. dactylifera inhibited the activity of alpha-amylase with an IC50 of 1.73mg/ml. Q.brantii with an IC50 value of 7.54mg/ml was the second most active of the species tested. Capparis spinosa with an IC50 value of 12.57mg/ml was less active. Q. brantii extract exerted the highest inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase, with IC50 value of 7.19mg/ml. Ph. dactylifera and C. spinosa extract exhibited IC50 values of 12.21mg/ml and 14.63mg/ml against alpha-glucosidase.
 Abstract Online: 03-March-2015

22. Secondary Metabolites From the Heart Wood of Combretum Albidum G Don.
Kumar U.P, Sreedhar S,  Purushothaman E
Abstract
The liana Combretum albidum G. Don is an extensive woody climber occupying the canopy of host tree, belonging to the family combretaceae and its distribution is restricted in semi evergreen and deciduous forests, along river banks of peninsular India and Sri Lanka. Phytochemical exploration of a heartwood extract from Combretum albidum afforded five triterpenoids namely ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, arjunolic acid and betulin. The heart wood of the plant also yields beta sitosterol, gallic acid and ellagic acid as other constituents. The compounds oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, arjunolic acid, betulin and ellagic acid were isolated and reported for the first time from this plant. The compounds ursolic acid, beta sitosterol and gallic acid isolated were characterized for the first time from this plant using spectroscopic methods. The structures of all compounds were confirmed on the basis of spectroscopic and available literature data.
 Abstract Online: 03-March-2015

23. Comparison of Chemical Profile and Biological Activities of Different Plant Parts of Ficus deltoidea Jack var. Trengganuensis
Mohd K S, Azemin A, Rosli A S, Zakaria A J, Ismail Z
Abstract
Ficus deltoidea var. Trengganuensis (FDT) is one of the variety of a highly potential herbs, Ficus deltoidea Jack. This herb has pharmacologically been shown to possess numerous biological activities. Commonly, only leaves have been used medicinally. In order to assess whether other part such as fig and stem can also be used for medicinal purposes, chemical profile and biological activities were compared. Samples that consist of leaves, figs and stems were collected from four locations in Trengganu state, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were used to assess the chemical profile. Two compounds, vitexin and isovitexin were used as authentication marker of FDT. A good separation of the chemical components and marker in all sample with distinct spots observed on fig TLC chromatogram at the solvent system of ethyl acetate: formic acid (0.1%): methanol (4:6:2 v/v/v). FTIR fingerprints also exhibit different profile for fig, stem and leaf extract. Principle component analysis on FTIR data revealed that figs from four locations clustered into one group in positive PC2 quadrant suggest that fig has specific constituents, which discriminate them from leaf and stem. Biological activities were assessed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and α-glucosidase inhibition assays. Comparison between plant parts discovered that figs from all locations have the highest inhibition on both activities compared to leaves and stems. Finding from this study revealed that figs of FDT could also be consumed for therapeutic purposes in addition to the leaves.
 Abstract Online: 05-March-2015

24. Recalled by Authors

25. A Study on Hepatoprotective Activity of Mimosa pudica in Albino Rats
Kumaresan, Sneeha Veerakumar, V. Elango
Abstract
Liver disease is one of the outrageous diseases all over the world. Nature is the source of wide range of plants with medicinal value. Hence our study is focused on the study of efficacy and hepatoprotective activity of Mimosa pudica on experimentally induced hepatotoxic rats. Twelve healthy albino rats were taken for the study. These animals were segregated into 3 groups viz. normal, untreated and treated containing 4 animals in each group. Before the injection of hepatotoxic substance to the rats, they were fasted overnight. Then 0.3 ml of CCl4 with paraffin in the ratio of 3:1 was injected for 10 days per animal. The crude powder of Mimosa pudica was administered to the animals belonging to the treated group starting from the day of injection of CCl4 and was continued for 10 days. The liver function of the 3 distinct groups of the animals was assessed by collecting the blood sample and liver homogenate. The elevation in the serum and tissue markers was found in the group of animals under the untreated group. The treated group of animals showed approximately equal levels of enzyme markers as found in the normal animals. Hence, the hepatoprotective activity of Mimosa pudica is confirmed.
 Abstract Online: 10-March-2015

26. Bioassay-guided Fractionation, Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Properties of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Helianthus annuus
Onoja S. O., Anaga A. O.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to separate the crude methanol extract of Helianthus annuus into fractions and to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and preliminary chemical properties of the fractions. The bioassay-guided separation of H. annuus extract was done using column and thin layer chromatographic techniques. The extract yielded thirteen fractions. Bioactivity screening of the fractions (60 mg/kg) using alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats showed that fraction 8, 9, 10 and 13 caused various degrees of reduction in FBG in time-dependent manner. The activities of the fractions were compared to the crude extract (600 mg/kg). The crude extract (HAE), glibenclamide, fractions 8, 9, 10 and 13 caused 66.74%, 57.43%, 61.36%, 59.80%, 70.63% and 78.03% reductions in FBG, respectively, at 6 h. In vitro anti-oxidant tests at the concentration of 400 µg/ml showed that HAE, fraction 8, 9,10 and 13 gave 89.00%, 30.42%, 47.90%, 88.03% and 92.72% anti-oxidant activity, respectively, using DPPH model and 3.69, 0.95, 0.23, 0.67 and 0.28 µM anti-oxidant potential, respectively, in FRAP model. Ascorbic acid used as control has antioxidant potential of 2.00 µM at concentration of 1000 µg/ml using FRAP model and 99.31% at concentration of 400 µg/ml using DPPH model. Phytochemical spot tests of the HAE showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, glycosides and tannins while fraction 8 and 10 contain mainly saponins, glycosides and sterols and fraction 13 contains mainly tannins.The study validates the use of the preparations from H. annuus leaves in folklore diabetic therapy.
 Abstract Online: 16-March-2015

27. Bio-management of Root-rot Disease Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in Coleus forskohlii
Malleswari Damam, Bagyanarayana Gaddam, Rana Kausar
Abstract
Root rot disease in medicinal Coleus is a serious problem in all medicinal Coleus growing areas. Hence attempts were made to manage the disease through PGPR bioformulations. PGPR are a group of free-living saprophytic bacterial microorganisms that live in the plant rhizosphere and aggressively colonize the root system. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains  (designated as Cf 60, Cf 7, Te 1, Av 30) were tested for their efficacy against the Coleus root rot pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina under in vitro, glasshouse and field conditions.  Application of PGPR strains recorded maximum plant height, number of branches, fresh and dry weight of the plants with less disease severity in individual as well as combination treatments in Coleus. The perusal of data and ANOVA analysis indicates that root rot appeared in those treatments where PGPR inoculated singly than in combination. Maximum   root-rot index (78.0%) and more disease severity  was observed in only pathogen treated plants (control) without PGPR,  followed by Cf 7+Cf 60 (29.5%), Te 1+Cf 60 (26.6%), Av 30+Cf 60 (23.0%), Cf 7+Te 1+Cf 60 (20.8%), Cf 7+Av 30+Cf 60 (18.0%), Te 1+Av 30+Cf 60 (16.46%)  and Cf 7+Te 1+Av 30+Cf 60 (13.33%) i.e., in all treatments with PGPR applications, the expression of symptoms was less and disease severity was less. The expression of symptoms and protection of the plants from infection of Coleus depended on PGPR strains, even in individual or combinations of PGPR strains. Cf 7+Te 1+Av 30+Cf 60 recorded maximum plant height, number of branches, more fresh and dry weight, total biomass with least disease severity. The study revealed the probable influence of plant growth promotion and induced systemic resistance (ISR) in enhancing the disease resistance against disease by PGPR bioformulations. The bio control agents not only controlled dry root rot, but also promoted plant growth and this give them an advantage over the use of chemical fungicides against root rot in disease management.
 Abstract Online: 16-March-2015

28. An Isoflavone from Wrightia pubescens
Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Vincent Antonio S. Ng, Mariquit M. De Los Reyes, Emelina H. Mandia, Chien-Chang Shen
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of the twigs of Wrightia pubescens (R.Br.) led to the isolation of an isoflavone, wrightiadione (1).  The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by mass spectrometry.
 Abstract Online: 16-March-2015

29. Variations of Exhaustive Extraction Yields and Methods of Preparations for (Arum palaestinum) Solomon’s  Lily Plant in all Regions of West Bank/Palestine
Jaradat Nidal, Eid Ahmad M, Assali Mohyeddin, Zaid Abdel Naser
Abstract
Arum palaestinum Boiss. leaves considered one of the most edible wild plant in Palestine also one of the medicinal plant utilized for treatment various diseases specially cancer. The present study sought to evaluate the exhaustive extract yields percentages for Solomon’s Lily (Arum palaestinum Boiss.) leaves from all of the regions in the West Bank/Palestine (Nablus, Jenin, Tubas, Tulkarm, Salpheet, Qalqilya, Ramallah, Jericho, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Hebron) to investigate the best region in Palestine that have the strongest anticancer activity which can be helpful in manufacturing foods supplements, cosmeceuticals and pharmaceuticals formulations. By using exhaustive extraction method, the yield of organic and water extraction experimental method was assessed, with steeping the plant in ethanol, water and hexane to extract all the chemical ingredients without destroying or changing their chemical constituents. It is found that the best aqueous and organic yields were in Salfeet region (4.8%, 3.24 %, respectively) while the lowest aqueous yield and organic yield was in Jericho (2.64%, 0.76%, respectively). In recommendation for pharmaceutical companies, Salfeet region was the best area for cultivation Arum palaestinum Boiss. plant for manufacturing evidence based standardized pharmacological active pharmaceutical forms also for further scientific researches.
 Abstract Online: 22-March-2015

30. Anthelmintic Activity of Three Indian Medicinal Plants
Sujith S, Sreedevi, R., Priya M N, Deepa C K, Darsana U., Sreeshitha S G, Suja R S and Juliet S
Abstract
The anthelmintic activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts and the hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water fractions of the leaf extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Murraya koenigii and Mallotus phillipensis  was investigated invitro using egg hatch assay and larvicidal activity. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was done using standard tests and the acute oral toxicity was assessed in rats at the dose rate of 2000mg/kg. The extracts were diluted at dose rated of 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125 and 1.56 mg/ml in distilled water and albedndazole at 0.5 and 1 mg/ml was used as the standard drug. The tests were done in triplicates with the ova exposed to the drug for 48 hours at 27°C where as larvae were exposed at room temperature. The number of dead ova/live larvae were counted after 48 hours to assess the effect on ova where as the time taken for cessation of motility of larvae was taken as the end point of larvicidal activity. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tanins and flavonoids in all the extracts tested where as steroids were absent in all. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of Murraya and Ocimum and the methanolic extract of Mallotus showed significant ovicidal activity where as the minimum larvicidal concentration was not as pronounced as the ovicidal concentrations. The chloroform fraction of Murraya showed ovicidal activity at 0.78 mg/ml and larvicidal activity at 0.156 mg/ml showing that the anthelmintic activity is maximum with the chloroform fraction. None of the extracts showed any adverse reaction during the entire period of observation. Hence it could be concluded that all the three plants possess significant anthelmintic activity substantiating their use in folklore medicine in treatment of nonspecific diarrhea.
 Abstract Online: 27-March-2015

31. Phytochemical Screening and Inhibitory Activities of Anacardium occidentale Leave Extracts Against Some Clinically Important Bacterial Isolates
Alqasim Abdullahi Mustapha1, Gabriel Owuna, Jafar Osolafiya Ogaji, Uthman Is-haq Is-haq, Mukhtar Muhammad Idris
Abstract
The antibacterial activity of various extracts of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) against clinically important bacterial isolates of Klebsiella spp, E. coli, Salmonella typi and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated using the Agar diffusion method. The result obtained showed that acetonitrilic extract gave the widest zone of inhibition against one of the four test organisms at the concentration of 25mg/ml. However, Staphylococcus aureus was more sensitive to the extract. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids etc., in the extracts which confirm its inhibitory activities against the test organisms. This therefore, supports the traditional medicinal use of Anacardium occidentale in the treatment of bacterial infections in Nigeria.
 Abstract Online: 31-March-2015

32. Evaluation of Anti Hyperglycemic Studies on Hypericum hookerianum in Streptozotocin(STZ) and Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats
Murugesan Senthil Kumar, S. Kavimani
Abstract
The aim of this study was investigate antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate extracts of leaves and stem of Hypericum hookerianum (HH) as  in streptozotocin and nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar  rats were administrated with leaf (HHL) and stem(HHS) extracts (200 mg/kg)of Hypericum hookerianum  orally for 28days and blood glucose was measured once in week about 4weeks.The HHL extract showed more reduction in blood glucose leavel by 49 % on the 4the week of treatment when compared to controlled STZ group. At the end of the study significant reduction in lipid profile such as Triglycerides, HDL, Total Cholesterol, along with urea, uric acid and creatinine were found to be reduced in treated group. The experimental data revealed that the HHL  extract posses significant antihyperglycemic effects than HHS extracts.
 Abstract Online: 31-March-2015

33. Salacia Sps – A Potent Source of Herbal Drug for Antidiabetic and Antiobesity Ailments :  A Detailed Treatise
Ramakrishna D,  Shashank A.T.,  Shinomol George. K., Kiran.S, Ravishankar. G.A
Abstract
Medicinal plants are used since ancient times for treating several human ailments. Salacia sps belong to family Celastacea have prominent place in plant based medicine because it is used in management of diabetes and obesity. Salacia sps contain salacinol, katnanol, mangiferin are  active principles  which inhibit  α-glucosidase enzyme and slow down the absorption of glucose in intestine . Salacia sps posess many therapeutic properties like antiobesity, antidiabetic etc. It is used as ingredient in functional food with availability of a range of formulation owing to its safety and assured efficacy. Extensive research is underway in several laboratories to unravel its therapeutic potentials. Further Salacia sps are facing ruthless exploitation leading to the danger of extinction, if not conserved. This review brings out scientific developments in understanding the potential of   Salacia sps as a promising herbal drug, for the benefit of mankind.
 Abstract Online: 31-March-2015

34. Protection Against FCA Induced Oxidative Stress Induced DNA Damage as a Model of Arthritis and In vitro Anti-arthritic Potential of Costus speciosus Rhizome Extract.
Kala Chandra, Ali Syed Salman, Abid Mohd., Rajpoot Sweety, Khan Najam Ali
Abstract
Objective: Oxidative stress and oxidative stress induced DNA damage is one of the potential cause of arthritis. Methanolic extract of Costus speciosus rhizome is rich in flavonoids. Flavonoids are very well known to reduce oxidative stress. Reduction in oxidative stress may be the reason of inhibition of DNA damage. The objective of research is to study the effect of Costus speciosus rhizome extract against oxidative stress induced DNA damage as well as its in-vitro anti-arthritic potential. Methods: Extraction of Costus speciosus rhizome was done with 80% methanol using soxhlet assembly. Quantitative estimation of extract for flavonoids was done. Arthritis was induced by FCA administration. Different oxidative stress parameters like nitric oxide, GSH, MDA were evaluated. DNA estimation was done to measure oxidative stress induced DNA damage.   In vitro anti arthritic activity was also evaluated. Results: Costus speciosus rhizome extract (100 mg/kg , 200 mg/kg), significantly reduced FCA induced oxidative stress as it reduced NO level, MDA level and raised GSH level in comparison to arthritic control (p<0.05) prophylactically and therapeutically. Costus speciosus rhizome extract significantly inhibits DNA damage in comparision arthritic control at p<0.05 prophylactically and therapeutically. Costus speciosus rhizome extract (100 mcg/ml and 200 mcg/ml) inhibits protein denaturation, proteinase action and membrane destabilization in comparision to control at p<0.05 indicating its antiarthritic potential. Conclusion: Costus speciosus rhizome extract affords protection against FCA induced oxidative stress and DNA damage. It also possesses anti-arthritic potential. These effects might be mediated via anti-oxidant potential.
 Abstract Online: 31-March-2015






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research