Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


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Volume7,Issue4

1. Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Solenostemma argel Extract
Eman A. Ibrahim, Alaa A. Gaafar, Zeinab A. Salama, Farouk K. El Baz
Abstract
The potency of Solenostemma argel (asclepiadaceae) as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects was investigated. Three solvent extract were used for extracting (polyphenolic, flavonoids and tannins) from the leaves of Solenostemma argel (S. argel). Three complementary antioxidant systems: (DPPH∙ free radical scavenging, Fe2+-chelating and  iron reducing power as well as the total phenolic, total flavonoids and total tannins contents of the extracts were also investigated. In-vitro anti-inflammatory effects of S. argel were assessed by using albumin denaturation assay. Our findings indicated that S. argel acetone extract exhibits greater scavenging activity than those extracted by other solvents. The same trend was achieved by using Fe2+-chelating and reducing power. The results revealed that the aqueous, acetone and ethanol extracts of S. argel showed anti-inflammatory activity (74.19%, 69.44% and 66.58%) respectively by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation. The outcomes from HPLC study showed that acetone extract from S. argel had the highest amounts of e-vanillic, benzoic, pyrogallol, chlorogenic and ellagic acids. Whereas, rosmarinic, quercetrin and narengin acids were the major flavonoid compounds in S. argel acetone extract. The obtained results showed that, the solvent plays a vital role in the extraction of the plant constituents and S. argel is a very promising source of bioactive compounds. From the results obtained, it could be concluded that flavonoids and related polyphenols present in the S.argel extract may be responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities which may be attributed to the radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of some of their active constituents.
Abstract Online: 03-June-2015

2. Antifibrotic Effect of Standardized Ethanol Extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray on Keloid Fibroblasts
Mae Sri Hartati Wahyuningsih., Y. Widodo Wirohadidjojo., Rian Hidayat., Ahmad Sadid.
Abstract
Keloid occurred by abnormal wound healing, characterized by massive fibroblast proliferation and excessive collagen accumulation. Therapy for keloid is relatively limited and mostly has side effects. Tithonia diversifolia has widely been studied for having anti-proliferative effect against some cancer cells in vitro. This study was conducted to assess T. diversifolia potential as an antifibrotic agent. Antifibrotic activity of standardized ethanolic extract of T. diversifolia leaf on cell proliferation of keloid fibroblasts and its collagen accumulation were expressed by IC50 values using probit regression analysis. Keloid fibroblast proliferation inhibition percentage was elevated gradually along with the given doses of T. diversifolia extract with very strong correlation (r=0.838;p=0.000 in 72 hours; r=0.924;p=0.000 in 120 hours of incubation) with the lowest IC50 value 3.624 µg/mL in 120 hours incubation time. There was also significant time-dependent effect (p=0.005). As well for collagen accumulation with moderate correlation (r=-0.797;p=0.000 for 72 hours incubation time; r=-0.583;p=0.000 for 120 incubation time) with lowest IC50 value 2.280 µg/mL in 120 hours incubation time. This study concluded that the ethanol extract of T. diversifolia is potential to be developed as antikeloid in the future although some additional data such as toxicity and clinical study
Abstract Online: 03-June-2015

3. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Jatropha Tanjorensis Methanolic Leaf Extract
Madubuike K. G., Yusuf N. O. Robinson E. S.
Abstract
The antioxidant activity of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf methanolic extraxt was investigated following different antioxidant models. The antioxidant methods used include: in vitro 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine (DPPH) spectrophotometric assay and in vivo assay of serum malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. The extract (50 – 400 µg/ml concentration) produced in a concentration-dependent manner, significant (p < 0.05) antioxidant effect in the DPPH spectrophotometric assay. In the in vivo antioxidant tests, 400 mg/kg of the extract evoked significant (p < 0.05) increase in serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and also significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that J. tanjorensis possess potent antioxidant property, which may be responsible for some of the reported pharmacological actions of the plant
Abstract Online: 03-June-2015

4. IR-Spectrophotometry of Laxatives Herbal Preparations Based on Bark of Frangula Alnus Mill.
Shmygareva A.A., Kurkin V.A., Sankov A.N.
Abstract
In the present study  there were developed the methodic of qualitative analysis of phytopharmaceuticals preparations: “Frangula syrup”, “Frangula decoction” and “Frangula tablets” by means of Infrared spectrophotometry. As a result, more in-depth study of “Frangula syrup”, “Frangula decoction” and “Frangula tablets” conducted by IR spectroscopy to compare and qualitative analysis of phytopharmaceuticals preparations
Abstract Online: 13-June-2015

5. Pharmacognostic Studies and Phytochemical Analysis of Salacia fruticosa
S. Saravanan, M. Mohamed Ismail, S. Manokaran
Abstract
Salacia fruticosa belongs to family Hippocrateaceae has various pharmacological activities including anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer. Pharmacognostic studies, phytochemical analysis including HPTLC profiles were carried out in the present study to ensure the authenticity and quality of Salacia fruticosa. The microscopic studies of Salacia fruticosa  leaf shows the presence of diacytic type of stomata. There are more number of stomata are present (44.4 ± 0.5) in the lower surface of the leaf whereas, no stomata was present on the upper surface and the stem consists of outer most layer of cork cells (Bark) followed by cork cambium .The Phytochemical investigation shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phytosterols, saponins, phenolic compounds, proteins, free amino acids, flavonoids, and terpenoids.
Abstract Online: 13-June-2015

6. Acute toxicity and Antifungal effects of Acacia ataxacantha (bark)
Amoussa A.M.O, Tchatchedre M, Laleye A, Sanni A, Lagnika L
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activities of Acacia ataxacantha against six strains of Aspergillus and the acute toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract in rat models. Five extracts including hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and mixture of water/methanol of A. ataxacantha’s barks were evaluated against six Aspergillus strains using agar diffusion method and counting of number fungal spores. Oral acute toxicity at a dose of 2000 mg/kg was conducted as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 423 guidelines. Results obtained showed that all the extracts inhibited mycelial growth and sporulation of fungi with percentages of inhibition ranging from 5.37- 53.02% and 33.77 to 99.70% respectively.  The antifungal activity of the extracts at the same concentration is more marked on the sporulation of fungi. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts exhibited the most significant antifungal activity. In the acute toxicity evaluation, all animals were physically active and no deaths of rats were observed during the test. No significant change was observed in body weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of treated rats compared with controls. The histopatological analysis of liver and kidney showed normal architecture suggesting no morphological disturbances. The overall finding of this study suggests that A. ataxacantha  inhibited the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus strains.  Equally, hydroalcoholic extract of this plant is non-toxic up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. Thus, A. ataxacantha could be used as an antifungal.
Abstract Online: 13-June-2015

7. Quantitative Determination of Total Anthracene Derivaties in Rhamnus Syrup Preparation
Shmygareva A.A., Kurkin V.A., Sankov A.N.
Abstract
A quantitative analysis method for total anthracene derivatives in Rhamnus Syrup preparation  with the using of  direct spectrophotometry at analytical wavelength 524 nm there was developed. The technology for producing of Rhamnus syrup from the decoction of fruits of Rhamnus cathartica L. in the ratio “the raw material: extract” 1:3 was elaborated. The relative degree of the determination of the  total anthracene derivatives in Rhamnus Syrup in developed method  with confidence probability 0,95  is no more than ±4,17%. The content of total anthracene derivatvies in Rhamnus syrup varied from 0,12±0,002% to 0,25±0,003% (calculated on frangulin A).
Abstract Online: 13-June-2015

8. Chemical Composition of Essential oil of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. from Iran
Afagh Yavari, Seyed Mehdi Shahgolzari
Abstract
In order to investigate essential oils from local wild plants, one of the Stachys species, S. lavandulifolia, was screened. The essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydro-distillation, and was analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Were the major compounds of the 62 identified components which accounted for 97.46% of the total oil of S. lavandulifolia. The major components of the oil were Trans-Caryophyllene (13.41%), Spathulenol (11.97%), Caryophyllene oxide (8.44%), Germacrene D (8.08%), Bicyclogermacrene (6.83%), β-phellandrene (5.82%), β-Myrcene (3.75%), Limonene (2.51). This shows that the volatile oil composition of S. lavandulifolia, in Iran is extremely variable.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

9. Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lamk.) Merr for Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoids Contents and In-vitro Anti -Oxidant Activity
Muhammad Kifayatullah, Pinaki Senguptha, Mohd. Shahimi Mustafa, Sreemoy Kanti Das, Mrutunjay Sisugoswomi
Abstract
Objective: To aim of the present study was to investigate the total phenolic, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of crude etahnolic extracts from the leaves of Pericampylus Glaucus (Lamk.) Merr for possible sources of novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The total phenolic contents were determined by Folin ciocalteu method using gallic acid as a standard and the total flavonoid contents were determined by Aluminum chloride method using Rutin as a standard by Uv-visible spectrophotometer with the range of 765nm and 415nm.The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Pericampylus Glaucus (Lamk.) Merr was determined by in-vitro model i.e. DPPH (1, 1–diphenyl picrylhyrazyl) and reducing power method against Ascorbic acid as a reference drug, by Uv-visible spectrophotometer with the range of 517nm and 700nm. Results: The phytochemical screening of crude Pericampylus Glaucus (Lamk.) Merr leaves plant extract showed the presence of various bioactive compounds while absence of anthraquione compound. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the ethanolic extract were 52.51mg/gm with percentage yield as 5.20% w/w of the extract mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 51.70mg/gm with yield was 5.17% yields w/w of the extract mg rutin equivalents/g, respectively. The result showed that Pericampylus Glaucus (Lamk.) Merr has a good radical scavenging effect (8.18%) at a dose 0.125mg/ml, 20.67% at a dose 0.25mg/ml, 37.69% at a dose of 0.75 and 51.67%% at a dose 1mg/ml, while at the same concentration, the  reference Ascorbic acid the effect was 87.53%, 91.86%, 92.37% and 93.64%. The reducing power of crude plant extract 0.0964±0.001, 0.3553±0.0217, 0.5506±0.0117 and 0.6660±0.015 at concentration of 100, 300, 600 and 900ug/ml respectively, while at the same concentrations the reducing power for reference ascorbic acid was0.9051±0.0009, 1.4773±0.2551, 2.3763±0.044 and2.561±0.086. Conclusion: The positive results suggest that the crude leaf extracts of Pericampylus Glaucus (Lamk.) Merr should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanism of action that could be used as potential sources of new antioxidant.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

10. Phytochemical Investigation and Antioxidant Screening of Crude Leaves Extract from Epipremnum aureum
Sreemoy kanti Das, Pinaki Sengupta, Mohd. Shahimi Mustapha, Md. Kifayatudullah, Md. Gousuddin
Abstract
Objective: Epipremnum aureum belonging to the family Araceae is commonly known as money plant having indoor air pollution removing capacity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of various phytochemical constituents which is responsible for the medical activities of the plant.  Methods: The leaves were successively extracted in three different solvents viz. ethanol, acetone and chloroform. The phytochemical analysis of plant extract was performed using thin layer chromatography and preliminary screening methods. Different concentration of the crude plant extract was evaluated for antioxidant activity using DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power activity. Results: Preliminary qualitative chemical test for different extract shows the presence of steroids, terpinoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. All the three extracts were proven effective against free radicals. Ethanol extract was found to possess highest antioxidant activity compared to acetone and chloroform. Conclusion: Thus the positive results suggest that Epipremnum aureum extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanism of action and evaluate their toxicity looking towards pharmaceutical actions.
Abstract Online: 18-June-2015

11. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Centella asiatica in Wistar Albino Rats.
Uma Maheswari M S, Latha K, Sathiya Vinotha A T, Rhevanth V, Velarul S, Surapaneni Krishna Mohan
Abstract
Objective: Evaluation of anti-convulsant activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Centella asiatica in Maximal Electroshock induced (MES) Seizures and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures in rats. Materials and methods: The aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica was evaluated for its anticonvulsant activity in MES Seizure and PTZ induced seizures in rats. Phenytoin 25mg/kg, Diazepam 4mg/kg were used as the standard drugs for MES seizures and PTZ induced seizures respectively in this study. Results: MES induced seizures Aqueous Leaf Extract of Centella asiatica (ALECA) significantly increased the time of onset of Tonic Hind Limb Extension (THLE) in all the doses (200mg/kg & 400mg/kg) used, and decreased the duration of THLE significantly with 400mg/kg. The percentage of protection of MES seizures with 400mg/kg is 67%. In PTZ induced convulsion ALECA significantly increased the mean latency period in all the doses used. The percentage of protection of PTZ induced seizures with 200mg/kg of ALECA is 33% and 400mg/kg is 67%. Standard drugs like phenytoin in MES induced seizures and diazepam in PTZ induced seizures possesses 100% seizure protection. Conclusion: The aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica suppresses the seizures induced by maximal electro shock and Pentylenetetrazole.

Abstract Online: 18-June-2015

12. Colorimetric Determination of Flavonoids in Citrus medica L. Peel Traditional Medicinal Oil
Mohammad M. Zarshenas, Rasool Mahmoodian, Mahmoodreza Moein
Abstract
Herbal oil preparation are widely administered in Persian folk medicine. Among those, citron (Citrus medica L. from Rutaceae) oil is traditionally prepared via extraction of peels in heated sesame oil and administered for musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and nervous system ailments. Till now, no certain evaluation has been performed on standardization of such traditional oil. Current study aimed to introduce a simple method for determination of active components in citron oil. Following preparation, qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoids were performed using thin layer chromatography and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method. The extraction of flavonoid fraction was performed using two different solvent systems as n-Hexane and acetone. Using an established calibration curve by eight series of serially diluted Quercetin in methanol (4.4-35.2 mg/l), total flavonoid content for the employed solvent systems were determined as 207.88 and 199.80 µg/ml, respectively. Current study introduced a simple and applicable method for the determination of flavonoids in traditional herbal oil samples. This method can be simply applied for standardization of traditional herbal oil dosage forms.

Abstract Online: 25-June-2015

13. Chemical Composition and In-Vitro Study for Analysis of Potential Neuroprotective and Antidiabetic Activity in Mimusops  elengi L.
Sainiara Begum,  Jayashree Acharya, Archana Banerjee, Bratati De
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyze chemical composition and inhibitory potential of leaf and flower extracts of Mimusops elengi L. against the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase. Inhibitions of these enzymes are considered to be effective in controlling diabetes and memory function. Methanol extracts of leaves and flowers were tested against the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase. Chemical composition in both the extracts were analysed by GC-MS, after derivatization. Leaf extract had stronger activity against the enzyme α-glucosidase than the flower extract. But the flower extract showed higher activity against the enzymes α-amylase and acetylcholinesterase. Total 41 components (7 organic acids, 9 sugars, sugar alcohols and sugar acid, 5 amino acids, 6 fatty acids, 8 phenols, 2 flavonoids, 1 inorganic acid,  porphine, phytol and phenylethylamine) could be identified from both the extracts. The flower extract contained lesser metabolites both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study suggests potential beneficial effects of the extracts which needs further analysis in vivo for bioactivity and for identification of active constituents.

Abstract Online: 25-June-2015

14. Study of  Tunisian Nettle  Leaves (Urtica dioica L.) :  Mineral Composition and  Antioxidant Capacity of their Extracts obtained by Maceration and Supercritical Fluid  Extraction
F. Sidaoui, S. Belghith Igueld, D. Barth, M. Trabelsi-Ayadi, J.K. Cherif
Abstract
This work was undertaken to explore the potential of extract of leaves Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) of Tunisia as sources of minerals and natural antioxidants. Two extraction methods were used and compared, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (CO2) and  traditional maceration extraction  using ethanol (EtOH) as solvent. The SFE was explored at various operating conditions of pression (15 and 18 MPa)  and temperature (40 and 60°C) (with or without glass beads). The phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined respectively by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method. The ABTS assay was used for determining the antioxidant activity. The protein assay was performed by the Kjeldahl method and the multielemental analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The results show some variations between both extracts in terms of extraction yield and antioxidant activity. The SFE, with carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is an interesting alternative to the conventional extraction using organic solvents. However, higher values of phenolic content (11.62 mg GAE.g-1 DW), flavonoid content (7.10 mgCE.g-1DW) and antioxidant activity TEAC (8.11 μM) correspond to extracts obtained by maceration. In all SFE extract assays, the highest yield was reached at 60°C – 15MPa with glass beads (2.5%).  The ICP analysis shows the abundance of Urtica dioica L. in calcium (1116 mg.100g-1DW) and magnesium (544).  The protein assay showed high content (15.75 %.). The present study indicates that the leaves of Urtica dioica L. of Tunisia are a potential source of minerals, proteins and antioxidants

Abstract Online: 25-June-2015

15. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Syzygium cumini on Chemotaxis of Human Neutrophils
Uthayashanker Ezekiel, Rita Heuertz
Abstract
Various parts of the plant Syzygium cumini (synonyms: Eugenia jambolana, Syzygium jambolana, Eugenia cumini, Szygium jambos: commonly known as jamun in Hindi, black plum or Indian blackberry in English) have been used for treatment for various ailments and is notably known for its antidiabetic effect. Phytochemicals from this plant have been reported to have antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antiulcer, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic and antibacterial properties as well as hepatoprotective and radioprotective activities. In the current study, aqueous seed extract of this plant was assessed for antiinflammatory properties using neutrophil chemotaxis as a model system. The seed extract significantly inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis towards a bacteria-derived chemoattractant (f-met-leu-phe). This result indicates that the seed extract has potential to elicit antiinflammatory effects.

Abstract Online: 25-June-2015

16. Triterpenes from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.
Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Virgilio Ebajo Jr.,  Mariquit M. De Los Reyes, Emelina H. Mandia, Robert Brkljača, Sylvia Urban
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. afforded friedelin (1), squalene (2), canophyllic acid (3), and a mixture of canophyllalic acid (4a) and canophyllol (4b) from the leaves; and 1 and taraxasterol (5) from the twigs. The structures of 3-5 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, while those of 1 and 2 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature.

Abstract Online: 25-June-2015

17. Blechnum orientale Linn.: An Important Edible Medicinal Fern
Dash Gouri Kumar, Abdullah Mohammad Syafiq, Yahaya Ruhaiyem, Majeed Shahnaz
Abstract
Blechnum orientale Linn. (Family: Blechnaceae), commonly known as ‘Centipede fern’ is an important edible medicinal fern in Malaysia. In addition to its use as a vegetable, the plant is documented in ethnomedicine to possess several medicinal benefits in treating cuts and wounds, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints, typhoid fever and inflammatory diseases. The pharmacological studies have shown that the plant possesses numerous notable biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antimicrobial and wound healing activities. A few phytoconstituents have been reported from the plant. Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals that the plant is rich with polyphenolic compounds which are responsible for its potential antioxidant activity. Further studies on this plant may bring out some new and interesting findings on its pharmacological activity.

Abstract Online: 25-June-2015

18. Secondary Metabolites from the Male Cone of Cycas vespertilio
Vincent Antonio S. Ng, Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo, Chien-Chang Shen, Consolacion Y. Ragasa
Abstract
Chemical investigation of Cycas vespertilio male cone led to the isolation of pinoresinol (1), lariciresinol (2), mixtures of α-amyrin acetate (3a) and lupeol acetate (3b) in a 2.5:1 ratio and β-sitosterol (4a) and stigmasterol (4b) in a 2:1 ratio, triglycerides (5), and fatty alcohols (6). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, while those of 3a6 were identified by comparison of their 1H and/or 13C NMR spectra with those reported in the literature.

Abstract Online: 29-June-2015

19. Arabinogalactan Protein – A Potent Immunostimulator
Selvaraj R, Mahesh Kumar N and Sivaraman D
Abstract
For the past several years glycoproteins are the subject of interest for the researches because of their abundant presence and diverse functions. Recent researches reported glycoproteins with potential activities such as antiviral, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-complementary, anti-coagulant, immunostimulatory, anti-ulcer activity etc. Arabinogalactan proteins are group of polysaccharides found almost in all the plants. Many researchers have reported that arabinogalactan protein with potent immune stimulating ability. In recent years arabinogalactan protein is beginning to gain interest as a carrier to deliver drugs. Beside this drug delivery they can also be used to enhance the drug solubility, enhance the drug stability, extend duration of activity etc. This review covers only a small part of the activity of arabinogalactan protein isolated from plants. It mainly focuses on the invivo and invitro analysis that reveals the immunological activity of arabinogalactan protein.

Abstract Online: 29-June-2015

20. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Twigs Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts on Tooth Root Canals Biofilms
Maina, S.W., Dimba, E., Oyugi J. O., Mwangi, J. W. Kabuitu, S.T. K.
Abstract
Phytochemicals present in medicinal plants possess a wide range of properties including; antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Azadirachta indica (Neem) twigs are used in many communities as toothbrushes and are said to prevent dental caries and gum disease.  However the antimicrobial activity of neem in endodontics is unknown, hence the need to test its effects on root canal biofilms. Materials and methods:Twigs of Azadirachta indica were collected, dried and ground into coarse powder. Aqueous and 80 % ethanol extraction procedures were done. The mixtures were gravity filtered and the filtrates, sterile filtered through Nalgene ® disposable filter unit with 0.45 µm pore size filter. The aqueous filtrates were freeze- dried while the ethanol filtrates were reduced under vacuum and the yields determined. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) of the extracts on pure strains of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 25586), Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356) and Candida albicans (ATCC 24433) was determined using tenfold liquid micro dilution method. Growth was determined as optical density at 630 nm after incubation for 24 and 48 hrs at 37oC. Sodium hypocrite (5.25%) and 2 % Chlorhexidine were used as positive controls.  Analysis of variance was done. Results:  The inhibitory effects of 50% weight /volume (w/v) aqueous extracts was; C. albicans (84.6%), S. aureus (100%) and L. acidophilus (80.9%) at 24 hrs incubation. At 48 hrs, the inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts (50% w/v ) on E. faecalis, S. mutans and F. nucleatum was 96.2, 81.5% and 63.9 % respectively while that of aqueous extracts  was 85.5%, 91.7% and 62.2% for  E. faecalis,  S. aureus  and C. albicans  respectively. The MIC was 50% w/v. Conclusion: Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica showed potential to be a source of antimicrobial agent against tested root canal biofilms.

Abstract Online: 29-June-2015

21. In-vitro Investigation of Anti-Coagulation Property of Four Bangladeshi Plants of Crotalaria Species and Analysis of their Qualitative Bioactive Compounds
Farzana Akther Sumi, Prawej Ansari, Shofiul Azam, Suraiya Nazneen, Mahmuda Sultana, Md. Nasir Uddin, Tamal Baidya
Abstract
The ischemic stroke caused by thrombosis of the arterial vessels is a growing concern of this world right now. Present treatment for this disease is not satisfactory for all. That is why we aim to run this study with herbal preparations, as because we know herbal preparations are safe enough than any others. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of the crude extracts of four Bangladeshi plants, which are, Crotalaria retusa, Crotalaria alata, Crotalaria prostrata and Crotalaria verrucosa. Streptokinase here was used as a positive control and water as a negative control. In short, venous blood withdrawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots that were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Through this model we got plants like C. retusa and C. prostrata showed highest significant potency, 39.16 ± 9.52% and 37.85 ± 7.74%, respectively compared with positive control standard streptokinase (79.55 ± 9.09%) and negative control distilled water (7.41 ± 2.76%). Other extracts showed moderate clot lysis activity, C. alata and C. verrucosa respectively lysis clots 31.63 ± 6.60% and 35.88 ± 8.94%. Our study suggests that thrombolytic activity of C. retusa and C. prostrata could be considered as very promising and beneficial for the Bangladeshi traditional medicine and should be proceed for further study regarding this activity.

Abstract Online: 29-June-2015

22. Pharmacognostical Screening of Flavouring Leaves Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.
Bindu Gopalkrishnan,  Seema Agashe, Urmila Kumavat
Abstract
The food industry uses various herbals as condiments to improve flavor and aroma. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. is one such herbs. It is commonly known as ‘Pandan’ in French and ‘Ambemohar’ in Marathi. The Pandan belong to family Pandanaceae.  The leaves are used in Southeast Asian cooking. Leaves of Pandan is diuretic, cures headache, fever, arthritis etc.  The present investigation deals with the quantitative and qualitative microscopic evaluation of the seeds and establishment of its quality parameters, including physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation. Chief characters of transverse section of leaves include sclerenchymatous patches, parenchymatous mesophyll cells, bundle sheath cells. Physicochemical parameters were also established. Preliminary Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinone glycoside and cardiac glycoside. TLC was performed using standard marker Quercetin & β-sitosterol. To bring this plant in the main stream of crude drugs and in food industry, the current study is of utmost importance.

Abstract Online: 29-June-2015

23. The Potential of Hydrolytic Enzymes from Phoma exigua for Fruit Juice Clarification
Madhu H N, Pushkar Ramesh, Manasa V Anand, Surabhi Sathyanarayana, Nitya Sarjapuram, Apeksha Chandrashekar, Gautham Subramaniam
Abstract
In this study, we explored the potential use of industrially important cellulases, pectinases and xylanases from P. exigua in comparison with commonly adopted organism   A. niger. The cultured organism P. exigua and A. niger were optimized for maximum growth and enzyme production. The results were compared and tested under similar conditions to determine the quality and quantity of enzymes. A 5.16, 5.16 and 7.31 fold increase in activity of cellulase, pectinase and xylanase respectively was achieved. Results indicated that overall percentage clarification was 42.16% in P. exigua in comparison with A. niger for orange juice and 48.6% in apple juice. Hence P. exigua can be used to efficiently produce the aforementioned hydrolytic enzymes for their application in fruit juice clarification.

Abstract Online: 29-June-2015

24. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Ficus bengalensis Bark.
Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan, Antony Nishanthini, Gurusamy Sakthi Devi
Abstract

Antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of the Ficus bengalensis bark have been tested using various antioxidant model systems viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide and ABTS. Methanol extract of Ficus bengalensis bark is found to possess higher DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide and ABTS radical cation scavenging activities. Like the antioxidant activity, reducing power of the extract increases with increase in concentration. The results suggest that phenolics and flavonoids in the bark provide considerable antioxidant activity. The results also suggest the potential of   Ficus bengalensis bark as a medicine against free radical associated oxidative damage.

Abstract Online: 30-June-2015

25. Bio-flavonoids and Garcinoic Acid from Garcinia Kola Seeds with Promising Local Anesthetic Potentials.
Tchimene, M.K., Aanaga A. O, Ugwoke, C.E.C., Ezugu C. O., Okunji C, Iwu M.M
Abstract
Local anesthetics are a well-known group of pharmaceutical agents used to relieve pain in specific organism, inhibiting propagation of signal along the nerves.  In the present study ethanol extract, kolaviron, GB1, GB2 and garcinoic acid of Garcinia kola seeds were evaluated for local anesthetic activity. Xylocaine the reference drug induced 100% local anesthesia on the guinea pig skin at 1mg/ml. GB1 caused 92% local anesthesia at 10mg/ml, which was similar to the effect of Xylocaine (0.66mg/kg).

Abstract Online: 21-July-2015

26. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Extracts from Angolan Medicinal Plants
Fernandes, N A F, Canelo, L I N, Mendonça, D I M D De, Mendonça, A J G De
Abstract
Plants are considered important sources of new chemical entities that can be used in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by 38 extracts from 13 medicinal plants used in Angola folk medicine are presented: Adenodolichos huillensis (roots and leaves); Boscia microphylla (leaves); Croton gratissimus (aerial part); Gymnosporia senegalensis (branches); Hymenodictyon floribundum (barks); Parinari capensis (leaves); Peucedano angolense (aerial part); Phragmanthera glaucocarpa (roots); Rhus kirkii (leaves); Solanecio mannii (branches); Solanum incanum (fruit); Tinnea antiscorbutica (aerial part) and Xylopia odoratissima (leaves). TLC bioautographic assay and Ellman’s method were used. The best results for IC50 were obtained with the toluene extract of B. microphylla leaves (0.55 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and the methanol extract of G. senegalensis branches (0.30 ± 0.00 mg/mL). The aqueous extract of the leaves of P. capensis also demonstrated acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in the two methods used. In conclusion, the medicinal plants P. capensis, B. microphylla and G. senegalensis represent promising sources of natural compounds with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties.

Abstract Online: 21-July-2015

27. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Analysis of Heavy Metals in Acacia catechu willd.
Lakshmi. T, Rajendran.R, Ezhilarasan.D
Abstract
Aim and objective: The present study was undertaken to analyze the heavy metal content of this extract with respect to four toxic heavy metals As, Pb, Hg and Cd using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Background: Acacia catechu  willd.  is an indigenous plant having tremendous medicinal properties and well reviewed in Indian literature. Ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark and heartwood has already been reported to possess many pharmacological activities but there are no reports on heavy metal analysis of this extract. Result: The findings of this study was compared with prescribed limits of these metals in WHO guidelines and the content of all these heavy metals were found to be within safe limits. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark and heartwood is safe from the point of view of heavy metal toxicity and being a good source of antioxidants this extract have the possibilities to be used in combination therapy along with a good chelating agents for reversal of heavy metal toxicities.

Abstract Online: 21-July-2015

28. CXCR4 Inhibitory Activity Analysis of Linoleic Acid Isolated from Ethanolic Extract of Cayratia trifolia (L.): An Molecular Docking Simulation
Chella Perumal P, Pradeep Kumar Reddy C , Pratibha P, Sowmya S, Priyanga S, Devaki K, Poornima K, Ramkumar S,  Gopalakrishnan V K
Abstract
Chemokine Receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is the increasing interest as a drug target, which is involved in many disease states including more than 23 types of cancer and several immunodeficiency disorders. On the other hand, the chemical constituents of medicinal plant are helpful in the discovery of therapeutic agents. Therefore the main aim of the study was to analyze the inhibitory activity of linoleic acid against CXCR4. Previous studies the natural compound of linoleic acid was isolated and identified from ethanolic extract of Cayratia trifolia. The molecular docking analysis was carried out to find the CXCR4 inhibitory activity of the isolated compound. Results, the isolated compound of linoleic acid possess comparable good Glide score and Glide energy when compared with FDA approved drug. Based on the results, it can be concluded that, the isolated compound of linoleic acid may act as novel inhibitor aginst CXCR4 and further it can be lead to development of therapeutic agent for variety of cancers and other disorders.

Abstract Online: 21-July-2015

29. Evaluation of Hemolytic Activity, Atpase Inhibitory Activity and Antitumor Activity of TLC Extract of Lemon Grass (Cymbpogon Citratus)
Vinjamuri .S, Syeda Afshan, Sowmya Shekar, V Jaya Saraswathi
Abstract
Oil of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) was extracted and one of its component obtained by TLC were tested for hemolytic activity, ATPase inhibitory activity and Cell viability assessment by MTT assay using MCF-7 cell lines. The results showed that at concentrations of less than 0.08 µg/mL the TLC extract showed no hemolysis. ATPase activity inhibition assay indicated that at concentrations above 0.125ug/mL there was no significant change in inhibitory activity of the ATPase and MTT assay using MCF-7 cell lines showed that there was no cytotoxic effect at concentrations below 0.2ug/mL.

Abstract Online: 21-July-2015

30. Phytochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Vitex Negundo Seed Extract
Shetty D K, Patil S S
Abstract
Objective: Preliminary screening of phytochemicals is a valuable step, in the detection of the bioactive principles present in medicinal plants and in the present study, chief phytoconstituents of the Vitex negundo seed extact were identified in order to relate their presence with bioactivities of the plant extract and the antioxidant activity of the extract was studied. Methods: Screening of V.negundo seed extact was performed for the presence of various primary and secondary metabolites using standard methods. Then the V.negundo seed extract was subjected to antioxidant assay using In vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation (Ohkawa et al Method). Results: Phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrate, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, proteins, tannins and phenolic compounds. After the V.negundo seed extract was subjected to antioxidant assay the IC50 value of V.negundo seed extract was found to be 46.75 μg/ml and that of ascorbic acid 38.42 μg/ml. Conclusion: It is evident from the study that V.negundo seed extract possesses majority of phytochemical classes of compounds and has antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid.

Abstract Online: 21-July-2015

31. Phytochemical Potential of Pavonia procumbens (wall.ex wight & Arn.) Walp. with Reference to Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity
Rajesh V, Bharathi P, Priya M, Arumugam P, P.Jayaraman
Abstract
Dried Leaves of Pavonia procumbens (wall.ex wight & Arn.) walp. were collected from Thamanur hills, Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India for the comparative analysis of phyto-chemical potential with reference to antioxidant and anti-diabetic activity. The active plant compounds were extracted with ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol solvents. Among the solvents used for extraction, methanol found to be a suitable solvent and hence used for further extraction and analysis biocompounds. The preliminary qualitative phyto-chemical screening of Pavonia procumbens has revealed the presence of Phenols, Flavanoids and Terbenoids and absence of Alkaloids, Tannins and Reducing sugars in methanol extract. The quantitative determination of phenol and flavanoids were carried out and found that the total phenolic content with 1.6095µg GAE/ml and flavonoids 2.071µg QE/ml respectively. The IC50 value of DPPH assy, Nitric oxide scavenging assay and Fe2+ Chelation assay of methanol extract were recorded as 200.41 µg/ml, 108.81 µg/ml and 386.72 µg/ml respectively. The Phosphomolybdenum assay and reducing power assay indicate that the plant extract is a potential antioxidant. The results for the antidiabetic assay by α-amylase inhibition exhibited from 27% – 79% in the concentration of 5 – 25 μg/ml and non enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin shows 33% – 73% in the concentration of 250 – 1000 μg/ml. The inhibitory activity of Glucose uptake by yeast cells in methanol extract of Pavonia procumbens were found and compared with the standard drug acarbose. The details of the above results are discussed in the present study.

Abstract Online: 21-July-2015

32. Determination of   Bioactive Components of Psychotria nilgiriensis  Deb & Gang ( Rubiaceae) by GC-MS Analysis
Lalitha S,  Parthipan B, Mohan V.R
Abstract
The investigation was carried out to determine the phytocompounds of ethanol extract of Psychotria nilgiriensis Deb & Gang leaf. GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract was performed using a Perkin-Elmer GC clarus 500system and Gas Chromatograph interfaced to a Mass Spectometer (GC-MS) equipped with a Elite-1, fused silica capillary column(30mm×0.25mm 10×1μmdf, composed of 100% Di methyl poly siloxene). Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC-MS was conducted using the database of National Institute standard and Technology (NIST). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 22 compounds from the leaf of P.  nilgiriensis.  The prevailing compounds were n-Hexadecanoic acid (25.08%),  9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (19.97%), 1-Hexadecyne (9.02%), β-Sitosterol (7.52%), Resorcinol (5.12%), 1-Octadecyne (3.93%), 1,14-Tetradecanediol (3.56%), 4-Hexen-3-one, 4,5-dimethyl- (3.46%),  2-Dodecylcyclobutanone (3.24%), Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester (3.01%), Benzene, 1-methyl-3-[(2-methylpropyl)thio]-  (2.27%), Stigmasterol (1.87%) and  Vitamin E (0.87%) major compound in the leaf extract. The ethanol extract of leaf of P.  nilgiriensis possesses antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antiarthritic effects so that it can be recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.

Abstract Online: 21-July-2015

33. Phyto Chemical Characterisation and In-vivo Antipyretic Activity of Allophyllus cobbe L. (Raeusch.).
Sindhu K, Sujith S, Mathew J., Adarsh Krishna T.P., Suja Rani S., Juliet S.
Abstract
The present study was planned to evaluate and compare the in-vivo antipyretic activity of aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanolic and petroleum benzene extracts of leaves of Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch. in endotoxin (Lipopolysaccharide from E. coli serovar 0127: B8) induced pyretic models in adult Wistar rats of either sex. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical analysis as per standard procedures and HPTLC fingerprinting of the various extracts was done using solvent hexane: ethyl acetate. In vivo antipyretic activity was determined by LPS induced pyrexia model and oral administration of 250 mg/kg of various extract of A. cobbe and lipopolysaccharide at dose rate of 50µg/kg intramuscularly. The reduction in temperature of aqueous extract treated group was comparable to the standard antipyretic drug paracetamol by the second hour of study. No acute toxic symptoms were observed on oral administration of any of these extracts at 2000 mg/kg body weight which indicated the safety of extracts. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of secondary plant metabolites like as phenolics, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, terpenes and flavonoids. The HPTLC chromatogram and densitometry of different leaf extracts of A. cobbe at visible, short and long UV revealed maximum no of peak 13 in petroleum ether extract followed by 6 peaks in aqueous, 7 peaks in hydroalcoholic and methanolic extract respectively. The results of the study indicated that the antipyretic response observed could be due to the presence of one or more components of polar nature. Further fractionation and isolation study needs to be undertaken for identifying the active compound responsible for the antipyretic activity of the extract and development of potent safe herbal antipyretic drug from this plant.

Abstract Online: 29-July-2015

34. Hypoglycemic Effect and Finger Printing Analysis of Costus Igneus Partially Purified Fraction in L6 Cells
Swarnalath. Y, Ramesh kumar
Abstract
Plant secondary metabolites with proved hypoglycemic properties have been used in traditional medicine worldwide. Costus igneus is used in traditional medicine as hypoglycemic medicine in India. Costus igneus   is able to reduce the blood glucose level and possess good antidiabetic activity in invitro and invivo. In the current study the extract from the plant is subjected column chromatography and purified fractions were tested in HPTLC to identify the number of active components. The purified fraction was assessed for antidiabetic activity in L6 myoblasts. The crude extract proved the presence of bioactive various secondary components and HPTLC analysis showed the presence of 5 components. Glucose uptake was significantly increased with the column fraction of Costus igneus in L6 myotubes. A maximum 59%  of glucose was obtained with the column fraction at 30µg/ml  concentration which was compared with insulin and standard rosiglitazone. The current study concluded that  column fraction possess hypoglycemic effect on the L6 cells.

Abstract Online: 29-July-2015

35. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Evaluation of Curcuma angustifolia roxb. (Rhizome) Indigenous Ethno-Medicinal Plant Used by Tribal Soliga Community of Biligirirangana Hills.
Sushma S.Murthy, Sharath R, Sujan Ganapathy P.S., Sivakamisundari P., Preetham J.
Abstract
In India there is an extensive usage of medicinal plants as an herbal drug to treat various kinds of ailments. Traditionally Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Rhizome) is used in the treatment of inflammation, cancer, wound healing, diabetes, asthma, fever and anaemia by tribal Soligas of Biligirirangana hills. Therefore the present communication deals with the pharmacognostic and preliminary phytochemical evaluation of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Rhizome). The pharmacognostical profiles include organoleptic study, microscopy evaluation of the rhizome; powder microscopy; determination of size of fibre and starch; fluorescence analysis and physical parameters like ash value, extractive value, and moisture content of the powdered material. Preliminary Phytochemical screening to detect the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, carbohydrates and total phenolics has been done to know the nature of phytoconstituents present in them. The result of the present study is useful in establishing the standards for identification, authentication and evaluation of the plant material. The pharmacognostic study of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Rhizome) has been carried out for the first time which will help in establishing the monograph of the plant.

Abstract Online: 29-July-2015

36. Phytochemical Profiling and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Brassica oleracea 
Guriya R, Moon A, Talreja K
Abstract
Phytochemicals are non-nutrient plant chemical compounds or bioactive components and are responsible for protecting the plant against microbial infections. Brassica family as secondary metabolite contains tannins, phenols, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids and glucosinolates. Glucosinolates(GLS) are bioactive compounds in crucifers associated with cancer protection. Glucosinolates are known to possess fungicidal, bacteriocidal, nematocidal and allelopathic properties. Brassica family contains highest quantity of phenolic compounds that exhibit the greatest anti-oxidant activity. Antioxidants play a key role in preventing generation of free radicals. The present study was designed to screen plant secondary metabolites from broccoli along with determination of glucosinolates, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity assays.

Abstract Online: 29-July-2015

37. Formulation and Standardization of Shatsakar Churna: Quality Control Studies for Polyherbomineral Ayurvedic Formulation
K. Mangal, Devesh Tewari, N. Srikanth, Harjeet Singh
Abstract
Ayurvedic formulations are highly effective and known to have minimal or no side effect, but due to lack of validation parameters for identification and quality control, there is a lacuna in demand of Ayurvedic formulations at international level. Shatsakar Churna is a widely used polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation for constipation and gastric troubles. Standardization and quality control parameters of Shatsakar Churna, are not well defined. The objective of the work is to formulate and standardize the Satsakar Churna according to World Health Organization (WHO), GMP guidelines which are the first available report so far. The formulation was prepared in the Institute’s pharmacy and evaluated for organoleptic characters, powder drug studies, physicochemical parameters (total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water soluble extractive, ethanol soluble extractive), micrometric evaluation (density and flow properties) and phytochemical evaluations. The results of different standardization parameters revealed satisfactory and sufficient data to evaluate the in-house formulation and can be utilized as reference standards in various quality control aspects of the formulation, powder drug analysis revealed specific identities for crude raw drug which are useful as marker in the preparation and identification of components of the formulation.

Abstract Online: 30-July-2015

38.HPTLC Identification, Quantification and Validation of p-Coumaric Acid and Quercetin in Aqueous Extract of Mimosa pudica.
M.M Sanaye, C.S Joglekar
Abstract
The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. Mimosa pudica also has been reported to possess antinociceptive, antihyperglycemic, antivenom, immunomodulatory, anticonvulsant, antihepatotoxic ,antifertility, diuretic and  wound healing activity. These pharmacological studies have established a scientific basis for therapeutic uses of this plant. In our study attempts have been made to develop new HPTLC method for identification, quantification and validation of p-coumaric acid and quercetin in aqueous extract ofMimosapudica.

Abstract Online: 30-July-2015

39. A Review of Endiandric Acid Analogues
Salleh W M N H W, Ahmad F, Khong H Y, Zulkifli R M
Abstract
The genus Beilschmiedia and Endiandra belonging to Lauraceae family have been used as folk medicines in treating uterine tumors, rheumatism, pulmonary diseases, dysentery and headache. This report briefly the current information and update on isolated endiandric acid analogues and their pharmacological studies. The informations on both genus were gathered via internet using scientific databases such as Google Scholar, MedlinePlus, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science. A literature survey shows that both genus are mainly known for their endiandric acid analogues with antiapoptotic proteins, which emphasize the existence of various potential leads to develop new anticancer agents. Modern pharmacology studies have also demonstrated that their phytochemicals possess wide pharmacological activities, which are anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antiplasmodial and antitubercular activities

Abstract Online: 30-July-2015

40. Toxicological Analysis of Monoterpene Carvone: An In Silico Approach
Oliveira H M B F, Oliveira Filho A A
Abstract
Many monoterpene derivatives have demonstrated activity on the SNC, including sedative, antinociceptive and antidepressant. Thus, determination of the pharmacokinetic profile (ADME) together with toxicity (ADMET) are important parameters in the definition of bioavailability and toxic effects of a molecule. The Osiris program program was used in the study for activities in silicoIn silico models are being applied for the evaluation of toxicity of compound in metabolic environment of mammals. The obtained results showed the molecule of carvone was low toxicity theoretical risk.

Abstract Online: 30-July-2015

41. Antioxidant Activities of Various Extracts from Ardisia SP Leaves Using DPPH and Cuprac Assays and Correlation with Total Flavonoid, Phenolic, Carotenoid Content
Irda Fidrianny, Wempi Budiana, Komar Ruslan
Abstract
The objectives of this research were to study antioxidant activity from various leaves extracts of four Ardisia sp using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) and correlation of total flavonoid, phenolic and carotenoid content in various leaves extracts of four Ardisia sp with IC50 of DPPH and EC50 of CUPRAC antioxidant capacities. Extraction was performed by reflux using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant activities using DPPH and CUPRAC assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities and EC50 of CUPRAC capacities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. All of sample extract was categorized as very strong antioxidant. Ethanolic leaves extract of A.crenata (CR3) had the lowest IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 0.49 mg/ml and ethyl acetate leaves extract of A. elliptica gave the lowest EC50 of CUPRAC capacity with EC50 30.34 mg/ml. Ethyl acetate leaves extract of A. cymosa (CY2) contained the highest total flavonoid (8.24 g QE/100 g), ethanolic leaves extract of A.elliptica (EL3) showed the highest phenolic content (29.54 g GAE/100 g) and n-hexane leaves extract of A.fuliginosa (FU1) had the highest total carotenoid 13.37 g BE/100 g. There were negatively high correlation between total phenolic content in A.crenata, A.cymosa and A.fuliginosa leaves extracts with their IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities. There were negative and high correlation between total flavonoid in all of sample extract and EC50 of CUPRAC capacities. Total carotenoid content in A.elliptica, A.cymosa and A.fuliginosa leaves extracts had negative and high correlation with their CUPRAC capacities. A.crenata leaves extracts had linear result in DPPH and CUPRAC assays.

Abstract Online: 31-July-2015

42. Pharmacognostic Standardisation of Lentinula Edodes: A Widely Explored Medicinal Mushroom
Acharya K, Mukherjee S, Mitra P
Abstract
Lentinula edodes, the “Shiitake” mushroom is a well studied edible mushroom which has antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antidiabetic and antioxidative potentiality. The present study was conducted in order to investigate various qualitative and quantitative parameters like microscopic evaluation, physicochemical constants and preliminary mycochemical analysis of the dried mushroom powder. Physicochemical constants such as percentage of loss on drying (8.9%), total ash (3.81%), swelling capacity (116.66%), water holding capacity (427.12%), water solubility index (23.85%) and methanol extractive value (11.2%) were documented. Fluorescence analysis exhibited considerable variations against treated reagents. On the other hand preliminary mycochemical tests revealed presence of glycosides, carbohydrate, terpenoids, phenol and flavonoids. Good content of phenols was also supported with HPTLC and HPLC data. The antioxidant activity was checked using DPPH radical scavenging assay (EC50=1.25 mg/ml) and total antioxidant capacity test. Measurement of bioactive components confirmed presence of flavonoids, phenol, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in descending order. Hence, the present study establishes the pharmacognostic profiles of this mushroom which will help in standardization of the mushroom powder with respect to quality, purity and identity.

Abstract Online: 31-July-2015

 

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International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research