Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume7,Issue5

1. Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Leaves, Stems, and Rhizomes of Etlingera coccinea (blume) S. Sakai & Nagam
Shahid-Ud-Daula A F M, Kamariah A S, Lim L B L, Ahmad N
Abstract
Etlingera coccinea (Blume) S. Sakai & Nagam has been used by various indigenous communities in parts of Asia as a traditional remedy for food poisoning, stomach ache, and gastric problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of leaves, stems, and rhizomes of E. coccinea, to support its use as a treatment for food poisoning. Another aim was to screen the major phytochemical constituents of these extracts and evaluate their antioxidant activity, which may be significant for other potential uses of this plant. The disc-diffusion method was used to assay antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals including anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, saponins, and steroids were detected using chemical analyses. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total flavonol content (TFlC) were estimated using spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant activity (AOA) of extracts was evaluated using five methods: the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, the reducing power activity (RPA) assay, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay. The disc-diffusion assay showed that none of the extracts from different plant parts of E. coccinea had antibacterial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) or antifungal activities. The TPC, TFC, TFlC, and AOA of the extracts could be ranked, from strongest to weakest, as follows: leaves > stems > rhizomes. There were significant correlations between the AOA and TPC, TFC, and TFlC. The results of the antimicrobial activity assays do not validate the use of E. coccinea as a remedy for food poisoning. However, the high content of flavonoids and flavonols, and strong antioxidant activity of the leaf extract suggest that this plant has significant potential for use in food and pharmaceutical industries

Abstract Online: 03-August-2015

2. Lignans and a Furanone from Cycas sancti-lasallei
Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Vincent Antonio S. Ng, Esperanza Maribel Agoo,  Chien-Chang Shen
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Cycas sancti-lasallei, a plant endemic to the Philippines, led to the isolation of sesamin (1), 4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanone (2), squalene, and phytyl fatty acid ester from the petiole and rachis; and  8-hydroxypinoresinol (3) from the sclerotesta.   The structures of 13 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.  The relative stereochemistry of 3 was determined from NOESY.

Abstract Online: 03-August-2015

3. Nanoencapsulation of The Aranto (Kalanchoe daigremontiana) Aquoethanolic Extract by Nanospray Dryer and Its Selective Effect on Breast Cancer Cell Line
Q G Alvarado-Palacios, E San Martin-Martinez, C Gomez-García, C C Estanislao-Gomez, R. Casañas-Pimentel
Abstract
The Aranto (Kalanchoe daigremontiana) is a succulent and xerophytic plant that contains glycosides, flavonoids and lipids; these last ones include triterpenoids and bufadienolides that have cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. In this investigation applied to anticancer therapy, it was obtained an aquoethanolic extract from K. daigremontiana, and nanoencapsulated in Poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), by the nanospray drying technique. In vitro experiments showed that the nanocapsules (NC) containing the aquoethanolic extract from K. daigremontiana had a better cytotoxic effect (IC50 48.53 µg/ml), compared to the non-encapsulated aquoethanolic extract (IC50 61.29 µg/ml) in the MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cell line. On the other hand, when comparing the cytotoxic effect in the breast non-cancerous cell line MCF 10A we found no cytotoxic effect of the NC containing the aquoethanolic extract of K. daigremontiana with concentrations of the extract equal or lower than 200 µg/ml, whereas the aquoethanolic extract which was not encapsulated had a positive cytotoxic effect (IC50 100.2 µg/ml). These results showed an important selectivity of the cytotoxicity of the NC with the aquoethanolic extract to the cancerous cells

Abstract Online: 06-August-2015

4.  Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Tetrastigma sulcatum (law.) Gamble Leaf Extract and its Fractions
Waghole R J, Misar A V, Mujumdar A M,  Naik D G
Abstract
Hitherto unknown in vitro anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of crude ethanolic extract of leaf of Tetrastigma sulcatum, commonly known wild grapes, and its fractions were demonstrated. The total crude ethanolic extract as well as its hexane, toluene and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, b-Carotene bleaching, reducing power assays. Total phenolic contents (TPC) of extracts and fractions ranged from 10 to 60 mg of GAE/g dry weight and correlated well with the activities observed. Screenings of the samples using TPA induced mouse ear oedema model indicated the anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethanolic extract. Interestingly the toluene fraction showed a better activity while activity of the hexane fraction was slightly inferior. The ethyl acetate fraction and the residue left after fractionation did not show anti-inflammatory properties. Details of the screening are reported.

Abstract Online: 06-August-2015

5. Hepatoprotective Effect of the Leaf Extracts of Trigonella foenum Graecum and Curcuma zeoderia on Drug Induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats
Murugan Mannangatti, Padmanabhan Neelamegachari
Abstract
The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Trigonella foenum graecum and curcuma Zeoderia against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats was investigated. Ethanolic extracts from the leaves of Trigonella foenum graecum and curcuma Zeoderia at a dose level of 100mg/ml was administered orally daily once for 5 days as pretreatment and no side effects or injury to any organ was observed. Paracetamol at a single dose level of 500mg/kg body weight was given intraperitonially to induce hepatotoxicity. The substantially increased serum marker enzymes like Aspartate transaminase, Alanine Transaminase, Alkaline phophatase, Gamma glutamyl transferase, Lactate dehydrogenase, Creatine phosphokinase due to paracetamol treatment was restored towards normalization in rats treated with leaf extracts of Trigonella foenum graecum and curcuma zeoderia. Similarly the elevated levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum TGL due to paractamol intoxication was returned to normal when rats treated with the leaf extracts. Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity causes the failure of the synthetic function of the liver which leads to Hypoproteinemia and hypolbuminemia. The protein levels are returned to normal when treated with the ethanolic leaf extracts. Due to paracetamol intoxication the reduced of non enzymic autioxidants such as Ascorbic (Vit.C), α – Tocopherol (Vit.E), GSH was restored to the normal level in rats treated with the leaf extracts. Paracetamol administration in rats also increased the lipid peroxidation process and results in imbalance in redox status due to oxidative stress which is evident from, the elevated values of TBARS. Enzymic antioxidant such as SOD, catalase, GPx levels reduced in rats treated with paracetamol was restored towards normal when animals treated along with the leaf extracts. The results of this study clearly showed that the ethanolic leaf extracts of Trigonella foenum graecum and curcuma zeoderia has got a potent hepato-protective effect against paracetamol induced liver injury in albino rats.

Abstract Online: 03-September-2015

6. Quality Control and Comparative Study of Ayurvedic Plant Tecomella undulata (sm.) Seem. with its Adulterant Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker
Nahida, Singh Dharya, Aeri Vidhu
Abstract
Present study aims to carry out the quality standards and safety profile of stem bark of Tecomella undulata as per WHO guidelines and comparative evaluation with its adulterant Aphanamixis polystachya. Quality standards and safety profile parameters were performed as per WHO guidelines and comparative investigation is based on morphology, powder microscopy and HPTLC (High performance thin layer chromatography) fingerprinting using betulinic acid as an analytical marker. All the quality standards and safety profile parameters (Heavy metals, aflatoxins, microbial load and pesticidal residues) were found within the limit. Physiochemical parameters such as total ash value were 6.5 and extractive value was found highest in chloroform and lowest in hexane in cold and hot extraction. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of glycosides, naphthoquinone, triterpenic acids and phenolic compounds. Comparative study of stem bark  showed upper surface of T. undulata was like a crocodile skin with easily detachable fibres from the bark while A. polystachya have comparatively smooth upper surface and strongly adhered fibres with stem bark morphologically.  Microscopically T. undulata contain prismatic calcium oxalate crystals with rare presence of sclereids and absence of stone cells as compared to powder of A. polystachya which showed rosette shaped calcium oxalate crystals with abundant sclereids and stone cells. HPTLC fingerprinting profile with betulinic acid indicated its presence in T. undulata and absence in A. polystachya. This study will guide in establishment of quality standards and identification of T. undulata with its commercial adulterant A. polystachya.

Abstract Online: 03-September-2015

7. Comparative Hypoglycemic Study of Aloe vera, Murraya koenigii and Azadirachta indica
Neeraja Kamakshi U, Srinivasa Rao D, Yamini Suvarchala K, Anusha K, Venkateswara Rao B
Abstract
The influence of single drug and multiple drug effect of the selected drugs on hypoglycaemic activity were studied in Wistar rats. Rats were selected as suitable animal models for the study of the above parameters since adequate quantities of blood samples can be collected at the desired intervals of time. Healthy Wistar rats were selected for set of experiment. These studies were conducted in the same group of rats in same group of animals. The experimental conditions and protocols were same for all sets of selected drugs. The experiments were designed to get Serum glucose level data from the study, by estimating the blood glucose. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, Insulin is used in the treatment of diabetes and to improve the therapeutic effect extracts of Aloe vera (Aloe) and Murraya koenigii (Curry leaves), Azadirachta indica (Neem) can be used. Here we maintained same group of animals with appropriate wash out periods. In this study we perform about the hypoglycemic effect of the Aloe, Neem and Curry leaves individually and in combination on Wistar rats.

Abstract Online: 03-September-2015

8. Effects of Wash Procedures and Storage Time on the Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Vegetables
Farajvand Nasrin, Alimohammadi Mahmood, Rastkari Noushin, Yunesian Masud, Samadi Nasrin, Aslani Hasan,Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam
Abstract
Vegetables were either retained unwashed or were washed using only water or using various combinations of water with detergent and/or calcium hypochlorite. The first analyses were performed immediately after washing on day one and further analyses were done after three and five days of storage at 4°C. The extent of decrease in antioxidant activity was different for different procedures. In comparison with other washing procedures, washing sequential with water, detergent, and calcium hypochlorite significantly (P < 0.05) decreased antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity decreased of 37.6, 35.0, 35.5, and 27.0% in basil, lettuce, tomato, and capsicum, respectively, after storage for 5 days. Based on the results obtained, it is highly recommended that vegetables be purchased and consumed fresh.

Abstract Online: 03-September-2015

9. Development of Quality Control Parameters for Standardization of Triumfetta rhomboidea
Chandan Das, Prateekshya Mishra, Debajyoti Das, Laxmidhar Maharana, Goutam Ghosh
Abstract
Triumfetta rhomboidea is a herbaceous perennial plant found abundantly throughout India. The plant is used as diuretic, dysentery, diarrhoe, ulcer, leprosy and in the treatment of gonorrhoea. The present study comprises taxonomic details, macro and microscopical characters of parts used, and physico-chemical details. This study will be helpful in setting some pharmacopoeial standards and preparation of monograph of this plant.

Abstract Online: 03-September-2015

10. Stabilisation of Curcumin with Ferrous Ion and Evaluation of Its Pharmacological Property
Sandhya P, Renu K
Abstract
The purpose of present study was to stabilize curcumin by its complexation with divalent ions like Fe2+ and evaluate its stability in vitro compared to curcumin alone. The curcumin complex was prepared by mechanical mixture of curcumin and ferrous sulfate (metal: curcumin- 1:1mol) into unconventional and nontoxic propylene glycol/water solvent. On thermogravimetric analysis, Fe-curcumin complex was thermally stable up to 65°C. Then, the sample weight of complex decreased up to 205°C which is due to the elimination of coordinated water molecule from curcumin. On evaluation of in vitro stability, the complex was found to provide a higher stability than curcumin alone. As an indication, at buffer pH 7.0, curcumin was totally degraded after 1 hour, while; less than 5% of complex was degraded. The anti-inflammatory activity of Fe-curcumin complex was evaluated in a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test and compared with that of indomethacin. Rats treated with Fe-curcumin (equivalent to 200mg of curcumin/kg b.w.) showed a reduction in carrageenan-induced paw edema with significant inhibitory effects of 22.46-59.76% (p<0.05).

Abstract Online: 03-September-2015

11. Phytochemical Investigation and Cytotoxic Characterization of Bioactive Constituents from Conyza dioscoridis
Manal M. Hamed, Mona A. Mohamed, Magda T. Ibrahim
Abstract
A follow-up chemical investigation to methanol extract of Conyza dioscoridis (Family Asteraceae) led to the isolation of seven compounds (1-7). The isolated compounds identified as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-2-O-[6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-4-(3,4-dihydroxyphen-yl)-2-propenoate]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), rutin (2), isoquercetin (3), E-caffeic acid (4), gallic acid (5), quercetin (6), β-sitosterol-3-Oβ-D-glucpyranoside  (7). The methanol and chloroform extracts of the plant showed cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp in a preliminary assay and inhibitory activity against colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116) with LC50 value 20, 32 µg/ml and IC50 value 25, 35.3 µg/ml, respectively.  Brine shrimp lethality test was conducted on the seven isolated compounds at six different concentrations 400, 200, 100, 20, 10 and 5 µg/ml; compounds 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 showed significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value 9, 10, 11, 22, 8 and 19 µg/ml, respectively. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 6 exhibited inhibitory activity against colon carcinoma cells with IC50 value 25, 30, 34.2 and 10 µg/ml, respectively. These results indicate that; Conyza dioscoridis has biochemical activity as potential pharmaceuticals. The chemical structures of active constituents were unambiguously determined by analysis of 1HNMR, 13CNMR, ESI-MS, as well as by comparison with literature data and physical methods.

Abstract Online: 11-September-2015

12. Phytochemical analysis of bioactive compounds from calophyllum inophyllum l., leaf extract using gc-ms analysis.
Saravanan P, Jaikumar K, Sheik Noor Mohamed M, Anand D
Abstract
Phytoconstituents are the natural bioactive compounds found in plants. These phytoconstituents work with nutrients and fiber to form an integrated part of defense system against various diseases and stress conditions. The present study involves phytochemical analysis of Calophyllum inophyllum leaf extract obtained using methanol as solvent by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The GC-MS analysis showed peaks of nine different phytochemical compounds namely Linoleic acid (32.25%), Methyl Oleate (32.25%), Phytol (17.82%), Methylisostearate (11.96%), Diphenylmethane (8%), 2-Phenazinamine (8%), Adenanthin (1.47%), Carbazole (1.45%), 5-Aminomethyl-dibenzosuberane (0.28%). These different phytochemical have been found to possess a wide range of activities, which may help in the protection against incurable diseases.

Abstract Online: 11-September-2015

13. A Review on Fruit Pericarp A Rich Source of Phytochemicals and Pharmacological Activities
Swathi Putta, Eswar Kumar Kilari
Abstract
Several phyto-chemicals possessing polyphenolic structures are advocated as neutraceutical food supplements for better health care during recent years, most of them are claimed to possess antioxidant activity. The Ayurveda and naturopathic system of medicine indigenous to India clearly states the use of medicinal plants for treating various disorders. Literature suggests that the pericarp is a rich source of active constituents. The present review has provided an over view of fruit pericarp having various pharmacological activities.

Abstract Online: 11-September-2015

14. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Oxidative Stress in Liver and Kidney of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats
Devaki Kanakasabapathi, V.K.Gopalakrishnan
Abstract
Oxidative stress induced by alloxan is implicated in eliciting pathological changes in diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of P. edulis aqueous leaf extract on oral administration at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to alloxan treated animals.  Liver and kidney were excised and used for biochemical studies like invitro lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidant and non enzymatic antioxidants level.A remarkable increase in the level of enzymatic antioxidants like peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase ,  superoxide dismutase,  catalase , glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, polyphenol oxidase and  non enzymatic antioxidant like glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E  were observed. Decrease in basal lipid peroxidation , ascorbate and peroxide induced lipid peroxidation in both the organs were also observed.This study indicates that aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis decrease the damage caused by oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

Abstract Online: 11-September-2015

15. In vitro Anti Arthritic Activity of Grape Seed Ethanolic Extract
Ananda deeban, Karthic Anand, Lakshmi.T
Abstract
Inflammation is a complex biological process and is an initial response to tissue injury.it is mediated by the release of autacoids and usually precedes the development of the immune response. Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disorder which affects the adult population worldwide. Grape seed extract commonly known as vitis vinifera It contains proanthocyanidins, a polymer of Catechin molecule. It has antioxidant and free radical scavenging, Anti microbial, Anti diabetic, Immuno modulatory, Anti cariogenic, Hepato protective activity. The aim of the article is to evaluate the anti arthritic activity of grape seed ethanolic extract invitro by protein denaturation method.

Abstract Online: 11-September-2015

16. Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of Bambusa arundinacea Seeds
Thamizharasan.S, Umamaheswari.S, Rajeswari Hari, Ulagaratchagan.V
Abstract
The medicinal properties of plants are due to some chemical substances that produce certain definite physiological action on the human body. These non-nutritive components are called phytochemicals. The qualitative analysis as well as quantification of  phytochemicals of a medicinal plant is regarded as vital step in any kind of medicinal plant research. Bambusa arundinacea belongs to family Poaceae, seeds which has long been used by some tribal people of Tamilnadu as food and to treat several diseases.Young shoots and seeds are eaten as vegetable especially by the Kani tribe with wild pork based on the strong believe that it enhance fertility. The present study was carried out to estimate the total phenol and flavanoids in the seed extract.Phytochemical analysis of the seed extract of Bambusa arundinacea revealed the presence most of the phytochemicals tested for such as flavanoid,tannin, Steroids and phenol. The total phenolic content of the methanolic seed extract is found to be 15.5mg/100g and the total flavonoid contents of the seed extract is found to be 10.52 mg/100g. The presence of various phytochemicals in the tested plant reveals that this plant may be a good source for production of new drugs for various ailments.

Abstract Online: 11-September-2015

17. Evaluation of In-vitro Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Kulekhara (Hygrophilia spinosa)
Mukhopadhyay D, Rahman K A, Roy D, Dasgupta P
Abstract
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the active phytoconstituents and in vitro anti-oxidant as well as free radical scavenging activity of aqueous leaf extract of Hygrophilia spinosa, commonly known as kulekhara. Methodology: Phytochemical constituents were measured both by qualitatively and quantitatively using spectrophotometric assays. Total anti-oxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum reduction, ferric reducing power, cupric ion reducing power and ferrous chelation assays were measured for determination of anti-oxidant activity. In vitro DPPH radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide scavenging activities were also estimated using spectrophotometry. Result: Our study showed that the leaf extract of H. spinosa contains active phytoconstituents like polyphenols, tannins and alkaloids. Furthermore, it showed cupric as well as ferric ion reducing capability and selective scavenging ability towards free radicals such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. Conclusion: This study elucidated that leaf extract of H. spinosa possesses concentration dependent superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. These results suggested the potentials of H. spinosa as a preventive medicine against free radical associated oxidative assault.

Abstract Online: 11-September-2015

18. Phytochemical   Constituents  of  Leaves  of Spatholobus  parviflorus  a Rare Threatened Climber of South India
Manju Madhavan
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components of tuber of Spatholobus parviflorus(Roxb. ex DC.) Kuntze belonging to the family FABACEAE using GC-MS analysis. Nine compounds were identified. The compounds in the ethanol leaves extract  of S.parviflorus were identified as  3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, 2-Tridecnol-1-ol[E], n-Hexadecanoic acid,Phytol,9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z), 1,2- Benzenedicarboxylic acid,diisooctyl ester, Cholestan-3-ol,2-methylene-,(3a,5a) ,Lupeol,1-Heptatriacotanol. This is the first report of documentation of active constituents from leaves of S.parviflorus.  The results of the present study reveal that the leaves of S.parviflorus   have effective potential bioactive compounds, which may be leads to the formulation of new drugs to treat various diseases.

Abstract Online: 11-September-2015

19. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Leaf Extract of Cayratia pedata (Lam.)Juss. Family: Vitaceae.
Rajmohanan.T.P,  Sudhakaran Nair C.R.
Abstract
Many metabolic, detoxification and biotransformation reactions taking place within the body may lead to production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The anti oxidant system present in the body will neutralize these molecules and protect the cells from the hazardous effects of them. ROS is believed to be involved in many pathological conditions including cancer, diabetes and neurological diseases. Many natural products and dietary supplements possess antioxidant as well as free radical scavenging activities.  In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of the ethanol extract of Cayratia pedata ( Lam.) Juss.Family Vitaceae. The extract showed significant anti oxidant and reducing power activity as well as hydroxyl, super oxide and nitric oxide scavenging activities.

Abstract Online: 28-September-2015

20. Pharmacognostic Characteristics of the West African Jateorhiza macrantha (Hook.F.) Exell & Mendonça (Menispermaceae)
Ajayi G O, Kadiri A B, Ibiloye A E
Abstract
Pharmacognostic characteristics of Jateorhiza macrantha were studied and features that are of great value for its distinction from other related species are presented. Trichomes, cortical and vascular areas of the stem and leaf were found to store chemical compounds identified as alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. Similarly, crystals of calcium oxalate usually in the forms of rectangular prism and sand were found in the epidermis, trichomes and cortical regions as well as vascular areas of leaf and stem. Mean proximate analytical values of water soluble extractives in leaf and stem are 4.33% w/w and 3.66% w/w respectively but lower values of 2.45% w/w and 1.42% w/w were obtained in the alcohol extractives. In addition, proximate value of water soluble ash is 2.5% w/w for leaf and 4.40% w/w for stem whereas it is 2.41% w/w for leaf and 1.74% w/w for stem in the acid insoluble ash. Those anatomical characters which can be reliably used for species distinction include hypostomatic leaf having anomocytic stomatal type, termination of vein branches at 3rd and 4th orders in the areole and unicellular or multicellular trichomes having funnel-shaped, rhomboidal or rounded glandular heads. With these features, the problem of adulteration which is often associated with crude drug plants like Jateorhiza macrantha in West African markets can be solved.

Abstract Online: 28-September-2015

21. Acute Oral Toxicity and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Pilosocereus gounellei (fac weber) in Rats
Dias G.E.N, Gorgonio I.F, Ramalho J.A, Oliveira K.M, Guedes E.J.R.C.E, Leite F.C, Alves M.F, Maciel J.K.S, Souza M.F.V, Lima C.M.B.L, Diniz M.F.F.M.
Abstract
Pilosocereus gounellei is traditionally used by Brazil’s northeastern population for treatment of prostate inflammation, skin lesions, hydrops, and kidney infections. Toxicological and pharmacological studies of P.gounellei are of fundamental importance towards ensuring the safety and efficacy of this plant for the community. The aim of this study was to evaluate both acute oral toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of P. gounellei ethanol stem extract (Pg-EEtOH), through acute toxicity, and carrageenan induced paw edema models. The Pg-EEtOH showed an LC50 of 547.3 ug / mL, an LD50 > 2000 mg / kg; it did not cause behavioral changes, and yet caused significant decreases in the consumption of water and food. In females we observed an increase in serum urea levels, and decreased creatinine levels. In the paw edema model we observed that the dose of 25 mg / kg significantly reduced edema, and from the data we observed that despite changes in certain parameters, the Pg-EEtOH displayed low toxicity, this while having anti-inflammatory activity at a dose of 25mg / kg.

Abstract Online: 28-September-2015

22. Antibacterial Activity of Grandiflora (Nicotiana alata) Mediated Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles
Karunakar Rao Kudle, Madhukar Rao Kudle, M.Shirisha, M.P.Pratap Rudra
Abstract
In this study we synthesized Silver nano Particles and screened Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities. Fresh aqueous leaf, Flower, Root extracts of Grandiflora (Nicotiana Alata) were used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Spectra, FTRI, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).  Good activity against all the bacteria strains in comparison with Ampicillin. Grandiflora (Nicotiana alata) leaves, flowers, root of the plants were extracted with Hexane Methanol, Pet ether. Methanol, Pet. ether extracts of leaf and flower, Root were tested quantitatively for phytoconstituents. AgNPs bounded protein estimation Lowary’s method. The Phytochemical properties of the leaf, flower, Root of Grandiflora (Nicotiana alata) were also done in present investigation. Absorption spectrum at different wavelengths ranging from 400-500 nm revealed a peak of λ max at 430 nm. The TEM images clearly reveals that shape and size of silver nanoparticles was 15-30 nm with spherical shape. TLC Plate of Plant leaf  Hexane extract  contain not clearly separation componds, Pet. Ether Extract contain only two spots observed (Rf Value 0.35, 0.6cm)  and methanol extract of Grandiflora (Nicotiana Alata) plate separation of phytochemical compounds was separation five clear spots observed in methanol extract(Rf Value 0.45, 0.50, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0cm). Results showed  the  presence  of  phytoconstituents  Alkaloids,  tannins, phenolic  compounds,  proteins,  terpenoids   and  saponins.  The Antibacterial activities of the AgNPs were evaluated by silver nano particles. However, the natural products profile and consequently the bioactivity is known to vary with the climate and geographic location of the plants. The present study also correlates with the results of previously reported with little variations. Nanoparticles are important due to their simple experimental procedure and eco-friendliness.

Abstract Online: 28-September-2015

23. Antibacterial Activity of the Monoterpene Linalool: Alone and in Association with Antibiotics Against Bacteria of Clinical Importance
Silva V A, Sousa J P, Guerra F Q S, Pessôa H L F, Freitas A F R, Coutinho H D M, Alves L B N, Lima E O
Abstract
Antibacterial activity studies of new molecules, either alone or in combination with existing antibiotics, are of great importance considering the resistance acquired by microorganisms in recent times. Linalool is a phyto-constituent found in the essential oils of various plant species. It is a monoterpene widely used in perfumery, cosmetics, and the food industries. Our objective was to determine the pharmacological effects produced on the bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when combining standard antibiotics with linalool. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was calculated using microdilution technique, where the linalool concentrations varied from 2 to 1024 µg /mL. Combinations with standard antibiotics were analyzed by the checkerboard method where the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices were calculated. Linalool, Imipenem, and Ciprofloxacin showed respective MIC antibacterial activities against S. aureus of 1024, 4, and 2 µg/mL. In S. aureus, the linalool with Imipenem association showed a synergistic effect (FIC = 0.0625); while with ciprofloxacin, the linalool showed additivity (FIC = 0.75). In P. aeruginosa, the Imipenem/linalool association was synergistic for both the ATCC and clinical strains (FIC = 0.0625). The association of linalool with ciprofloxacin was indifferent. We conclude that Linalool associated with existing standard antibiotics may increase antibacterial effectiveness, resulting in synergistic activity against bacterial strains of clinical importance. This makes the molecule potentially important for production of new, therapeutically effective drugs against resistant microorganisms.

Abstract Online: 28-September-2015

24. Phytochemical Investigations and Antioxidant Activity of Green Tea
Rana R, Madan S, Gullaiya S, Agarwal S.S
Abstract
Green Tea is one of the most ancient and popular therapeutic beverages consumed around the world. It is obtained from the plant Camellia sinensis by minimal oxidation during processing is “Natural secret for a healthier life. Green tea is reported to contain thousands of bioactive ingredients which are almost contributed by polyphenols which plays a key role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. The main constituent present in green tea is Epigallocatechin-3-gallate. This component is responsible for all the biological activities that it shows like anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiobesity, antihypertensive, antiplatlet, use in cardiovascular diseases etc. The current research assists for the pharmacognostical standardization of the plant Camellia sinensis. The study also includes comparing various phytochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value, loss on drying, as well as preliminary phytochemical tests to detect the different constituents present in the plant. The anti-oxidant activity of the plant is also carried out by in-vitro DPPH method.

Abstract Online: 28-September-2015

25. Nutritional Analysis, Phytochemical Screening, and Total Phenolic Content of Basella alba Leaves from the Philippines
Jovale Vincent V, Tongco, Angustia D, Añis, Jelynne P. Tamayo
Abstract
Basella alba, known locally in the Philippines as “Alugbati” is an underutilized crop in the Philippines having potential health benefits. Proximate (nutritional) analysis using standard methods showed that the oven-dried leaves contain 15.49 ± 0.36 % ash (minerals), 1.58 ± 0.08% crude fat, 7.23 ± 0.17% crude fiber, 17.55 ± 0.08 % crude protein, and 50.62 ± 0.30 % total carbohydrates. The presence of phytochemicals such as saponins, diterpenes, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids in both ethanolic and aqueous extracts, alkaloids in aqueous extract, and cardiac glycosides in ethanolic extract was known through qualitative phytochemical screening of B. alba leaves extracts. Using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents were found to be 93.89 and 85.13 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g extract for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively and 100.18 and 90.80 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g extract for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. The phytochemicals detected in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts contributes to the anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of B. alba as described in literature.

Abstract Online: 28-September-2015

26. In vitro Antioxidant Capacities of Three Organs of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Form West Java-Indonesia Using DPPH and FRAP Assays
Irda Fidrianny, Ramadhani Dyah Susilawati, Komar Ruslan
Abstract
The objectives of this research were to study antioxidant capacity from various organs extracts of bitter gourd using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and correlation of total flavonoid, phenolic and carotenoid content in various organs extracts of bitter gourd with IC50 of DPPH and EC50 of FRAP antioxidant capacities. Extraction was performed by reflux using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant capacities using DPPH and FRAP assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH scavenging capacities and EC50 of FRAP capacities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. All of extracts sample (except n-hexane pedicel extract, n-hexane fruit extract and ethyl acetate fruit extract) were categorized as strong and very strong antioxidant by DPPH method. Phenolic compounds were the major contributor in antioxidant activities of various organs (leaves, pedicel and fruit) extracts of bitter gourd by DPPH and FRAP assays. All of organs extracts of bitter gourd had linear result in DPPH and FRAP assays.

Abstract Online: 28-September-2015

27. Chemical Constituents of Hoya wayetii Kloppenb.
Virgilio D. Ebajo Jr,  Fernando B. Aurigue, Robert Brkljača, Sylvia Urban, Consolacion Y. Ragasa
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Hoya wayetii Kloppenb. afforded β-amyrin cinnamate (1) and taraxerol (2) from the stems; and 2, triglycerides (3), chlorophyll a (4), and a mixture of β-sitosterol (5a) and stigmasterol (5b) from the leaves.  The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, while those of 35b were identified by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature.

Abstract Online: 28-September-2015

28. CardioprotectiveEffect of Aqueous Extract of Lippia multiflora Leaves against Doxorubicin-induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats
Rita Bouagnon, Dodehe Yeo, Konan Kouassi, Alexis G. Bahi, Souleymane Meité, Georgette Amoin Konan, Joseph A. Djaman, Jean David Nguessan
Abstract
Aqueous leaf extract of Lippiamultiflorawas investigated for its effects on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.Wistar albino rats weighing 100-160 g were orally pretreated withresveratrol (25 mg/kg/day) or L. multiflora extract (100, 300 and 900 mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days before receiving single intraperitoneal (i.p) dose of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg) on the 7thday. Animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last administration. Blood was collected and analyzed for serum marker enzymes like lactate deshydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase-MB iso enzyme (CK-MB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hematological parameters (number of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and hematocrits).Histopathological examination of rat hearts was also performed.Doxorubicin caused significant increasein the level ofCK-MB, LDH, ALT, AST, ALP and white blood cells while causing reduction of red blood cells, platelets count and hematocrits.Pretreatment with L. multiflora extract significantly decreased CK-MB and LDH activities and white blood cells number. Red blood cells, platelets count and hematocrits were also reduced by L. multiflora extract. Histopathological study of the heart showed some important edema in doxorubicin treated rats and normal architecture of myocytes in L. multiflora extract (300 and 900 mg/kg b.w.)treated ratsprior doxorubicin administration.This studysuggested that L. multiflora extractpossessedprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced toxicity.

Abstract Online: 29-September-2015

29. Anti-ulcer Activity of Combretum obanense Stem Bark (Bak. F) Hutch and Dalz
Tchimene M K, Obonga W2, Ugwoke, C E C3, Nwafor F1 , Iwu M M
Abstract
The study was designed to investigate the antiulcer activity of methanol/methylene chloride (1:1) of Combretum obanense using different models of gastric ulceration in rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of aspirin, ethanol and water immersion resistant stress. The extract was administered at a dose of 200, 400 and 800mg/kg orally one hour prior to ulcer induction. Cimetidine (50 mg/kg) was used as a reference standard.   The antiulcer activity was accessed by determining and comparing the ulcer index in the test group with that of the standard drug treated group.  The ulcer index in the C. obanense treated animals was found to be significantly less in all the models compared to standard drug treated cases.  The results suggest that C. obanense possesses significant antiulcer property which could be due to cytoprotective action of the drug or strengthening of gastric mucosa with the enhancement of mucosal defense or due to the presence of secondary metabolites found in the plant.

Abstract Online: 29-September-2015

30. Biologically Active Long-chain Aliphatic Alcohols and Esters from the Bark of Symplocos racemosa
Gupta A, Sharma M. C
Abstract
The phytochemical investigation of the petroleum ether and chloroform extract from the bark of stem of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. yielded four long chain alcohols, n- hexacosanol (1), n-octacosanol (2), nonaeicosanol (3) and n-hentriacontanol (4) and two long chain esters, methyl triacontanoate (5) and tricontyl palmitate (6) were isolated from this plant. These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods

Abstract Online: 29-September-2015

31. Determination and Quantification of Bacoside A from Bacopa monnieri (L) by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography
Pawar S S,  Jadhav M G
Abstract
Bacopa monnieri (L) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as nervine tonic for promoting mental health and improving brain function. The plant has been reported to contain several phytoconstituents mainly flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), betulic acid, stigmastarol, beta sistosterol, bacopasaponins and the minor components like bacopasaponin F, bacopasaponin E, bacopaside N1, bacopaside III, IV, V. Bacoside A   is a major bacopasaponin constituent of Bacopa monnieri (L). The aim of the present investigation was to develop a simple, sensitive and reproducible HPTLC method for the determination of Bacoside A from the methanolic extract of  Bacopa monnieri (L). The HPTLC method developed for separation of Bacoside A  by TLC on stationary phase i.e. Silica gel 60 F254 with a solvent system Toulene:Ethylacetate:Methanol:Glacial Acetic acid (3:4:3:1v/v) and detection of Bacoside A was carried out by scanning and quantifying the peak at 540 nm by  winCATS Planar Chromatography Manager. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5 – 4 µg/spot with correlation coefficient 0.9977. The coefficient of variance was found to be 1.766. The proposed HPTLC method was found precise and can be used for monitoring, detection, identification and quantification of Bacoside A  from the methanolic extract of  Bacopa monnieri (L).

Abstract Online: 29-September-2015

32. Proportionate Phytochemical Screening and Assessment of Antioxidant Potency on Selected Species of Lamiaceae Family
R Magesh, R M Poorani, V Karthikeyan, K Sivakumar, C Mohanapriya
Abstract
Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata, Plectranthus amboinicus and Ocimum sanctum commonly called as spearmint, Indian borage and holy basil, belongs to lamiaceae family was selected in the present study because these three plant extracts have good antioxidant properties. Three solvent fractions namely acetone, aqueous and ethanol from dried leaves powder of three plants were analysed for the phytochemicals present in them which is responsible for the herb’s rich medicinal heritage. Free radical scavenging activity of the herbs under study was also evaluated with DPPH using BHT as standard in which acetone fraction was found to exhibit higher activity. The total flavonoid content was found to be highest in acetone fraction of Plectranthus amboinicus (29.70 mg/g) and least in Ocimum sanctum (25 mg/g).  The antioxidant activity was assumed to be from the total flavanoid content of the plant extract which was estimated using Quercetin as a standard. The present study reveals that the selected plants would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant activity and could be harnessed as drug formulation.

Abstract Online: 29-September-2015

33. Anti-hiperglycemic Effect of Urena lobata Leaf Extract by Inhibition of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) on Diabetic Rats
Yudi Purnomo, Djoko W Soeatmadji, Sutiman B Sumitro, M Aris Widodo
Abstract
Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is one of incretin hormone which is proposed as a new therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, this hormone is metabolized excessively by Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) into inactive form. The inhibition of DPP-IV can prolong GLP-1 bioavailability for regulating blood glucose level on T2DM. Urena lobata is a plant which has been used to cure T2DM empirically but the inhibitory activity on DPP-IV has not been tested. The aim of the study was to evaluate anti diabetic effect of U. lobata leaf extract through DPP-IV inhibition. Urena lobata leaf was extracted in ethanol solvent and hot water then evaporated till pasta form. The object study was used animal model of T2DM which divided into 2 control group and 6 test group (n=4) and then DPP-IV level, GLP-1, insulin and blood glucose AUC were examined after supplemented U. lobata leaf extract. All data are expressed as the mean ± SD and analyzed with one way anova and then continued with LSD and Dunnet c (p<0.05). Both of water and ethanolic extract from U. lobata decrease DPP-IV level and blood glucose AUC compared to control group (p<0.05) whereas insulin level and GLP-1 are increased (p<0.05). It was controlled by stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and mangiferin having anti-diabetic effect by inhibiting DPP-IV. Water extract of U. lobata stronger decrease DPP-IV level and blood glucose AUC and also increase insulin level and GLP-1 compared to ethanolic extract (p<0.05). The conformation change of active substances result a poor solubility and absorption in ethanol extract contribute to decrease their biology activity.

Abstract Online: 29-September-2015

34. Biologically Active Polysaccharides From Grewia asiatica Linn. Leaves
A.H. Abou Zeid , R S Mohammed, A A Sleem
Abstract
The total ethanol, cold and hot polysaccharides (PS) of Grewia asiatica leaves were investigated for their in vivo hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities Carbohydrates content of leaves were investigated by paper chromatography and HPLC analysis which revealed the identification of eight sugars constituting 99.48% of free sugars fraction, six sugars in the cold and hot PS hydrolyzates constituting 88.47% and 92.24% respectively. The total ethanol extract, successive extracts, cold and hot PS were prepared and investigated for their hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxic rats. PS (cold and hot) exhibited a strong hepatoprotective and curative activities. The total ethanol and PS were screened for anti-inflammatory and in vivo antioxidant  activities which revealed that both total ethanol and PS(cold and hot) exhibited good  anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities (52.77%, 69.13 , 82.45   and 96.58%,89.73%, 93.16% potency respectively) comparable to indomethacin and vitamin E (100% potency).

Abstract Online: 29-September-2015

35. Study of Supercritical CO2 Extraction  from Tunisian Psidium guava leaves. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts
S Belghith Igueld, M Journi, D Barth, J K Cherif, M Trabelsi-Ayadi
Abstract
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a fruit cultivated in all warm regions of the globe for tasty sweet yellow fruit. In this work the extraction of biologically active constituents of Tunisian guava was performed by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE).  The SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethanol as co-solvent was explored using two modes of extraction. The SFED (supercritical fluid extraction direct mode) at 20MPa and 333K, and the SFEbS (supercritical fluid extraction by step) mode in six steps using a gradual variation pressure (15- 20 MPa) and temperature (313, 323 to 333K). The obtained results were compared to two traditional extraction methods, the Soxhlet and maceration extractions.  All extracts were subjected to the scavenging tests of DPPH and ABTS radicals. The total phenolics and flavonoid contents were measured using standard methods.  The obtained results showed that SFE was very rapid compared other used extraction methods. The higher global yield was observed with SFED at 20MPa and 333K (6.92%). However the highest levels of polyphenols (8.19 and 4.30 mg GAE.g-1) and flavonoid (10.8 and 6.55 mg EQ.g-1DW) were observed in the extracts E1 and E2 obtained with SFEbS at 10MPa.  The highest radical scavenging effect by DPPH (IC50 = 12 mg mL–1) and ABTS (TEAC= 1.860 mM.mg–1) was observed in maceration extract. Compared to the traditional extraction, SFE method provides low extraction yield, but a best quality of extract in terms of antioxidant compounds. The SFE with progressive variation of pressure and temperature was shown to be the most efficient method based on the extraction selectivity.

Abstract Online: 30-September-2015

36. Haridradi Aschyotana: Quality Assessment of a Herbal Eye Drop
De Silva L D R,   Peiris A,  Kamal S.V, Jayaratne  D L S M,  Arawwawala  L D A M
Abstract
Background: Haridradi Aschyotana is one of the eye drops prescribed in Ayurveda Pharmacopea of Sri Lanka.  However, adequate scientific research was not carried out to assess the quality of Haridradi Aschyotana. Objective and Methods: Therefore, present study was conducted to assess the quality control parameters of Haridradi Aschyotana by (a) development of a TLC fingerprint profile (b) screening of phytochemicals (c) detection of pH and (d) evaluation of microbial limits. Results: TLC fingerprint profile of the eye drop consists of 8 prominent spots and revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids in Haridradi Aschyotana.  pH value of the eye drop was 3.56 at 28.8 oC. Microbial evaluations reveal the absence of Staphylococcus aureus, Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the eye drop. Conclusion: In conclusion, quality assessment of Haridradi Aschyotana: a herbal eye drop, was done for the first time.

Abstract Online: 30-September-2015

37. In vitro Antiviral, Cytotoxic, Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Activites of Polysaccharide Isolated From Marine Algae
Azza Abdelmageed Matloub, Sahar Salah Mohamed Elsouda, Waled Morsy El-Senousy, Manal Hamed, Hanan Aly, Sanaa Ahmed Ali, Reda Sayed Mohammed, Khaled Mahmoud, Salwa El-Hallouty, Nabaweya Ali Ibrahim, Nagwa Ahmed Awad, Hana Mohamed El-Rafaie
Abstract
Cold and hot aqueous extraction method (CEM and HEM) of polysaccharides of Dictyopetris membraceae, Padina pavonia, Colpomenia sinusa, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Corallina officinalis, Petrocladia capillraceae and Jania rubes were performed and their physicochemical characterization were studied. The average molecular weight of polysaccharides was (2.15×103 to 6.08×105 gmol-1) and composed of sugars (39.40 – 69.92% w/w), protein (4.0-25.0%), sulfur (0.87-11.59%), and ash (7.91-30.24%). The polysaccharides devoid antiviral effect on HCV, whereas, HEM of P. capillraceae inhibited adenovirus type 40 into 46.6%. Both polysaccharide extracts of J. rubens and HEM of C. sinuosa exhibited most potent cytotocicity on HepG2 with an IC50 10.73, 38.47 and 38.75 µg/ml, respectively. Polysaccharides from J. rubens, C. sinuosa, C. officinalis and P. pavonia showed various scavenging abilities against DPPH (9.10-58.97%) and nitric oxide (28.57-92.86%). While, polysaccharides of C. sinuosa, D. membranacea and E. intestinalis displayed in vitro hypolipidemic effect. Polysaccharides might become important source for drug development for treating hepatic disease.

Abstract Online: 30-September-2015

38. An In-vitro Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Rich Flavonoid Extract from the Petals of Delonix regia and Evaluation of their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties
Sathyabama S, Sankaranarayanan S
Abstract
Objective: To determine the influence of antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities of flavonoid rich fraction from the petals of Delonix regia mediated biosynthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Methods: Synthesized ZnO NPs were estimated total phenolic content and flavonoid from flavonoid rich fraction were determined. The scavenging radicals were estimated by ABTS, lipid peroxide, nitric oxide inhibition, metal chelating method. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by FTIR and SEM. Results: FTIR spectra of synthesized ZnO NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3752.5 67.1 cm-1 (alkynes), 1638.2 cm-1, 1400.3 cm-1 (alkanes), and 1052.0 cm-1(C-O absorption). The morphological characterization of synthesized ZnO NPs was analysed by SEM which showed spherical shape and clusters with an average size of 32.58 nm. The synthesized ZnO NPs showed more antioxidant and anticancer activity than the standard. The plant aqueous extract and synthesized ZnO NPs were found to possess maximum antioxidant activity when compared with ascorbic acid. Total content of phenolic compounds and flavonoid (mg/g) in petal flavonoid rich fraction and synthesized ZnO NPs were found to be 85.4 and 18.3 mg/g, respectively. The flavonoid rich fraction synthesis ZnO NPs showed a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of A549 (p53 wt) lung cancer cells (P < 0.05). IC50 was 12.33 μg/ml, and the maximal inhibition of cell growth (>80%) was obtained at 20 μg/ml. Conclusions: Green synthesized ZnO NPs provides a promising approach can satisfy the requirement of large-scale industrial production bearing the advantage of low-cost, eco-friendly and reproducible.

Abstract Online: 30-September-2015

39. Phytochemical Investigation of Caralluma attenuata (Wight) Roots.
Kiranmayee P, Anitha K, Usha R
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemicals of the rare endemic species Caralluma attenuata. No attempt was made to extract the compounds from the roots of Caralluma attenuata starting from Toluene, Ethyle acetate, Butanone and n-Butanol i.e., the extractions were carried out from the non-polar end and to the polar end. The results showed the presence of steroids / triterpenoids, saponins and flavonoids / their glycosides. Alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were found to be absent.

Abstract Online: 30-September-2015
Submit Manuscript  |  Contact IJPPR  |  Join Editorial  |  Accepted Manuscripts  |  Home






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research