Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume7,Issue6

1. Total Phenolic, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activities and Cytotoxicity Study of Wild Anethum graveolens L.
Ksouri A, Dob T, Belkebir A, Lamari L, Krimat S, Metidji H
Abstract
The current study examine the antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicity properties of hydromethanolic crude extract and its various fractions extracted from the aerial part of Anethum graveolens.L (dill). The total phenolic and flavonoid content were also determined for all extracts. The antioxidant activities were performed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and β-carotene–linoleic  acid  tests. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited a highest IC50 value 28.13±2,14 and 150.73±0.88µg/mL for the scavenging of free radical DPPH and reducing power tests respectively but a highest percentage of inhibition of b-carotene bleaching assay was in chloroform fraction. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts was tested against 4 Gram-negative bacteria, 2 Gram-positive bacteria and 1yeast. The MIC value of fractions extracts ranged from 0.19 to 12.5 mg/mL. The cytotoxicity test against brine shrimps showed that crude extract was toxic with LC50 value of 51.29 µg/mL. The obtained results demonstrated the considerable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore dill extracts as biopreservatives.

Abstract Online: 04-October-2015

2. Evaluation of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Action of Isolated Compound beta Amyrin from Memecylon umbellatum  Burm. F
H Sridevi, P Jayaraman, P Pachaiyappan
Abstract
Numerous metabolic disorders and diseases associated with the glucosidase enzyme activity. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect of isolated bioactive compound of Memecylon umbellatum.The isolated bioactive compound screened for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity using yeast glucosidase. The enzyme kinetics studied Line weaver Burk plot method. The α-glucosidase enzyme kinetics effect measured using the method slightly modified from (Dahlqvist, 1964.).The result shows that isolated bioactive compound Beta Amyrin of Memecylon umbellatum leaves were non toxic and shows significant anti-diabetes activity.

Abstract Online: 04-October-2015

3. Anticancer Effect of Eupatorin via Bax/Bcl-2 and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Changes through ROS Mediated Pathway in Human Colon Cancer
Sarvestani N N, Sepehri H, Farimani M M
Abstract
Oncology has been the most active therapeutic area within the past few decades. Given that natural product and natural product inspired compounds account for over half of anticancer agents, new templates for future drug design could be procured from natural sources. Eupatorin, a flavonoid with wide range of phytomedical activity, is an active ingredient of Salvia mirzayanii, which is isolated from a native plant of Iran. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis activity of this compound on HT-29 and SW948 human colon cancer cell lines. The compound showed ability to decrease the cell viability with micromolar range of IC50 without significant decrease in viability of HFFF-2 normal cell line. Moreover, it was observed that eupatorin induce apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, ROS level was measured in presence of eupatorin to determine how natural flavonoid act as a pro-oxidant and cause excessive amount of ROS  involved in apoptosis.

Abstract Online: 04-October-2015

4. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Root of Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (Annonaceae) Used in Treatment of Dysentery in North of Côte d’Ivoire
Kone Monon, Toure Abdoulaye, Ouattara Karamoko, Coulibaly Adama
Abstract
In the present work phytochemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of root of Uvaria chamae were studied. Antibacterial activity of extracts of plant was evaluated on four bacterial strains (E. coli sensitive, E. coli ESBL, S. flexneri ESBL and Shigella sp) by agar both dilution and agar plate methods. For antioxidant property, free radicals scavenging capacity of the two extracts were assessed in vitro by 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, while inhibition of free radicals generation was assessed by ability of the extracts to inhibit lipid peroxides formation. Phytoconstituants of two extracts of Uvaria chamae (tannins, flavonoids, and phenols) were also assayed by colorimetric method. Ethanolic extract of Uvaria chamae presented bactericidal effect against four strains tested (MBC/MIC = 2). Antibacterial parameters revealed that among the four bacteria tested, aqueous extract of Uvaria chamae has bacteriostatic power against ESBL strains (MBC/MIC = 16). The two extracts of plant showed significant (p<0.05) reducing, chelating and free radical scavenging activities with concentrations required for 50% inhibition (IC50) of DPPH varying from 3.52±0.38 µg/ml to 14.35±4.86 µg/ml. Ethanolic extract of Uvaria chamae showed significant (p<0.05) high antioxidant activity (4.02 ± 0.50 μg/ml) than aqueous extract (12.59 ± 2.77 μg/ml). Phytoconstituents analysis revealed that the two extracts contain significantly (p<0.05) high quantity of total phenols, followed by flavonoids and tannins. The high presence of phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract could be responsible of it antioxidant and antibacterial potentiality. The results of these investigations could justify traditional used of Uvaria chamae in treatment of bacterial dysentery.

Abstract Online: 04-October-2015

5. Pharmacological Screening of  Centella asiatica,  Glycerrhiza glabra, Gymnosporia montana and Cow Urine for Controlling Side Effects of Neuroleptics as well as their Use in Various Neurological Disorders
Patil R.Y, Maheshwari K M
Abstract
The main objective of the present investigation is to explore polyherbal containing Centella asiatica,  Glycerrhiza glabra, Gymnosporia montana and Cow urine for its neuroleptic properties, using the tail suspension test (TST), light dark test (LDM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test on mice. Pharmacognostic and pharmacological study of aerial part of Centella asiatica, root of Glycerrhiza glabra and Leaves of Gymnosporia montana was carried out. Polyherbal was found safe up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg since no mortality was observed within 48 hrs. of administration. In TST, it has shown a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, which is an indication of its antidepressant effect, in LDM it had significantly exhibited anxiolytic activity by increasing time spent and number of crossings in light compartment. decreased the time spent in dark compartment and decreased the number of rearings in both light and dark compartments. Similarly in EPM model had significantly enhanced both number of entries and time spent in open arms and decreased in number of entries and time spent in closed arms. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids. Alcoholic extracts of polyherbal were found to produce significant (P<0.05) neuroleptic action. In all the model, the extract at 1000mg/kg showed significant activity. Thus the result recorded with above experimental models confirms the neuroleptic action of used polyherbal extract along with cow urine.

Abstract Online: 11-October-2015

6. Berberine- A Neuropsychiatric Pharmacotherapy
Tatyasaheb Patil, Snehal Patil, Shreedevi Patil, Anuprita Patil
Abstract
Increased longevity of life due to advanced healthcare facilities has led to an upsurge in the incidence of ailments like Alzheimer’s disease. Various treatment modalities have been introduced to improve the quality of life of these patients.  Therapies available for this condition include acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-asparate receptor antagonists, antioxidants, lipid lowering agents and other newer modalities of pharmacotherapy which try to target the basic aetiopathogenesis of this disease. Berberine is one such promising treatment modality which has a plethora of pharmacological actions like reduction in amyloid β-42 production and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. It also inhibits acetylcholinesterase, reduces serum cholesterol and blood glucose. It has an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant property and improves glucagon like peptide-1 levels. Berberine has an additional antidepressant action which contributes to the overall well being of the patients of Alzheimer’s disease. Thus berberine with its myriad of actions can be considered as a propitious treatment modality for Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract Online: 11-October-2015

7. Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil and Linalool on Bacterial Isolates of Clinical Importance
Silva V A,  Sousa, J P, Guerra F Q S, Pessôa H L F, Freitas A F R, Alves L B N, Lima E O
Abstract
Ocimum basilicum, popularly known as Basil, is a Lamiaceae family species widely known to treat different diseases. This species has as its main compound the monoterpene linalool. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of O.basilicum essential oil and linalool against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains, as well as times to bacterial death facing each substance. The extraction of the O. basilicum leaves components was made by steam distillation. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was calculated using microdilution technique and assessment of bacterial kinetics was performed with time-to-kill methodology. The results showed that O. basilicum essential oil and linalool display antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, with certain strains of P. aeruginosa being resistant to the oil. Bacterial kinetics testing showed bacteriostatic activity against the strains in almost all concentrations, while only the MIC x 4 concentration of either essential oil or linalool against S. aureus displayed bactericidal activity. We conclude that the O. basilicum essential oil has antibacterial activity characterized as bacteriostatic or bactericidal against clinical isolates, and this activity is likely associated with linalool, its major compound.

Abstract Online: 11-October-2015

8. Evaluation of In-vitro Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activities and GC-MS Analysis of Alternanthera bettizicikiana Linn. Leaf Extracts
Vidhya T, Suji T, Dhatchayani R, Priya C L, Bhaskara Rao K V
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to perform phytochemical screening, antioxidant and hemolytic activities of Alternanthera bettizicikiana leaves. Determination of the antioxidant nature of A.bettizicikiana was carried out by DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant activities. Hemolytic activity was performed by Spectrophotometric method to know the toxicity of A. bettizicikiana extract towards human RBC’S. In addition, antimicrobial activity was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed to hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of A. bettizicikiana that resulted in the presence of carbohydrates, oils and fats and absence of proteins and saponins. Among all the extracts, methanol extract shown 92% DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 293.44µg/ml and also possess good reducing property and total antioxidant activity in the tests performed. Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract resulted in no zone of inhibition for the tested organisms. The quantitative analysis of total phenolic and flavonoids was estimated that resulted in 63mgGAE/g and 38.98mgQE/g of the extract. Further, GC-MS analysis was performed that detected N N-Dimethyltryptamine in methanol extract and FT-IR analysis identified presence of functional groups within the methanol extract of A. bettizicikiana. Therefore, the bioactive compound should be isolated in future studies and could be used as a safe and natural antioxidant.

Abstract Online: 11-October-2015

9. Study on the Antiinflammatory Activity of Artocarpus altilis Leaves Extract in Mice
Fakhrudin N, Hastuti, S, Andriani A, Widyarini S, Nurrochmad A
Abstract
In addition to the body’s response to injury, inflammation is a physiological process underlying the progression various diseases. Investigation for the discovery and development of antiinflammatory agents from natural sources is a promising strategy for curing inflammatory diseases. Breadfruit or Artocarpus altilis, is an Indonesian native plant traditionally used for the treatment of various disease including inflammatory-related diseases such as arthritis, tumors, pain, gastritis and atherosclerosis. Scientific evidence regarding the antiinflammatory effect of A.altilis leaf is limited. This study aimed to investigate the antiinflammatory activities of A.altilis leaf extract (AAE). The expression and the activity of COX, the enzyme responsible for prostaglandins formation, were also evaluated. The A.altilis leaf was extracted in ethyl acetate and the dried extract was used for the experiments in mice models. We employed a carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice to evaluate the antiinflammatory activities. The level of COX-2 expression in the paw tissues were determined using immunohistochemistry, whereas COX-2 inhibitory activity was tested on in vitro enzymatic assays. We found that AAE at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kgBW significantly reduced the volume of paw edema until 6 hours of observation. In vitro enzymatic assays revealed that AAE has a lower IC50 against COX-2 compared to COX-1, suggesting the higher selectivity for COX-2. In addition, the level of COX-2 expression in the hind paws was also significantly reduced upon AAE treatment in dose-dependent manner. These indicated that AAE has a potency to be further developed as antiinflammatory agent or as a source of lead compounds acting as antiinflammation.

Abstract Online: 11-October-2015

10. Remediation of Ultraviolet Rays Induced Skin Damages by the Phytochemical Combination of Herbal Extracts
Madhulika Singh, Varsha Sharma
Abstract
Background & Objectives: Plant derived drugs came into use in the modern medicine through the uses of plant material as indigenous cure in folklore or traditional systems of medicine. The present study report the remediation of UV-A and UV-B rays induced sun burn by the phytocombination of different medicinal plant extracts in the form of herbal mixture. Material & Method: The current study was designed to elucidate the effect of the formulated herbal mixture at the dose of 100mg/kg bwt. against skin alterations induced by ultraviolet radiations at the web length of 290-400nm i.e. UVA and UVB for 5minuts up to 4 weeks  on Swiss albino mice. pH test of herbal mixture and Histological observation  of the skin of treated animals were also undertaken. Results: Single topical applications of herbal mixture at the dose of 100mg/kg bwt have shown significant reduction in skin wrinkles and inflammation which was induced by continuous exposure of ultraviolet radiations in Swiss albino mice. The results were interpreted in grade manner. The histopathological observations of skin of animals also support the protective potential of this herbal mixture which was recovered damaged Keratinocytes, Collagen, Elastic fibers etc. Conclusion: The present investigation must be an important key for the therapeutic drug discovery process for the photoprotection by the nature with no side effects. These results may help in the formation of herbal sunscreen lotion with low side effects and without using synthetic chemical substances.

Abstract Online: 11-October-2015

11. Anti-Tumour Activity of Limonia acidissima L. Methanolic Extract in Mice Model of Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma
Jagadeesh Reddy Eluru, Dr. Taranalli A D, Simmy Kawatra
Abstract
Ripe fruits of Limonia acidissima L. (Rutacae) were being used by traditional practitioners to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, tumours, asthma, vomiting, ulcers, and cardiac debility without scientific rationale. In order to provide the scientific basis for the antitumor activity, methanolic extract of Limonia acidissima L. (LAME) fruits was administered orally at a dose of 570mg/kg in the present study against mice model of Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL). In vitro cell cytotoxicity, Solid tumour and Liquid tumour models of DAL were used in this study to assess the anti-tumour activity. Depending on the parameters to be assessed Liquid tumour model was sub divided into group A and group B. Depending on the treatments to be received, animals in the Solid tumour, the group A and group B of Liquid tumour models were categorized into 4 groups consisting of six animals each i.e. Normal, Tumour Bearing, Tumour Bearing + 5-FU, Tumour Bearing + LAME. Solid tumour model was observed for solid tumour mass and Percentage increase in solid tumour (%IST). Post treatment changes in body weight, percentage increase in body weight, mean survival time (MST) and percentage increase in life span (%ILS) in group A; whereas tumour volume, tumour cell growth, haematological parameters, serological parameters and liver antioxidants in group B were observed. Tumour Bearing + LAME groups showed significant (P<0.05) positive changes with respect to all parameters among all the groups in comparison to Tumour Bearing group.

Abstract Online: 11-October-2015

12. Pectin and Isolated betalains from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. fruit exrets antiproliferative activity by DNA damage induced apoptosis
Pavithra K, Sumanth M S, Manonmani H K,  Shashirekha M N
Abstract
In India, nearly three million patients are suffering from Cancer. There is an alarming increase in new cancer cases and every year ~ 4.5 million people die from cancer in the world. In recent years there is a trend to adopt botanical therapy that uses many different plant constituents as medicine. One plant may be able to address many problems simultaneously by stimulating the immune system to help fight off cancer cells. There appears to be exceptional and growing public enthusiasm for botanical or “herbal” medicines, especially amongst cancer patients. In present study, we studied the in vitro anticancer properties of various fractions of cactus Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw.employing Erlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. The EAC cells when treated with fractions of O. dillenii showed apoptosis that was further confirmed by fluorescent and confocal microscopy. In addition, Cellular DNA content was determined by Flow cytometric analysis, wherein pigment treated cells exhibited 78.88 % apoptosis while pulp and pectin treated cells showed 39 and 38% apoptosis respectively. Tunnel assay was carried out to detect extensive DNA degradation in late stages of apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in all fractions; with pigment having very good activity. The data obtained suggests that pigment from O. dillenii fruit may be a promising agent for chemoprevention and further studies with other cell lines and animal models would help in obtaining a new drug for cancer treatment.

Abstract Online: 11-October-2015

13. Antibacterial Activity, Phytochemical And Enzyme Analysis Of Crude Extract Of Endophytic Fungus, Alternaria Sp. Isolated from an Ethanobotanical Medicinal Plant Tridax procumbens.
Ajay Kumar, Pranav Kumar Jha, Ram Kumar, Kundan Kumar, Vijaykumar sedolkar
Abstract
An endophytic fungus TP-1 was isolated by using potato dextrose agar medium from ethanobotanical medicinal plant Tridax procumbens. The isolated endophytic fungi TP-1 was identified as Altenaria sp. based on morphological, microscopic and reproductive characters. The crude solvent extract of TP-1 showed broad antibacterial activity and showed the presence of most of phytochemical compounds. Further, the endophyte shows the presence of enzyme protease, naringinase, cellulose and chitosanase. The present study will be useful for both industrial and pharmaceutical applications.

Abstract Online: 11-October-2015

14. Evaluation of Anti-acne Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Embelia ribes Burm.
Karodi Revan, Mahendrakumar C B, Bhise Kiran
Abstract
Medicinal plants play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. Plant based drugs provide outstanding contribution to modern therapeutics as a source of many valuable secondary metabolites which serves as plant defence mechanisms against predator such as microorganism, insects and herbivores which have been proved to be potentially active compounds. There is a tremendous increase in search of antimicrobial plant extracts due to the fact that the resistance offered against antibiotic by the microorganism, in short the effective life span of any antibiotic is limited. One such folklore plant which has number of traditional uses is Embelia ribes Burm of myrsinaceae family. The synergistic action of embelia constituents appears to be superior to that of single constituents. The current research was focused on evaluation of antiacne activity of Embelia ribes Burm. extract followed by its biological screening. The fingerprinting and spectroscopic analysis of the extract was determined. The attempt was made to investigate the extract for the said activity with the goal of elucidating the active potential compounds.

Abstract Online: 24-October-2015

15. Phytoestrogen “Genistein”: Its Extraction and Isolation from Soybean Seeds
Jyoti, S.S.Agrawal, Shikha Saxena, Archana Sharma
Abstract
Phytoestrogens, structurally or functionally mimic of mammalian estrogens, are phenolic non-steroidal plant derived compounds. On the basis of their hormonal activity, they can bind to estrogen receptors and show potential benefits for human health. There are three main classes of phytoestrogens – isoflavones, lignans and coumestans out of which Isoflavones are most studied  group of phytoestrogens and predominantly found in legumes such as soybeans. The soy isoflavones, genistein have most potent estrogenic activity. Estrogen level begin to decline with a woman’s age and resulting in the end of menstrual cycle which results in menopausal symptoms, such as  hot flashes, urogenital atrophy, incontinence, insomnia, heart problems and  osteoporosis. Depending on their concentration and other factors, genistein can act like weak estrogens by binding to the estrogen  receptor on cell membranes and as estrogen antagonists by preventing estrogens from binding to the receptors. Genistein come into focus of interest due to their positive effects in prevention of hormone dependent cancer, cardiovascular diseases by improving plasma lipid concentrations, osteoporosis and cognitive decline. In this study, our main focus is on the extraction and isolation of isoflavones-genistein from soybean  seeds and  optimization of extraction  parameters to give a high yield of genistein. HPLC analysis revealed that the product thus obtained contained a high content of genistein

Abstract Online: 24-October-2015

16. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of  Methanolic Extracts of the Leaves of Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook. F.
Ismail N A, Kamariah A S, Lim L B L, Ahmad N
Abstract
Pitcher plants (Nepenthes spp.) have a variety of medicinal uses, from simple management of infections to treatment of diabetes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of methanolic extracts of the leaves of Nepenthes bicalcarata. The screening for various phytochemicals was conducted using a standard procedure. Pharmacological investigation involved the determination of the antioxidant, antimicrobial, toxicity and antidiabetic activities of the extracts. Antioxidant activity determination was carried out using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assays, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using colorimetric methods. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disk-diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by a two-fold agar dilution method. Toxicity was assessed using a brine-shrimp lethality test (BSLT). Antidiabetic activity was evaluated using alloxan (120 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic Wistar male rats orally treated on alternate days for 8 weeks at an extract dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. The phytochemical screening led to the detection of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, terpenoids, steroids and phlobatannins. The FRAP, DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assays indicated the extracts had a moderate activity of 87.1 ± 2.50 mg Trolox Equivalent/g  dry-weight, and IC50 values of  12.52 ± 0.49 µg/mL and 16.13 ± 0.33 µg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were 50.5 ± 0.7 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/g and 6.63 ± 0.17 mg Quercetin Equivalent (QE)/g, respectively. Antimicrobial tests revealed that the leaf extract was active against selected gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and B. spizizenii) and a few fungi (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), with MIC values ranging from 256 to 1024 µg/mL. An LC50 value of 73.3 µg/mL was obtained from the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. These findings indicate that methanolic extracts of N. bicalcarata leaves have various phytopharmacological activities and thus it would be useful to isolate the compounds responsible for these bioactivities in the future.

Abstract Online: 24-October-2015

17. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oil of Phoenix dactylifera Staminate Flower Spikes
Pouya Faridi, Zahra Rezaei, Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh, Majid Hamidpour, Mohammad Hossein Morowvat, Amir Khalaj, Younes Ghasemi
Abstract
Context: Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae) staminate flower spikes have been used in Persian traditional medicine and food products for a long time. Objective: The goal of this study it analysis of chemical constitutes and antimicrobial activity of this volatile oil. Materials and methods: Its volatile oil was analyzed by GC/MS and antimicrobial activity (MIC) against four gram positive, five gram negative, two yeasts and two fungi were examined. Results: Thirty components (96.2%) were identified, and the major components were linalool (57.4%), hexyl caproate (5.8%), and β-fenchyl alcohol (4.2%). and the volatile oil has shown good antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens. Discussion and conclusion: There is no high concentration of any toxic compound in this volatile oil, and the volatile oil shows good antimicrobial activity, so it can be suggested that this volatile oil can be used as a safe preservative.

Abstract Online: 10-November-2015

18. Effect of Rotula aquatica Lour. on Experimental Kidney Stones
Prashanthi P, Anitha S, Shashidhara S
Abstract
Urinary kidney stone formation is multifaceted complex process involving accumulation and aggregation of oxalates and phosphates of calcium, magnesium, ammonium and uric acid. Traditional systems of healing like Ayurveda and Unani have played a praiseworthy role from time immemorial in treatment of kidney stones. One such a plant is Rotula aquatica Lour. belonging to Borage family. In Ayurveda, it is described as ‘Paashanabhedha’ meaning ‘stone breaking’. It is highly endorsed with diuretic, laxative properties and used in treatment of kidney stones. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antiurolithiatic potential of the roots by a methodical approach, using simple in-vitro model. Calcium oxalate and phosphate mainly compose the kidney stones. Hence the study involved the preparation of Calcium oxalate and phosphate and its dissolution in presence of Rotula aquatica Lour. The successive solvent extracts were screened for in-vitro antiurolithiatic activity using semi-permeable membrane of eggs. The aqueous extract had high dissolving potential of 29.182% for Ca-Ox and 65.445 % for CaPO4. A trend of dose dependent dissolution was identified with increasing the concentration of aqueous extract. 100% dissolution was found at 38 and 20mg of aqueous extract for Ca-Ox and CaPO4 respectively. Phyto-sterols, phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins, reducing sugars and amino acids were present in the aqueous extract. On HPLC analysis of aqueous extract five major peaks with Rt of 2.433, 5.308, 7.365, 10.436, 10.857 min were significant at 205nm. The TLC profile was established in Chloroform: ethanol (9:1) solvent system with seven bands at 254 nm and two bands at 366nm. Ten bands were derivatised after spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid. The present study reveals the promising evidence of Rotula aquatica Lour.  used as ‘Paashanabhedha’ used in traditional system.

Abstract Online: 10-November-2015

19. Mass Fragmentation Patterns as Fingerprints in Identification of Known Oligostilbenes in Dryobalanops Spp. Extracts
Nurhuda Manshoor, Aizam Ekhmal E A, Qamarusy Syazwan K B, Mohd Shafarin S, Norizan Ahmat
Abstract
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry was establish to dereplicate oligostilbenes in three Dipterocarpaceous plant extracts; Dryobalanops rappa, D. aromatica and D. lanceolata. Two compounds, hopeaphenol (1) and vaticaphenol A (2) were identified by comparing their mass spectrometric data with an in-house database. Unidentified compounds were isolated and purified using automated chromatographic techniques, including analytical and preparative HPLC. The compounds were characterized by means of spectroscopic analyses, including ultra-violet (UV), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The compounds were characterized as malaysianols A (3) and B (4), vaticanols B (5) and C (6), ampelopsin E (7), a-viniferin (8), e-viniferin (9), and nepalensinol B (10). The compounds are known to science, though new to our collection, thus not listed in our database. Hence they are unidentifiable in dereplication process prior to their isolation.

Abstract Online: 10-November-2015

20. Botanical, Chemical and Microscopical Comparative Study of Two Chemotypes of Cannabis sativa Growing in Morocco (Province of Taounate)
Bouarfa Mouna, Boukhira Smahane, Bekkouche Khalid ,  El Khanchoufi Abdessalam, Farah Abdellah, Bousta Dalila
Abstract
The cultivation of cannabis in Morocco is an ancient traditional culture, mainly in the North region. The present work aims at undertaking a comparative study on botanical, microscopic and chemical aspects of two chemotypes of cannabis sativa (Kif and Khardala) growing in three sites in Taounate region in the north of Morocco (Khlalfa, Tafrant and Oudka). The morphological study was performed by using binocular magnifying glass and biological research microscope and a chemical study by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) due to its good separation and ease of availability and handling. Indeed, TLC method has been applied in this work for detecting and isolating a various components of plant of Cannabis female inflorescences. Regarding the botanical and microscopic examinations, there is not a significant difference between the two chemotypes. However, chemical analysis by TLC revealed some differences in quantity and quality of Cannabinoids compounds. These data suggest a botanical, chemical and microscopic comparative study of two chemotypes of Cannabis sativa growing in Morocco in order to provide an accurate identification.

Abstract Online: 10-November-2015

21. Comparative Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Analysis of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst. Ex A. Rich.
Ibrahim J. A, Egharevba H. O, Nnamdi R. A, Kunle O. F
Abstract
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Rich are very important medicinal plants of the family Rhamnaceae. The need for correct identification and authentication of powdered crude drug samples in the face of growing world demand for herbal products cannot be over-emphasized. In this study, the phytochemical and pharmacognostic profiles of the two species were established using standard methods. Quantitative leaf microscopy revealed differences in the distribution of some microstructures like stomata, trichomes and oxalate crystals. Chemo-microscopy and Phytochemical analyses showed similar profiles in both plants with Carbohydrates, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and indole alkaloids been detected, while anthraquinones were absent. Proximate analysis reveals values for moisture content, acid insoluble, water soluble ash values, as well as water and alcohol extractive values which fall within World Health Organization (WHO) recommended standards for crude drugs from medicinal plants. The results obtained in the study could be used for identification and authentication purposes and also in the development of monograph for the medicinal plants.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

22. Tyrosinase Inhibition Assay and Skin Whitening Cream Formulation of Edamame Extract (Glycine Max)
Kusumawati L A I, Dewi E N A, Xenograf O C, Rifrianasari K, Hidayat M A
Abstract
Edamame or vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.) has very high protein content, and contains isoflavones which show many beneficial effects, including anticancer, antioxidant, and inhibiting tyrosinase activity. This study aimed to determine tyrosinase inhibitor activity of edamame extract, to formulate the extract into skin whitening cream, and to determine genistein content in extract and cream. The result showed that edamame extract had good tyrosinase inhibitor activity, and can be formulated into skin whitening cream with good cosmetological properties (pH, viscosity, and spreadability). Genistein content was retained in cream, indicating that the formulation process did not affect the genistein content in extract.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

23. Phytochemical Studies, Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect on DNA Damage and Deoxyribose of Silene Vulgaris Extract from Morocco
Boukhira Smahane, Bousta Dalila, El Mansouri Latifa, Nordine Aicha, Hamsas El Youbi Amal, Daoudi Abdeljalil
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of hydro-ethanolic extract from Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke leaves. Five methods were used for antioxidant activity, which are 2, 2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity (HRSA) assays and the protective effect of DNA damage was also evaluated. The chemical composition of extract, were evaluated like total polyphenolic contents (TPC), catechins, tannins and O-diphenols. The extract was found to possess a significant antioxidant activity with ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and HRSA assays using Trolox as a standard with a IC50 value 2.05 mg/ml compared to that of the reference standard Trolox for TEAC ABTS assay. The effects on DNA damage provide a partially protective effect against DNA fragmentation.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

24. The Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of the Ethyl Acetate Leaf Extract of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco
Joshua Arimado, Librado Santiago
Abstract
The antioxidative and hepatoprotective properties of defatted ethyl acetate extract fractionated from the crude methanolic leaf extract of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco, an endemic Philippine medicinal plant, were investigated. The extract possessed high total flavonoid (21.80 ± 0.16 mg quercetin equivalent/g) and total phenolic (12.93 ± 0.57 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) content as well as strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.71 ± 0.01 μg/mL). Assessment of the in vitro antioxidant activity of the total phenolic fraction (TPF) from the extract revealed a concentration-dependent DPPH (IC50 IC50= 2.73 ± 0.04 μg/mL) and nitric oxide (IC50= 4.96 ± 0.05 μg/mL) scavenging activity as well as strong Fe+3 reducing ability (RC50= 11.74 ± 0.19 μg/mL). An in vivo hepatoprotective study using Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that the extract possessed significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol (500 mg/kg)-induced oxidative damage. Extract treatment markedly attenuated increase in serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels while preventing marked decrease in albumin (ALB), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) levels. The extract also ameliorated histopathological changes to liver tissue in a dose-dependent manner. The extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg was comparably similar (p>0.05) to the hepatoprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 100 mg/kg. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of lupeol and quercetin that were likely responsible for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities exerted by the extract.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

25. Gloriosa superba (L.): A Brief Review of its Phytochemical Properties and Pharmacology
Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar
Abstract
Gloriosa superba (L.) is a perennial creeper in the Liliaceae family and is native to Africa and South-East Asia. G. superba is a national flower of Zimbabwe, and jointly it is the state flower of Tamil Nadu state in India. It is widely used as a medicinal plant, and it has two toxic alkaloids namely, Colchicines and Gloriosine are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. Similar to many poisonous plants, it has a long history of use in folk medicine and along with several related genera that contain colchicine it has been used to treat. Whole plant of G. superba keeps several biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, and anthelmintic properties. Furthermore, G. superba is a good abortifacient and causing expulsion of fetus from the womb. Therefore, based on the aforementioned consideration, this article reviews the most updated information of the phytochemical properties and pharmacological effects of G. superba extract, including its miscellaneous uses.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

26. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Identification of Antiangiogenic Phytochemicals in Aframomum danielli K. Schum: An In silico Study
Solomon O. Rotimi, Oluwakemi A. Rotimi, Tolulope  Bisi-Adeniyi , Isaacson B. Adelani, Oluwatobi S. Adegbite, Oluwabunmi Atolagbe and Wisdom O. Iyanda-Joel
Abstract
Aframomum danielli is one of the African spices used in folklore medicine for the management of several diseases. This study identified the phytochemical components present in the n-hexane seed extract of the A. danielli by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and also evaluated the antiangiogenic potential of the identified phytochemicals by performing molecular docking against human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) using Molegro Virtual Docker. The GC-MS analysis identified the presence of phytochemical components β-Caryophyllene (RT: 18.479), α-Caryophyllene (RT: 19.189), (4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl methyl ketone (RT: 22.976), N-Acetyl-m-aminobenzoic acid (RT: 31.651) and 3-Pyridineacetic acid (RT: 32.446). (4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl methyl ketone were the strongest binding ligand (-65.744 kcal/mol for VEGF) and (-99.7836kcal/mol for MMP) while β-Caryophyllene was the weakest binding ligand. These compounds showed relative strong docking to VEGF with docking energies comparable to an anticancer drug, bevacizumab (-77.883kcal/mol for VEGF) and (-109.021kcal/mol for MMP). This in silico molecular docking study has shown that these phytochemical components could be responsible for antiangiogenic properties of A. danielli.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

27. Anti-Diabetic and Bronchodilator Activities of Pothos scandens Linn Leaves
Hossain Muhammad Kamal, Seal Bidur, Siddiki Mohammad Abdul Kaium, Mazumder Kishor
Abstract
Pothos scandens Linn, commonly known as Hatilata, belonging to the family Araceae, is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Since from long time the plant, Pothos scandens Linn. is known for its beneficial effects, fruits of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and anti diabetic and bronchodilator  activity. The shade dried fruits were extracted with methanol. Extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, tannins, flavanoids, saponins and others. The results showed the rich presence of majority of phytochemical constituents which can be correlated with the possible significant medical potential. The in-vitro anti-diabetic study was run by α-amylase enzyme inhibition technique, the extract showed IC50 value (1.49±0.190 mg/mL) whereas standard acarbose showed  (1.30±0.015  mg/mL). In OGTT method the methanol extract of the whole plant of P. scandens100 mg dose shows (In-vivo) slight hypoglycemic activity. 200 and 400 mg dose shows moderate hypoglycemic activity comparing with positive control (Gliclazide). The bronchodilator activity of selected plant extract in applying on Wister rat by counting the PCT (Pre convulsive time) shows % of protection 41.56% at 100mg/kg dose with comparison of Salbutamol. Hence, the present study focused leaves extract of the plant possessed source of bioactivity against the diabetic and asthma as well as justifying the use of this plant to treat many ailments in folk and herbal medicines.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

28. HPTLC Fingerprint Profile of Extracts from Leaf, Bark and Flower of Tecomella undulata (Seem) in Different Solvents
Aparna Saraf, Shweta Sankhla
Abstract
Tecomella undulata (Seem), family Bignoniaceae, is an important medicinal plant found in western region of India and traditionally used in indigenous system of medicine. An attempt has been made to give a complete HPTLC profile for leaf, bark and flower of Tecomella undulata (Seem). Methanolic, chloroform and acetone extracts were prepared using sonication. The mobile phase of Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid was used in different ratio for good separation. The fingerprint showed better resolution after derivatisation in methanolic sulphuric acid reagent. The fingerprint has revealed a distinct and repetitive pattern of bands. Acetone extract of leaf and bark shows 14 different Rf values whereas flower shows maximum separation in chloroform. HPTLC profile of the plant will be helpful for crude drug identification, serve to check the adulteration and also act as biomarker for this plant in the Pharmaceutical industry.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

29. Cyto-Toxic Potential of Fucosterol Isolated from Turbinaria Conoides Against Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites
Kala K J, Prashob Peter K J, Chandramohanakumar N
Abstract
This is a first report of cytotoxic activity of fucosterol isolated from Turbinaria conoides, a brown seaweed collected from the coast of Gulf of Mannar against Dalton’s lymphoma ascites. Fucosterol, 3β-Hydroxy-5,24(28)-stigmastadiene, a prominent sterol in brown sea weeds has been shown to posses various biological activities. Chemical structure of the compound was verified using GC-MS mass fragmentation data. Trypan blue viability assay was performed on Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA cell lines) to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of the compound. Fucosterol proved to be effective against these malignant cells. The potential of fucosterol to inhibit cell proliferation against in vitro DLA cells at sublethal doses were significant. Survival rate percentage of DLA cells was 0% in both 100 and 200 μg/ml of fucosterol. IC50 value of fucosterol for DLA cell lines is 9.6 μg/ml only. This result highlights the potential role of fucosterol in developing safe medicines against malignant lymphoma.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

30. The Nutritional Fatty Acids Profile and Physicochemical Properties of Canarium indicum Nut Oil
Rahman H,  Tursino, Sitompul J P,  Anggadiredja K, Gusdinar T
Abstract
Canarium indicum nut produce vegetable oil which comprised of triglycerides with fatty acids composition. In this paper, mechanical pressing and solvent extraction methods were performance to extract oils of Canarium indicum nut. Fatty acids profile of Canarium indicum oils were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, physicochemical properties were determined to assess quality of oils. The fatty acids composition showed that Canarium indicum oils were rich in unsaturated fatty acids, 86.14% and 90.27% for mechanical pressing and solvent extraction, respectively. Both of Canarium indicum oils were similar in term of physicochemical properties. Overall, the results of this study designate that Canarium indicum oils are eligible to be used as a source of edible oil and can be utilized as raw material for medical, nutraceutical and other food applications.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

31. Anti Seizure Activity of Allium cepa. L (red onion) Bulb on Maximal Electroshock (mes) Induced Seizure in Mice
Hemalatha E, Panisha Nagaratnam
Abstract
Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiological, cognitive psychological and social consequences of this condition. Allium.cepa.L (onion) is claimed in traditional medicine for the treatment of epilepsy. The study is aimed to know the protective effect of methanolic extract of Allium cepa.L obtained by cold maceration method on maximal electroshock induced seizures in mice. Mice were divided into four groups with six mice in each, control group (0.25% sodium CMC p.o), standard drug diazepam (5mg/kg i.p), and Allium cepa.L extract (8mg/20g and 16mg/20g p.o). Mice were treated 30 minutes before inducing seizures and the presence or absence of hind limb tonic extension, % protection and % mortality in the treatment and control groups were observed.  Allium cepa.L extract showed significant anti-seizure property shortening the duration taken for hind limb tonic extension and showed better protection (%) when compared with control group.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

32. Cytotoxic activity of flavonoid extracts from Lepidium sativum (Brassicaceae) seeds and leaves
Ait-Yahia O, Bouzroura S. A , Belkebir A, Kaci S, Aouichat A.B
Abstract
Lepidium sativum known as Garden cress belongs to Brassicaceae family, has been known centuries ago, this plant is widely distributed in Algeria, Lepidium sativum seeds is used in Algeria in folk medicine.  In Europe the leaves of gardencress are consumed in salad. In this study three flavonoid extracts were obtained from Lepidium Sativum seeds and leaves: O-glycosides, C-glycosides and flavones/flavonols. The O-glycosides and C-glycosides were obtained by separation with ethyl acetate and butanol respectively. Whereas the Aglycones (flavones/ flavonols) were generated by acid hydrolysis. antitumoral activity has been tested towards HEp2 cells (Human Laryngeal Carcinoma Cells). At 57µg/mL the highest cytotoxic activity of the acetate ethyl extract (extract rich on O-glycosides) was observed against HEp2 cells, cells proliferation were reduced from 87% this effect is probably due to the apoptosis phenomena. All extracts obtained from L. sativum leaves exhibited a strong inhibition of cell proliferation but it has not provoked apoptosis.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

33. Characterisation of Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Leaves
Grozeva N, Pavlov D Petkova N Ivanov I, Denev P, Pavlov A, Gerdzhikova M, Malina Dimanova-Rudolf
Abstract
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is widеly used as a source of natural sweetening agent in human nutition. The aim of present study was to characterise the leaves extracts as evaluate the polyphenol and carbohydrate contents. The effect of different particle size and various solvents on the antioxidant activity of leaves extract were also studied. The content of fructans, polyphenols, radical scavenge activity (DPPH), metal reducing activity (FRAP) in the extracts were established. It was found that the fructans amount did not depend significantly from the size of grinding (2.8 % DW). The type of the solvent had a highest effect only to the yields of the extract (from 254 mg/g DW to 377 mg/g DW). Additionally, the total polyphenols content (from 12.7 mg GAE/g DW  to 15.6 mg GAE /g DW), radical scavenge activity – DPPH (from 135.8 mM TE/g DW to 221.4 mM TE/g DW) and metal reducing activity-FRAP DPPH (from 117.7 mM TE/g DW to 149.5 mM TE/g DW) were influenced mainly from the particle size and degree of grinding. The highest values of the presented parameters concerning to antioxidant activity were obtained when the dried leaves of stevia were finely ground and water were used as extracting solvent. Radical scavenge activity and metal–reducing activity correlated very well with total polyphenol content.

Abstract Online: 21-November-2015

34. Clinacanthus nutans (burm. F.) Lindau: An Useful Medicinal Plant of South-East Asia
Ruhaiyem Yahaya, Gouri Kumar Dash, Mohd. Syafiq Abdullah, Allan Mathews
Abstract
The present paper outlines the traditional use, pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of a very popular medicinal plant Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (Family-Acanthaceae), primarily used in South East Asian countries. Owing to its antiviral properties, the extracts of this plant is used in many hospitals in Thailand for treating herpes simplex virus and herpes zoster virus. The plant has been included in ‘Thai Herbal National Essential Drug List’ and promoted for the treatment of herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and skin pruritis in primary health care programmes. A complete review involving the traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties of C. nutans has been made using published papers, databases and books. The plant contains terpenoids, flavonoids, C-glycosyl flavones, sulfur-containing glucosides and glycoglycerolipids which contribute to the pharmacological activities. Pharmacological studies revealed that C. nutans possesses antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, wound healing, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Clinical trials of the creams containing extracts of C. nutans in the treatment of Herpes genitalis and Herpes zoster infection showed successful results. Few isolated compounds are reported to possess anti-herpes simplex activity. Acute and subacute toxicity studies revealed C. nutans is non toxic when used at the recommended doses. Further research on this plant is needed to isolate the active components for rationalizing its use in therapy.

Abstract Online: 30-November-2015

35. Determination of Phytocomponents in Methanolic Extract of Annona muricata Leaf Using GC-MS Technique
K. Shibula, S. Velavan
Abstract
The aim of this study was to carry out for identification of bioactive compounds from the methanolic extract of Annona muricata leaves by Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GCMS analysis of methanolic extract was done by standard protocol using the equipment Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of various compounds like 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6, Tetradecanoic acid, 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Phytol  and Octadecanoic acid in the methanolic extract of Annona muricata. These findings support the traditional use of Annona muricata in various disorders.

Abstract Online: 30-November-2015

36. Drug Based Computational Analysis For Initial Stages Breast Cancer With Compounds Obtained From Acorus Calamus
Sreejaya S B, Santhy K S
Abstract
The present research on drug development, this study progressed to find the drug target for breast cancer from the plant compound Acorus calamus. Analysis by GCMS of the extract revealed 14 compounds that were consequently taken in for docking studies using highly influential proteins such as BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, HER2, CHEK2, ERBb1, ATM in order to check the potential of the binding affinity of the compound. Out of 98 complexes docked with Schrodinger Glide module, four complexes such as ERBb1 interacted with [(2R)-2-[(1S)-1-hexadecanoyloxy-2-hydroxyethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2H-furan-3-yl] hexadecanoate, PTEN interacted with Tetradecanoic Acid, ATM interacted with Tetradecanoic acid and CHEK2 interacted with 2-hydroxy-6-undecylbenzoic acid showed highest Glide score of -7.17, -5.92,-4.56, -5.21 correspondingly. Further, Molecular Dynamics Simulation for the protein complex of ERBb2 done using Macromodel module for 1 nanosecond revealed the protein is feasible deviation and fluctuation map from Root mean square calculations. Based on this study, we can conclude that the ErBB1 protein can be a good target for breast cancer diseased pathway and can be considered that [(2R)-2-[(1S)-1-hexadecanoyloxy-2-hydroxyethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2H-furan-3-yl] as a ligand can act as a good inhibitor for breast cancer.

Abstract Online: 30-November-2015

37. Major Compounds from the Essential Oil of the Fruit and Comparative Phytochemical Studies of the Fruits and Leaves of Dennettia tripetala Barker F. Found in North Central Nigeria
Egharevba Henry Omoregie, Idah Ewaoche Augustine
Abstract
Dennettia tripetala is a spicy medicinal plant commonly consumed in Nigeria for its spicy fruit and leaf. In most communities practitioners of herbal medicine prescribe both fruit and leaf of this plant alike. In this study, the fruit essential oil, fruit and leaf of D. tripetala found in North central Nigeria were analysed to identify major chemical components of the oil and the secondary metabolites of the fruit and the leaf using standard procedures. GC-MS analysis of the fruit essential oil revealed three major compounds constituting about 95% of the total eighteen (18) constituents of the oil. The compounds were 2-phenyl nitroethane (72.41%), linalool (18.01%) and (6E)-nerolidol (4.51%). Both fruit and leaf tested positive for carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloids, terpenes, flavanoids, and phenol, while sterol and balsams tested positive in only the fruit. Saponin and resin were not detected in the leaf and fruit. The proximate analysis of the leaf showed a moisture content of 12.37%, water extractive value of 16.16% and an alcoholic extractive value of  16.67%. The 2-phenyl nitroethane which constituted the major component for most reported D. tripetala fruit oil in literature was also found in the same quantum in this study. Hence it is a as chemical marker for the fruit essential oil. Thus both parts of the plant hold similar and high medicinal or pharmacological potentials.

Abstract Online: 30-November-2015

38. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Five Wild Edible Plants Consumed by Pregnant Women in Buikwe District, Uganda
Alice Nabatanzi, John David Kabasa, Immaculate Nakalembe
Abstract
Exaggerated oxidative stress during pregnancy results in spontaneous abortions, recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.  This condition can be minimized by boosting the antioxidant defense mechanism of the pregnant woman to balance with the generated reactive oxygen species. Plants are a good natural source of antioxidants. This study investigated the phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of Solanum anguivii L., Cleome gynandra L., Afromomum angustifolium K. Schum, Solanum nigrum Pax. Ex Dunal and Physalis angulata L. These wild edible plants are consumed by the pregnant women of Buikwe district. Using standard procedures, preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out on concentrated freeze dried methanolic plant extracts.  The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts was determined using DPPH radical scavenging assay.  All plant species tested positive for presence of reducing compounds, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, sterols and triterpenes. Anthracenosides were absent in all the plant extracts. The percentage free radical scavenging activity of all the species was above 80%. S. nigrum leaves had the highest free radical scavenging activity with an AAE = 20.87±0.005 mg/ g. and a percentage scavenging activity of 97.4% at 40 µl concentration. S. nigrum leaves also showed the highest amount of antioxidant intake (2087 mg) per 100 g of edible portion. The analysed wild edible plant species have good free radical scavenging activity thus can be explored as natural sources of antioxidants by the pregnant women in this area.

Abstract Online: 30-November-2015







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research