Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


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Volume8,Issue1

1. Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Activity of Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) Leaf Extract
Onwuka N A, Ezike A C, Ettebong E O, Tologbonse A A, Onyeukwu N J
Abstract
The aerial parts of Hoslundia opposita are known to be used for treating many ailments including wounds and sores. The immunomodulatory properties of methanol extract and fractions of Hoslundia opposita leaf on Delayed Type Hypersensitivity reaction (DTHr), primary and secondary humoral response and in vivo leucocyte mobilization were evaluated. The methanol extract (ME) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight produced significant ( P<0.05) inhibition of DTH response in rat by 85, 75 and 85% respectively. The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions produced significant (P<0.05) inhibition of DTH response. Treatment of rats with single intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan after oral administration of extract and fractions resulted in an increase in leucocyte mobilization into the rat’s peritoneal fluid which was significant (p<0.05). The total leucocytes counts (TLC) were higher in the extract and fractions-treated groups when compared to the control. However, a fall in primary and secondary antibody titre was observed with both ME and fractions suggesting that H. opposita may act through a cell mediated mechanism.

Abstract Online: 02-December-2015

2. Natural Antioxidant Activity of Boerhavia diffusa L.
G R Juna Beegum, S Suhara Beevy, V S Sugunan
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate antioxidant properties of Boerhavia diffusa ethanolic, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts. Methods: In vitro antioxidant potential as well as total phenolic and flavanoid content of B.diffusa have been investigated by different assays including scavenging activity and reducing power assays. Results: All the three extracts of B.diffusa showed significant antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants in a dose dependent manner. IC50 values indicated that ethanolic extract of the plant has more scavenging activities and reducing power than others. Ethanolic extract was found to have the highest total phenolic and flavanoid contents with the values 73.2±5.01 expressed in mg gallic acid/gm dry extract and 56.51±4.11 expressed in mg rutin/gm dry extract respectively. Conclusion: The data obtained in the present study suggests that the B.diffusa extracts have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage.

Abstract Online: 02-December-2015

3. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Studies of Terminalia paniculata– A Potential Medicinal Plant
Rajasekhar K,  Venkata Raju, R R
Abstract
The present paper deals with phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies on Terminalia paniculata, a potential medicinal plant from Sheshachalam hills (Chittoor), Andhra Pradesh, India. The stem bark, leaf and fruit samples were screened for phytochemical composition, antioxidant content and antimicrobial evaluation. The phytochemical studies revealed that the presence of phenolic compounds especially alkaloids, coumarins, terpenoids etc., while antioxidant studies revealed that high content of antioxidants present in methanolic extracts when compare to ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts. The antimicrobial studies revealed that the most susceptible microorganisms were found to be Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Phytochemical analysis of various test extracts revealed that the phenolic compounds especially alkaloids and coumarins are responsible for antimicrobial activity. Terminalia paniculata could be exploited in the infectious management of various diseases.

Abstract Online: 02-December-2015

4. Extraction of Paris polyphylla Rhizome Using Different Solvents and Its Phytochemical Studies
Rajsekhar P B, Arvind Bharani R S, Jini Angel K, Maya Ramachandran, Sharadha Priya Vardhini Rajsekhar
Abstract
Plants have been used from ancient days by humans for the treatment of various diseases. Secondary metabolites produced by plants are mainly responsible for these pharmacological activities. Paris polyphylla is a medicinal herb of Asia which is traditionally used for treating diseases like fever, headache, trauma, dysentery, etc. The rhizome of Paris polyphylla (Rhizoma Paridis) is rich in phytochemical compounds and it can be used as a potential source for the isolation of active drug compounds. In the present study, the rhizome of Paris polyphylla was extracted using water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The presence of phytoconstituents was screened by phytochemical analysis and it revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, sterols, quinones, phenols and tannins. The result obtained in the present investigation proved that the Rhizoma Paridis was rich in medicinally important phytochemical compounds.

Abstract Online: 02-December-2015

5. Effects of Gynura procumbens on Sperm Quality and Testosterone Level in Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats
Pusparanee H, Lee H W, Halimah A S, Mahanem M N
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus have been shown to bring about deteriorating effects on the male reproductive system due to increased oxidative stress. Gynura procumbens, an herb with known anti-diabetic properties, was used in this investigation to determine the effect of its aqueous and ethanolic extracts on sperm quality and testosterone level of male streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Metformin and glibenclamide were used as control drugs in this study. Diabetic rats force-fed with 150 mg/kg of ethanolic G. procumbens extract showed dramatic increase in sperm count (206.89%) and motility as well as testosterone level (16.71%), along with decrease in fasting blood glucose level (38.71%) and sperm mortality (57.62%) when compared to the controls. Treatment with aqueous G. procumbens extract showed similar results with 23.38% and 31.14% decrease in blood glucose level and sperm mortality respectively, coupled with improvement in testosterone level (8.60%), sperm count (124.79%) and motility. The present data indicate that traditional use of G. procumbens as an anti-hyperglycemic agent is justified and may be beneficial for male diabetic patients that suffer from sexual dysfunction as a side effect of prolonged hyperglycemia seen in Type 1 diabetic patients.

Abstract Online: 02-December-2015

6. Phytochemical Screening, Anti-inflammatory Activity and Acute Toxicity of Hydro-ethanolic, Flavonoid, Tannin and Mucilage Extracts of Lavandula stoechas l. from Morocco.
Ez Zoubi Yassine, Bousta Dalila, El Mansouri Latifa, Boukhira Smahan, Siham Lebtar, Achour Sanae, Farah Abdellah
Abstract
The present work showed phytochemical screening, anti-inflammatory activities and sub-acute toxicity of hydro-ethanolic and polyphenols (flavonoid, tannin and mucilage) extracts from aerial part (branches, flowers and leaves) of Lavandula stoechas L. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated  by Carrageenan-Induced Rat Paw Edema method. Sub-acute toxicity of the hydro-ethanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated in vivo after topical application of creams and some biochemical parameters were determined. Phytochemical screening of extract of L. stoechas revealed a presence of tannins, catechic tannins, flavonoids, sterols, coumarins, quinones, leucoanthocyans and mucilages compounds. The hydro-ethanolic extract of L. stoechas (5 and 10 %) inhibited the inflammation induced by carrageenan in rats in a dose dependent manner. At dose of 10 %, L. stoechas produced a significant inhibition of inflammation at 74±7 % compared to 69±10.3 % for diclofenac at 1 %. Flavonoid and  mucilage extracts showed significant effect in reduction of edema (85.1 ± 6.2 and 61.71± 7.3 % respectively). No significant variation was observed in the body and Relative Organ Weights (ROW) between the control and the treated group. Furthermore, no renal, hepatic and blood dysfunctions were noted in treated animals compared to control.

Abstract Online: 02-December-2015

7. A Simple HPLC Method for the Analysis of [6]-Gingerol Produced by Multiple Shoot Culture of Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Ernest Jay V Cafino, Marcelina B Lirazan, Eufrocinio C Marfori
Abstract
A simple HPLC method was developed to analyze [6]-gingerol content of in vitro– grown multiple shoot cultures of ginger. Separation was achieved using an Inertsil ODS-3 column. The best mobile phase was methanol:water (90:10, v/v) which was ran isocratically at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Analysis of nine different concentrations of [6]-gingerol standards generated a calibration curve which was linear over a concentration range of 1-1000 µg/ml. Limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.489 µg/ml, while the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.482 µg/ml. Accuracy of the proposed method was found to be 97.8%. The developed HPLC method was applied to analyze [6]-gingerol production from multiple shoots cultured under different light wavelengths. Results of the analysis revealed that different light wavelengths affected [6]-gingerol production, and that red light irradiation significantly improved [6]-gingerol accumulation in multiple shoot cultures which yielded 191.07±1.25 µg per culture bottle. The developed method is simple, reproducible and is useful for the analysis of [6]-gingerol in multiple shoots of ginger cultured in vitro.

Abstract Online: 02-December-2015

8. Evaluation and Screening of Natural Antioxidant Biomolecules from Flavonoid Rich Fraction of Premna corymbosa Rottl
Antony Rose Immaculate C, Umarani V
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the screening of natural antioxidant molecules and radical scavenging activities of flavonoid rich fractions from the leaves of Premna corymbosaMethods: The total phenolic contents were estimated by Folin–Ciocalteu method adopted by Djeridane et al and total flavonoid content was measured according to Quettier-Deleu et al method. Antioxidant activities of flavonoid rich fraction of P. corymbosa was tested on the basis of ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical, Super oxide radical, Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, metal chelating and reducing power activity. Results: The total phenolic and flavonoid content in flavonoid rich fraction of P. corymbosa was 36.8±13.00 mg GAE/g and 78.2±1.23µg RE/g respectively. The flavonoid rich fraction of the leaves of P. corymbosa showed significant antioxidant activity. The reducing power of the flavonoid rich fraction was comparable with ascorbic acid and found to be dose dependant. EC50 values of flavonoid rich fraction of the leaves of P. corymbosa were 13.78, 19.39, 12.55 and 14.44 µg/ml in ABTS, superoxide radicals, Nitric oxide radical scavenging and Metal chelating activities respectively. TLC bioautography analysis revealed the presence of flavonoid compound. GC–MS analysis of the flavonoid rich fraction showed the identification of 14 major compounds such as, Catechol, 1-Hexadecanol, Phenol 2-6 dimethoxy, 1-Decanol,2-hexyl, Benzaldehyde and 2 hydroxy-3-methoxyl. Conclusion: This research work has concluded that the flavonoid rich fraction of P. corymbosa possess antioxidant activity and may contribute to the wellbeing of individuals who consume them.

Abstract Online: 02-December-2015

9. Withdrawn

10. Phytochemical Profile and Antioxidant Activities of Solvent-solvent Fractions of Haematostaphis barteri Hook F. (Anacardiaceae) Stem Bark Extracts
Ezekiel J S,Adamu H M, Chindo, I Y, Garba, I H
Abstract
Haematostaphis barteri is a plant used in the northern part of Nigeria to manage degenerative diseases such as cancer, anemia and hemorrhage. The dried powdered stem bark was sequentially extracted with soxhlet using solvents of varying polarities. Phytochemical screening of the extracts using standard methods revealed the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and tannins as the major phytochemicals detected. The scavenging activities of the various crude extracts on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable free radical was determined and the result showed very low activities with only aqueous methanol, ethanol and acetone extracts showing inhibitions of 48.2%, 51.3% and 49.9% respectively. But when all of the crude extracts were solvent/solvent fractionated, antioxidant activities of the polar and semi-polar fractions improved appreciably. Presence of polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins could be responsible for the antioxidant activity of H. barteri.

Abstract Online: 12-December-2015

11. Sneak Peek into Chemopreventive Potential of Brassica oleracea: Milestones Achieved So Far
Kriti Soni, Aarushi Gupta,  Kanchan Kohli
Abstract
Brassica oleracea i.e broccoli belonging to family Brassicaceae has a large number of components which can serve in various ailments. This cruciferous vegetable is rich in vitamins, minerals as well as some isothiocyanates which contribute to its therapeutic advantages. The compounds present in broccoli can serve as potential therapeutic agents at a very low dose but the only problem is to protect them from degradation. Various analytical methods to analyze these compouds of broccoli have been developed and published such as UV, HPLC, TLC, LC-MS, and GC-MS etc. Also, the activity of broccoli as a potential treatment for various cancers such as adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, skin cancer etc. have been reported. Some such researches related to this compound such as those mentioned above and others such as biovailability studies, IC50 value determination and antioxidant activity studies etc. have been highlighted in this article so as to give a brief description of the great potential of broccoli and provide valuable source of information about the research milestones achieved so far in the jouney of exploring this vegetable.

Abstract Online: 12-December-2015

12. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic potentials of Mussaenda tomentosa Wight Ex Hook. F.
Muruganandam S, Rajesh. V, Dhamodharan R, Arumugam P, Ravikumar S
Abstract
Ethnobotanical significances of Mussaenda tomentosa has been documented from the tribes, during the exploration conducted from July to December 2014 on the Gingee hills belong to Pakkamalai Reserve Forests at Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India.  The present investigation focus on the comparative analysis of phytochemical potential with special reference to antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The active compounds were extracted using methanol. The preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening of Mussaenda tomentosa has revealed for the presence of Phenols, Flavanoids, Glycosides,Terbenoids, Tannins, Reducing sugars, Proteins and absence of Alkaloids in  methanol extract. The quantitative determination of phenol and flavanoids was carried out and found that the total phenolic content as 79.30 mg GAE/gram and flavonoids36.49 mg QE/gram respectively. The IC50 value of DPPH assay in methanol extract was recorded as 80.33µg/mL. The Phosphomolybdenum assay and reducing power assay indicated that the plant extract has a potential antioxidant compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid. The IC50 value  for the antidiabetic assay in methanol extract were recorded as 364.03 µg/ml and  non enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin shows 62% – 94% in the concentration of 250 – 1500 μg/mL. The inhibitory activity of Glucose uptake by yeast cells in methanol extract of Mussaenda tomentosa was found and compared with the standard drug acarbose. The details are presented in the present study.

Abstract Online: 12-December-2015

13. Activity of Proline and its Analogs Isolated from Murraya koenigii Against Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Renal Insufficiency in Diabetic Nephropathy.
Ladli Kumari, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Uma Ranjan Lal
Abstract
Proline is a major constituent of amino acids isolated from the Murraya koenigii leaves, which is used as a traditional medicine and have established efficacy against the treatment of life threatening chronic diabetes. Therefore based on modern medicine, isolated the bioactive components for their effects on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and renal insufficiency produced by oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy (DN) animals was undertaken to validate its traditional use. Bioassay guided fractionation and phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the M. koenigii resulted in the isolation of Compound 1 (Trivial name: MF4) present in amino acid rich fraction and Compound 2 (Trivial name: Mk-F4). Compounds (1 and 2) were characterized by NMR, elemental analysis and GC-MS. MF4 and Mk-F4 were then investigated for their effects on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and renal insufficiency produced by oxidative stress in DN animals. DN was induced in male adult albino rats by diabetogenic diet (for 7 days diet) and injecting streptozotocin (75 mg/kg b.wt., i.p.) on six weeks of administration.  Treatment with Mk-F4 and MF4 at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.wt. p.o. for 40 days reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea nitrogen, albuminuria, proteinuria and serum creatinine and increased the levels of high density lipoproteins and clearance of creatinine and urea in the DN animals. In addition, electrolytes sodium, calcium, chloride and magnesium levels in serum were markedly elevated and decreased the level of serum potassium in DN animals as compared with DN control groups. Furthermore, the oral administration of Mk-F4 and MF4 of M. koenigii significantly decreased the elevated level of malondialdehyde and increased radical scavenging enzyme activity. The renal pathological changes in treatment groups were ameliorated by marked improvement in chronic glomerulonephritis. These results indicate that M. koenigii extracts could be a very useful antioxidant for the prevention of renal insufficiency along with hyperlipidemic activity and provides a scientific rationale for its use as an antidiabetic agent.

Abstract Online: 12-December-2015

14. Anticancer Activity of Centella asiatica Leaves Extract in Benzo(a)pyreneInduced Mice
Iwan Sahrial Hamid, Ngakan Made Rai Widjaja, Ratna Damayanti
Abstract
Utilization of Centella asiatica leaves extract became an alternative to determine its activities. Centella asiatica contained of asiatic acid, madecassic acid, glicosides, asiaticoside, madecassoside, and some other compound. Centella asiatica has the potential as anti-cancer medicine. This research aims to understand the effects of Centella asiatica leaves extract on decreasing the number of benzo(a)pyrene induced lung tumor nodules. Then, determine the lung histopathological features of induced mice. This research used 30 of one day old baby mice which divided into six groups. Positive control (group I) was induced with benzo(a)pyrene of 0.2 μmol on day-1; 0.4 μmol on day-7 and 0.8 μmol on day-15 without any extracts. Group II was treated with Tamoxifen and induced with benzo(a)pirene. Negative control (group III) received only DMSO solvent and groups III, IV, V received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw of Centella asiatica leaves extract on day-25. The significant difference (p<0.05) of Centella asiatica leaves extract on the number of benzo(a)pyrene which induced by lung tumor nodules. The treatment with 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bb doses of extract resulted a non significant different (p<0.05) means number of lung tumor nodules. Microscopic examination of lung histopathological features showed a decrease on tumor foci in bronchus, alveolar septum and also inhibit bronchial epithelial cell hyperplasia. Ethanolic extract of Centella asiatica could reduce the number of tumor nodules and inhibit the development of benzo(a)pyrene.

Abstract Online: 12-December-2015

15. Evaluation of Biochemical and Histological Effects on Liver of Swiss Albino Mice Due to Acute Oral Toxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Phyllanthus niruri
Tanuja Singh, Ruchi, Ravish Kumar, Vimal kumar, Anjali singh
Abstract
In modern era, plant extracts are being used extensively as a source of medicinal agents. However, there is limited data available about the toxicity of herbal products used in remedies, are essential for the study of toxicity profile of medicinal plants. Therefore, aim of this study was to observe the biochemical and histopathological changes in liver due to acute oral toxicity of aqueous leaf extract of P.niruri(L.) Mice were divided into six experimental groups of 6 mice each comprises Group-I as (control) and treatment groups were administered aqueous leaf extract of P.niruri orally at different doses of 500 mg/Kg bw (Group-II), 1000 mg/Kg bw (Group-III), 2000mg/Kg bw (Group-IV), 2500 mg/Kg bw (Group-V) and 3000 mg/Kg bw (Group-VI) for 7 consecutive days. The experimental mice were sacrificed and serum was collected for the analysis of serum ALP (alkaline phosphatase), SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transferase), total protein, albumin and total bilirubin. The liver was dissected, weighed and processed for histological analysis. Serum level of SGPT, total protein and albumin showed significant (P≤ 0.05) increase in the treated Group-V and Group-VI as compared to control. Serum ALP levels showed significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in Group-V and Group-VI. Alterations in hepatocytes were observed only at higher doses of Group-V and Group-VI. The median acute toxicity (LD50) of the compound was determined to be 2590.984 mg/Kg bw.

Abstract Online: 12-December-2015

16. Chemical Composition and Anti-tubercular Activity of the Essential Oil of Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Peel from North Central Nigeria
Egharevba H O, Oladosun P, Izebe K S
Abstract
The peels of Citrus sinensis obtained from a market in Abuja, North-central Nigeria, was hydro-distilled to obtain its essential oil. GC-MS analysis of the oil reveals a new chemo-type rich in α-terpineol (35.39%), D-limonene (17.74%), linalool (9.73%), Citronellol (4.88%), γ-Muurolene (4.44%) and Isopiperitenone (3.58%). The oil was screened against local strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and was found to be active at a strength of 25% (v/v) (or 0.25 ml/ml). This is the first time the essential oil of C. sinensis with lower limonene than α-terpineol content, and with anti-TB activity would be reported. The findings suggest that the oil could be used as source of industrial feeds for chemical synthesis, preservatives as well as for flavor and fragrance. This could also open up a new research direction in anti-TB drug development and use of essential oil in drug development and foods.

Abstract Online: 12-December-2015

17. Antimicrobial, Anticancer, and Cytotoxicity Activities of A Crude Methanolic Extract from the Bark of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw) Collected from Brunei Darussalam
Erum I, Kamariah A S, Abddalla J M, Linda L B L, Nur-Nazurah  A
Abstract
Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw) is a plant used by traditional healers in Brunei Darussalam, Sabah and Sarawak to treat fever, headache, and snakebite-related infections, to cure food poisoning and as a remedy for seizures, to induce abortion, and as a post-partum remedy. This study evaluates the antibacterial and anticancer activities of a methanolic bark extract of G. velutinus. The antibacterial activity of the extract was determined against five bacteria strains using the disc diffusion method and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration were also studied. The cytotoxicity activity of the extract was measured by the brine shrimp lethality test (BST) while MTT assay was used to measure the anticancer activity of the extract against five cancer cell lines. The extract had antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus spizizenii, and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 0.15, 0.15 and 5 µg/mL, respectively. The LD50 for BST of 9.4 µg/mL was calculated by probit analysis. The extract had IC50 values of 19.41, 25.34, 28.77, 26.76 and 27.61 µg/mL toward HEK 293, A549, CaSki, Namalwa and Jurkat cells, respectively, as determined by the MTT assay. In conclusion the methanolic bark extract of G. velutinus has antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, cytotoxicity against brine shrimp nauplii and broad anticancer activities against the tested cell lines. This study highlights the potential uses of G. velutinus as a folk medicine to treat a multitude of conditions.

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

18. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. glandulosum (Desf.) Ietswaart from Algeria
Bouhaddouda N,  Aouadi S, Labiod R
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of  O. vulgare L. ssp. glandulosum (Desf.) Ietswaart essential oil (EO), to determine total phenolic constituent in methanolic extract and investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and methanolic extract. For antibacterial activity, susceptibility tests were expressed as inhibition zone by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth microdillution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH scavaging capacity assay. GC and GC/MS analyses of the oil resulted in the identification of 43 compounds, representing 98.55% of the oil; para-cymene (25.615%), thymol (23.129%), carvacrol (20.321%) were the main components. The methanolic extract showed total phenolic contents of 526.75 µgGAE/mg. EO was particularly found to possess strong antibacterial capacity while methanolic extract remained inactive. In antioxidant activity, methanolic extract exhibited very high scavenging ability on DPPH radicals with IC50= 25.59 µg/ml whereas EO presented an IC50= 461.62µg/ml.

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

19. Phytochemicals of Cucurbitaceae Family – A Review
Rajasree R S , Sibi P I, Femi Francis, Helen William
Abstract
The family cucurbitaceae includes a large group of crops like cucumbers, and melon  which are medicinally essential. The plants of the family are collectively known as cucurbits. It is a distinct family without any close relatives. Plants of this family have many medicinal and nutritional benefits. So it is important to find out the active agents possessing pharmacological activity in plants coming under the family. The major elements present are the phytochemicals like Glycosides, Terpenoids, Saponins, Tannins, Steroids, Carotenoids, and Resins etc. and most commonly the terpenoid substance called Cucurbitacins

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

20. Effect of Abiotic Stress on Endogenous Phytohormones Profile in Some Seaweeds
Gihan A. El Shoubaky, Essam A. Salem
Abstract
Endogenous phytohormones profile of auxins, Abscisic acid, Gibberellins were identified qualitatively and quantitatively in two different habitats as marine red alga sarconema filiformae, green alga Ulva rigida and brackish green alga Ulva lactuca. The analysis was carried out by using GC/MS technique. The algal samples were harvested in May 2015 from Suez Canal and Timsah Lake. Identification of isolated hormones based on data obtained of their mass spectrum and fragmentation pattern. Ulva rigida registered the highest concentration of total phytohormones, than Sarconema filiforme and Ulva lactuca. Ulva rigida recorded high concentrations of auxins followed by Sarconema filiforme and then Ulva lactuca. Sarconema filiforme and Ulva rigida were characterized by the same auxin constituents of (Indole-3-acetyl-L-isoleucine, Indole-3-acetyl-L-leucine methyl ester and Indole-3-butyryl-L-valine). 4-chloro indol-3-acetic acid and 3-indoxyl-β-D-Galacto pyronoside methyl ester were recorded in Ulva lactucaUlva lactuca contained the highest concentration of ABA than Ulva rigida and Sarconema filiforme. In ABA profile, 3 compounds were detected of the selected species (cis,trans-Abscisic acid-L-Alanine methyl ester, cis, trans-Abscisic acid-L-Valine and Cis, trans-Abscisic acid-L-Alanine). GAs constituent of Sarconema filiforme revealed high concentration than Ulva lactuca and finally Ulva rigida. At least 14 well known gibberellins (GA1, GA1 methyl ester, GA4, GA7 methyl ester, GA8, GA13, GA19, GA23, GA29, GA44, GA75, Kaurene, Kaurenoic acid and Kaurenal methyl ester). GA13 and GA23 only shared at the three studied algal species. GA8 shared at two seaweed species (Ulva lactuca and Ulva rigida) and Kaurene (Sarconema filiforme and Ulva lactuca). Generally, the bioactivity of phytohormones attributed to the methods of seaweed extraction and according to the types of seaweed, particularly due to differences in their chemical components, and environmental conditions stress.

Abstract Online: 25-December-2015

21. In-vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Radioprotective Property of Zingiber kangleipakense (Kishor & Škorničk)
Moirangthem Medhapati Devi, Paonam Priyobrata Singh, Khoirom Ratipiyari Devi,  Dhanaraj Singh Thokchom, Gurumayum Jitendra Sharma
Abstract
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents as well as the free radical scavenging potential of Zingiber kangleipakense (Kishor & Škorničk) in different solvent systems. Antioxidant properties were determined using thiyl free radical scavenging assay, ferric ion reducing power (FRP) assay, DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. We also analyzed in vitro radioprotective properties of 60% ethanolic extracts of the plant using pBR322 DNA. The plant extracts possess significant contents of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. The observed data indicate that the plant extracts showed higher antioxidant activities with increasing concentrations. 60% ethanol/methanol extract showed higher scavenging activity than aqueous extract. The plant extract dissolved in 60% ethanol protected the DNA damage induced by gamma radiation suggesting that it has potential source of natural antioxidants capable of protection against free radical mediated damages.

Abstract Online: 25-December-2015

22. DPPH and ABTS Scavenging Activities of Oolong Tea from Three Regions in Indonesia
Irda Fidrianny, Ananda Fitri, Rika Hartati
Abstract
The aim of this research were to determine antioxidant activity from various extracts of oolong tea from three different regions using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and correlation of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content in various extracts of oolong tea with IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of ABTS antioxidant activities. Extraction was conducted by reflux using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant activities using DPPH and ABTS assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of ABTS scavenging activities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. All of extracts of oolong tea from three regions were categorized as very strong antioxidant by DPPH and ABTS methods. Phenolic compounds in all of extracts of oolong tea were the major contributor in IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of ABTS scavenging activities. All of extracts of oolong tea had linear result in DPPH and ABTS assays.

Abstract Online: 26-December-2015

23. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Two Orchid Species and Preliminary Test of Their Cytotoxicity Against T47D Breast Cancer Cells
Laurentius H Nugroho, R Pratiwi, R Susandarini, E R P Wardoyo, O Megawati, S Handayani
Abstract
Research on plant natural products for screening of compounds with medicinal properties is mainly grow from the awareness on the use of herbal medicines and the side effects of most modern drugs.  The potential of orchids in traditional medication has a long history, as indicated by ancient records on the use of many orchid species as medicinal plants. The objective of this study was identifying potential group of compounds with cytotoxic properties from orchid against T47D breast cancer cells.  Two orchid species were used in this study, Dendrobium lasianthera and Arachnis flos-aeris. Chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts obtained from leaves, stem, and roots were tested for their cytotoxicity against T47D breast cancer cells to determine the most effective extract and fraction potential as anticancer. Determination on cytotoxicity was carried out using MTT assay, and cytotoxic property was indicated by IC50 value with doxorubicine as a positive control. Serial fractionation processes using vacuum liquid chromatography was done to find the most effective group of compounds demonstrating cytotoxicity. The result show that stem of Dendrobium lasianthera chloroform extract had higher cytotoxic activity than other extracts. The IC50 value of the most toxic combining fraction was 122,66 µg/ml. The result of the separation and purification truly increase the cytotoxicity effect of isolate against T47D breast cancer cells, proven by the IC50 value of middle isolate was 37,11 µg/ml while other isolates were higher than those of doxorubicine (IC50 = 61 µg/ml). TLC analysis showed that the most active compound obtained was terpenoid and phenolic.

Abstract Online: 26-December-2015

24. Antibacterial and Phenolic Content of Propolis Produced by Two Malaysian Stingless Bees, Heterotrigona itama and Geniotrigona thoracica
Ibrahim N,  Zakaria A J, Ismail Z, Mohd K S

Abstract
Propolis is a sticky material collected by the bees to protect their hive. It has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient time. The methanol extract of Malaysian propolis produced by two commonly found stingless bees, Heterotrigona itama (MHI) and Geniotrigona thoracica (MGT) inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus better than Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) bacteria. However, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values showed the most effective propolis was MHI (5 mg/mL) for Gram-positive and 10 mg/mL for Gram-negative compared to MGT has showed less activity against all tested bacteria. Chemical fingerprint was derived from thin layer chromatography analysis. Both extract displayed a characteristic profile and vary from each other. Analysis of Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra of both extract tested show similar IR spectral profiles but from the intensities of both extract have significant differences. The results indicate that the differences are caused by group of phenolic and flavonoid. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of MHI of 56.9 ± 0.12 ug/mL and 163.9 ± 0.10 μg/mL, respectively was higher than MGT of 29.1 ± 0.10 ug/mL and 61.5 ± 0.15 μg/mL, respectively. These results showed that the antibacterial activity and chemical analysis of propolis do vary according to its species of stingless bees.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015

25. Effect of Combined Extracts from Different Plant Parts of Annona senegalensis on Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities
Bakarnga-Via I, Yande, H K, Kouipou R M T, Kanko M I M, Arc-En-Ce J M, Kammalac T N, Boyom F F
Abstract
To identify new combinations of plant extracts with antimicrobial activity, the effect of combined aqueous, ethanolic, and hydro-ethanolic extracts of different parts of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) was assessed against pathogenic yeasts and bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts and combinations was determined using the broth microdilution method. Overall, the MIC values of extracts against yeasts and bacteria ranged from 0.156 to >5 mg/mL. Candida albicans and C. krusei showed more sensitivity to the aqueous extract of the stem and the ethanolic extract of the bark respectively (MIC=0.625mg/mL and 0.156mg/mL). For bacteria, Shigella flexineri and Staphylococcus aureus showed more sensitivity to the hydro-ethanolic extracts of the stem and bark, and the ethanolic extract of the leaf respectively at the MIC of 1.25mg/mL. The assessment of combinations of selected promising extracts showed synergistic, antagonistic and additive interactions. Of particular interest, the combination of the ethanolic extract of the leaves (LEtOH) with the hydro-ethanolic extract of the bark (BHEtOH) showed synergistic interaction against E. coli (FICI = 0.25), and additivity against S. aureus (FICI = 1) leading to above 4-fold magnification of the activity of individual extracts. These results are promising and support the medicinal value of A. senegalensis. Moreover, the potential of combinations of extracts from different plant parts opens new avenues for the exploration of this medicinal plant to develop alternative therapies against bacteria.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015

26. A Review on Medicinal Plants of Gujarat with Anti-diabetic Potential
Makwana A R, Sameja K D, Rao S K
Abstract
Diabetes Mellitus is a syndrome of disordered metabolism, due to a combination of hereditary and environmental causes, resulting in abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia), caused by defects in either insulin secretion or its action in the body. A diabetes epidemic is underway and currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are dietary modifications, oral hypoglycemic or insulin administration, which though have a lot many potentials to cure diabetes, but, may result in unwanted side effects. However, recent updates suggest that natural products and herbal medicines are more recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present review attempts to list all plants and their preparations used for cure of diabetes along with their ethnomedicinal backgrounds and list of plants experimental or clinically listed from Gujarat State, India, with antidiabetic potential. It also includes the various preparations which can be safely used to cure diabetes in the form of daily diet as plant potentials for future generations. The studies are a move towards awareness in changing our diet system with a potential input of Ethnomedicinal knowledge for cure of incidence of diabetes.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015

27. A Pharmacognostical Study of Russelia equisetiformis Sch. & Cham.
Eman M.  Ahmed,Samar Y. Desoukey *,Mostafa A. Fouad, Mohamed S. Kamel
Abstract
Russelia equisetiformis Sch.& Cham.is a perennial plant native to South America. Various traditional systems enlightened the importance of different parts, especially the aerial parts of the plant to have a great medicinal value. The present study aimed detailed pharmacognostic evaluations of the plant-physical, macro and micromorphological features. The findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards needed for identification and classification of the plant in both entire and powdered form which is gaining relevance in plant drug research.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015

28. Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical and Physicochemical Study of Ficus arnottiana Miq. Leaves (Moraceace)
Kaur Gurpreet, Singh Satnam, Singh Prabhjot, Mishra Ravinesh
Abstract
The study is focussed at development of pharmacognostic, phytochemical and physicochemical parameters and to investigate the active principle present in Ficus arnottiana Miq. leaves (Moraceae).The leaves, fruits and bark are used in medicine. This is used as astringent, demulcent and emollient, also used in diabeties, wound healing and inflammation. From literature survey it was revealed that no reports were available on microscopic evaluation, standardization parameters of Ficus arnottiana Miq. Leaves. All the parameters are carried out as per WHO guidelines of quality control methods for medicinal plant materials.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015

29. Pharmacognostical studies of leaf, stem, root and flower of Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet
Alshymaa Abdel-Rahman Gomaa, Mamdouh Nabil Samy, Samar Yehia Desoukey, Mohamed Salah Kamel
Abstract
Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet, is a perennial herb or shrub, commonly known as Florida Keys Indian mallow and distributed in tropical regions. The present study deals with macro and micromorphological investigations of leaf, stem, root and flower of A. hirtum, which assists in identification and standardization of the plant in both entire and powdered forms.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research