Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume8,Issue2

1. Antioxidant Activities of the Medicinal Plants Used for Preparation of Fermentation Cakes of “Haanj”, the Rice Based Alcoholic Beverage of Ahom Community People of Assam, India
Jyotirekha G Handique, Dipankoj Gogoi
Abstract
Eight plant species (Selaginella sp., Ficus bhotanica, Lygodium microphyllum, Ipomoea cymosa, Melastoma malabathricum, Naravellia zeylanica, Glochidion arborescens and Rubus ellipticus) used in folk medicines and also for the preparation of fermentation cakes of “Haanj”, the rice based alcoholic beverages of Ahom community people of Assam, India, have been screened with respect to their antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of each plant material have been evaluated for the antioxidant capacity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging method and ABTS [2,2¢– azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothaiaziline-6- sulfonate)[ method. The Folin- Ciocalteu method was employed to determine total phenolic content expressing mgGAE/g. The methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum was found to contain the highest TPC (9.598 ± 0.008 mg GAE/g). This variety was also found to have the highest scavenging activity against DPPH (IC50value 37.266 ±0.056 μg/ml) and ABTS method ( IC50 value 7.924 ± 0.016 μg/ml). The results obtained in the present study indicate that all plants can be a potential source of natural antioxidant.

Abstract Online: 11-January-2016

2. The Flavonoids and Anticomplement Activity of two Cruciferous Plants Growing in Egypt
Khaled A Abdelshafeek, Moustafa M ElMissiry, Hussiny A Hussiny, Medhat M Seif ElNasr
Abstract
The study of the flavonoids of the aerial parts of Carrichtera annua and Farsetia aegyptia (family Crucifereae) resulted in isolationof quercetin(1), quercetin-3-O-arabinoside(2), quercetin-3-O-glucoside(3), quercetin-3-O-(6-feruloyl- b – glucopyranosyl -1 →2 – b -arabinopyranoside)-7-O b -glucopyranoside (4) and quercetin-7-O-arabinosyl-3-O-glucoside(5) from C.  annua. Three flavonoids were isolated from F. aegyptia and identified as isorhamnetin (6), isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-7-O-glucoside (7) and isorhamnetin-3-O-(feruolyl-sophroside)-7-O-rutinoside (8). The aqueous alcoholic extract ,chloroform , ethyl acetate ,butanol fractions of C.  annua in addition to the new compound (4) were tested for their influence on the classical(CP) and alternative (AP)pathways of complement mediated hemolysis. All the extracts showed anti-complement activity but compound (4) has the strongest effect on both CO and AP pathways.

Abstract Online: 11-January-2016

3. Antioxidant, Anti-cancer and Phytochemical Constituents of Hexane Extract Fractions of an Indian Medicinal Plant Embelia ribes Burm.
Vadivel V, Abirami K, Ravichandran N, Brindha P
Abstract
Embelia ribes Burm. (Family: Myrsinaceae, Vidangam in Tamil) has been used as herbal drug for various diseases in Indian medicinal systems. Many research works have been focused on embelin (a high polar bioactive constituent), no study found on low polar compounds. Hence, in the present work we have analyzed the antioxidant and anticancer properties of three different fractions obtained from hexane extract of E. ribes fruit and also to reveal the volatile phytochemicals profile. Three fractions were obtained from hexane extract of Embelia ribes Burm using hexane-chloroform (80:20, V/V) in column chromatography. Fraction I (orange red colour), fraction II (brown colour) and fraction III (dark green colour) were analyzed for antioxidant (DPPH assay) and anticancer activities (EAC cell line model) and also the phytochemical profile was investigated using GC-MS. Among the three fractions investigated, fraction II exhibited higher level of antioxidant effect in terms of phosphomolybdate reducing power (IC50 0.21 mg/ml), DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 1.04 mg/ml) and superoxide radical inhibition activity (1.58 mg/ml). The anticancer assay also revealed that the fraction II was effective to control the growth of EAC cell lines (IC50 value 4.36 mg/ml) when compared to other fractions. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of major volatile phytochemical constituents such as Dodecanoic acid and Ethyl tridecanoate, which could be responsible for the medicinal effects exhibited by the fraction II. Thus, fraction II of hexane extract of Embelia ribes with remarkable antioxidant and anticancer activities could be considered for further evaluation as anticancer drug in animal models.

Abstract Online: 11-January-2016

4. RP-HPLC Analysis of Furanocoumarins-Psoralen, Bergapten and Xanthotoxin in Ruta graveolens L.
Manjula B L, Sushma Mani K
Abstract
Furanocoumarins  namely psoralen,  bergapten  and  xanthotoxin which are novel potent topoisomerase I inhibitors of Ruta graveolens is of interest because of its pharmacological function. Hence, Reversed – Phase HPLC analysis was done to analyse the content of psoralen, bergapten and xanthotoxin during different seasons of the year April 2014- January 2015, before and after flowering. The leaves  harvested after flowering during the month end of  September 2014 contained more of psoralen, bergapten and xanthotoxin. In general the stem and leaf  of Ruta graveolens contained  more of  bergapten followed by psoralen whereas the concentration of xanthotoxin was very less.

Abstract Online: 14-January-2016

5. Comparative Preliminary Foliar Phytochemical Screening of Diospyros malabrica (Desr.) Kostel and Diospyros lanceifolia Roxb.
Kalita Dipjyoti, Devi Nilakshee, Baishya Debabrata
Abstract
Phytochemical screening is one of the necessary steps to find out the chemical constituents which lead the isolation of compounds. The leaf extract of Diospyros malabarica and Diospyros lanceifolia was performed for the biologically active secondary metabolites: alkaloids, protein and amino acids, flavanoids, steroids, triterpenoids, tannins, anthocyanin, saponin glycoside, phenol, lipid, gelatin, starch, carbohydrate, reducing and non reducing sugars. The leaf extract which is generally used as a folk medicine due to the presence of steroid,  triterpenoids, alkaloid and tannins.

Abstract Online: 14-January-2016

6. Diuretic Activity of Different Organs of Matoa (Pometia pinnata) Extracts and its Influence on Potassium and Sodium Levels
Ika Purwidyaningrum, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Irda Fidrianny
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine diuretic activity of matoa (Pometia pinnata) extracts (leaves, peel, seeds) and its influence on potassium and sodium levels. Each crude drug was extracted by maceration method followed by evaporation using rotary evaporator.  Male Wistar rats were divided into 11 groups i.e. furosemide (1.8 mg/ kg bw), control group CMC 0.5%, and matoa extracts (leaves, peel, seeds) each with doses of 50 mg/kg bw, 100 mg/kg bw, 150 mg/kg bw. Rats were placed in metabolic cages. Urine volume was measured for 4 hours. Potassium and sodium levels in urine were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The effective dose of ethanolic matoa leaves extract for diuretic activity was 100 mg/kg bw which could increase the excretion of sodium and potassium in the urine of the male Wistar rats.

Abstract Online: 14-January-2016

7. Momordica dioica Stimulated Insulin Secretion from Rat Pancreatic Islets is Independent of ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel
Rambir Singh, Poonam Sharma
Abstract
Antidiabetic and insulin secretagogues activity of Momordica dioica has been reported earlier. In the present work, the effect of Aqueous Extract of Momordica dioica (AEMD) was studied on insulin secretion with an evaluation of its mechanisms of action. Phytochemical analysis of AEMD was also carried out. AEMD showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and sugars. Isolated pancreatic islets of normal Wistar rats were incubated in HBBS buffer at 3.3 and 16.7mM glucose, 1 and 2mg/ml AEMD and 1mg/ml of nicorandil, alone and in combination. Release of insulin in external media was measured by ELISA. AEMD stimulated insulin release from the isolated islets at 3.3 and 16.7mM glucose. Insulin release was more pronounced at 2mg as compared to 1mg concentration. AEMD mediated enhancement in insulin secretion was not diminished by nicorandil, suggesting K-ATP channels independent mechanism. Cytotoxicity studies were carried out by trypan blue uptake and LDH release assay. Trypan blue gained access to 8.2±1.9% cells while 7.1± 1.4% dead islet cells were observed in LDH release assay on AEMD exposure, proving that the extract was non toxic at tested concentration.  AEMD released insulin in a dose dependent manner and this induction was independent of K-ATP channels of β-cells.

Abstract Online: 14-January-2016

8. Diversity Analyses in Ocimum Species: Why and How ?
Sarwat M, Srivastava S, Naved T
Abstract
Basil is an important part of Lamiaceace family. Besides having various economical importance it also has diverse uses in the traditional medicines. It is rich in camphor, geraniol, linalool and linalyl acetate. The genus is highly variable and possesses wide range of diversity at the level of morphology, chemical and genetic make-up. For analyzing the variation existing in the genus Ocimum, the chemical analyses of its essential oils and DNA fingerprinting were prominently utilized. This is utmost helpful in plant improvement programs as well as developing  a well-organized way to conserve the genetic wealth of the genus. In this paper, we have thrown light on how the combinatorial approach of studying the morphological traits, essential oil composition and DNA markers is useful in verifying the  taxonomy of Ocimum.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

9. Screening of Quorum Sensing (Qs) Modulatory Effect Of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Quorum Sensing Mediated Virulence Factors Of Human Pathogenic Gram Negative Bacteria
S. Karthick Raja Namasivayam, J. M. Vivek
Abstract
Anti qourum sensing agents would offer a way of controlling microbial infections with the advantage of reducing risks of resistance development.Searching of new anti quorum sensing agents derived from plants as an antimicrobial agents against various quorum sensing mediated virulence factors of pathogenic microorganism is an emerging area of medicine.In the present study, anti quorum sensing activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa Ocium tenuiflorum, Aegle marmelos, Eucalyptus globules, Azadirachta indica,  Cynodon dactylon against quorum sensing mediated virulence factors of human pathogenic bacteria Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella paratyphi has been carried out. Among the plants Eucalyptus globules revealed maximum inhibition of QS mediated virulence factors of Proteus vulgaris. In the case of Salmonella paratyphi, Eucalyptus globules, Ocium tenuiflorum and Aegle marmelos brought about maximum effect on QS mediated virulence factors. The present study revealed potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing inhibitors would suggests the possible utilization for the prevention of bacterial infections.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

10. Experimental Induction of Apoptosis by Salvia sahendica Extract Alone and in Combination with Doxorubicin in Human Prostate Cancer Cells, LNCaP
Tamimi Roya , Sepehri Houri, Delphi Ladan
Abstract
Background: Previous chemical investigations on different species of Salvia have shown the presence of flavonoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesterterpenes and essential oils exhibits the antitumor and cytotoxicity effects on several cancer cell lines. Methods: Prostate cancer cells, LNCaP were treated with Salvia.sahendica and doxorubicin (DOXO) alone and in combination (DOXO before S.sahendica, after S.sahendica and with S.sahendica). MTT assay to study the sequence and simultaneous combined effect of DOXO and S.sahendica, Ethidium Bromide / Acridine Orange (EB/AO)  staining method to determine apoptosis or necrosis, and flow cytometry for the study of cell cycle were performed. Results: Effective dose of DOXO and S.sahendica were determined 180±1.8 nm/ml, 130±2.37 µm/ml, respectively and their effective time were 24h. The most cytotoxic effect was for effective dose of DOXO following with effective dose of S.sahendica (3.17% viability). The greatest amount of apoptosis was for effective dose of DOXO following with effective dose of S.sahendica (27.34%). Synergistic interaction between S.sahendica extraction and DOXO in LNCaP cells was determined by CI (combination indices) value. Effective dose of DOXO following with effective dose of S.sahendica induced 44.9 % subG1 arrest that was higher than that with effective dose of DOXO (3.49%) or S.sahendica (35.33%) alone. Also cells treated with non-effective dose of DOXO following with effective dose of S.sahendica revealed 76.47% G2/M arrest that was higher than that with effective dose of DOXO (62.42%) or S.sahendica (11.09%) alone. Conclusions: By using this combination the side effects of DOXO may be declined by reducing dosage from180 nm/ml to10 nm/ml.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

11. Struggle Against Vector-borne Diseases: Phytochemical Screening and Larvicidal Activity of Hydro-ethanolic Extract of Ocimum basilicum in North East of Morocco against the Larvae of Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae)
El-akhal F, Guemmouh R, Zerrouq F, Ez Zoubi Y, El Ouali Lalami A
Abstract
Mosquitoes are vectors for many tropical and suptropical diseases. They are also the most important single group of insects well-known for their puplic health importance. Usually the fight against vectors using synthetic pesticides generates the resistance amongst the target populations. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the extract larvicide hydro-ethanolic of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) against malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles labranchiae. The Biological tests methodology inspired from the standard WHO protocol has been used. The result of the phytochemical screening of the aqueous extractof Ocimum basilicum indicates the presence of flavonoids, tannins, mucilage and leucaonthocyanes. However, sterols, terpenes, triterpenes and coumarines were not detected. The LC50 and LC90 values found, after 24 hours of exposure of aqueous extract against Anopheles labranchiae larvae, were 23.72 and 30.78 mg/ml respectively. The study concluded that there was a lethal effect of Ocimum basilicum extract against mosquito Anopheles labranchiae larvae, which could be manipulated to develop a safe and effective larvicide.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

12. Recalled as per policy of journal

13. The Study of Phenolic Compounds Antioxidant Activity in Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Several Plant Species of Urmia Lake Margin
Parisa Faraji, Rashid Jamei
Abstract
This study was designed to examine in vitro antioxidant activity, scavenging capacity for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and superoxide (O2) radicals inhibition assay for four plant species Urmia Lake Margin (Alhaji camelorum, Chenopodium foliosum, Suaeda arcuata and Phragmites karka). Plants were collected, their shoot were separated, and methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared from shoot. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and a colorimetric method, respectively. The extracts were also evaluated on their reducing power assay and their capacity to scavenge for DPPH and O2 radicals. The results showed that the highest values for the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, DPPH, and O2were related to methanolic extracts of samples Alhaji, Chenopodium, Suaeda and Phragmites respectively, which showed statistically significant differences (p<0.01). While the maximum values for the reducing power assay was related to aqueous extracts of sample Chenopodium (p<0.01). Findings suggest that the Chenopodium sample is more successful than other samples. Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than aqueous (p<0.01).

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

14. The Study of Biological Active Substances of Thistle Curled (Carduus crispus L.)
Оmirbaeva A E, Datkhaev U M
Abstract
Currently in Kazakhstan Republic actively introduced fitopreparations based on domestic vegetable raw materials. One of the promising plant is curled thistle (Carduus crispus L.). The aim of this work was to study biologically active substances thistle curly herb by physico-chemical methods (UV spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography) and by chemical reactions. The studies found that the studied raw material contains about 0.25% of total flavonoids in terms hyperaside and is promising in terms of the search of herbal drugs with hepatoprotective action.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

15. Preliminary Study of Blood Pressure Lowering Effect of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) on Wistar Rats
Afrillia Nuryanti Garmana, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Irda Fidrianny
Abstract
This research was conducted to verify the antihypertensive effect of  Anredera cordifolia leaves.The antihypertensive effect was examined in adrenaline-induced rats. Administration of adrenaline increased the heart rate. Heart rate were measured by non-invasive tail cuff. Diuretic effect was also examined by modified Lipschitz method. Extract was tested at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight. Anredera cordifolia leaves extract of 50 mg/kg bw reduced the heart rate which was induced by adrenaline (significant difference at p < 0.05). It showed weak diuretic effect compared to furosemide. Anredera cordifolia leaves extract at dose of 50 mg/kg bw had antihypertensive activity on Wistar rats.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

16. Assessment of Phytochemical Evaluation and In-vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Cassia angustifolia
V E VijayaSekhar, M Satya Prasad, D S D Suman Joshi, K Narendra, A Krishna Satya, K R S Sambasiva Rao
Abstract
Cassia angustifolia, belongs to Fabaceae family. The genus cassia has traditional medicinal value to cure various illness caused by various pathogens. The present work is aimed to reveal the phytochemical evaluation and in vitro antimicrobial activity of non polar to polar extracts of Cassia angustifolia. In these work the results proved that Cassia angustifolia extracts possess a significant amount of secondary metabolites. Methanol is most effective solvent to extract the metabolites from the Cassia angustifolia. This also said that all the extracts possess detectable amount of phenols and flavonoids. The methanol extract possess high amount of phenols and flavonoids followed by water, acetone and hexane extract. The extracts also show antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Out of which methanol extract of Cassia angustifolia shows most effective antimicrobial activity followed by water, acetone and hexane extracts. Further work is needed to improve plant based drugs from Cassia angustifolia.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

17. Process Validation: An Approach For Herbal Tablet Standardization
Desai S R, Disouza J I, Shirwadkar B B
Abstract
Validation is a concept that is fundamental to GMP and any quality assurance programme. Validation of the individual steps of the process is called process validation. Process is developed in such way that the required parameters achieved and it ensures that the output of process will consistently meet the required parameters during routing production. This concept is applied in pharmaceutical industry, but not that much deeply methodologically studied in herbal industry. The use of herbal medicine is the oldest form of healthcare. About 80% of the world’s population has faith in traditional medicine, particularly herbal drugs for their primary healthcare. India has a rich tradition of herbal medicine as evident from Ayurveda. As growing public interest in use of herbal medicines, it is necessary to development of modern and objective standards for evaluating quality of herbal medicines. So that it is a need process validation in manufacturing of herbal drugs for control the quality of herbal drugs. The reasons for doing process validation in herbal manufacturing industry are manufacturers are required by law to confirm to GMP regulations, good business dictates that a manufacturer avoids the possibility of rejected or recalled batches, process validation helps to ensure product uniformity, reproducibility, quality and to make process economical.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

18. Pharmacognostic Study of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock (Periplocaceae)
Sopeyin A O, Ajayi, G O
Abstract
Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel) Bullock of the family Periplocaceae leaves are widely used in African traditional medicine for treatment of helminthiasis, insanity, gonorrhea, menstrual disorders, as an aphrodisiac and as a cardiac-tonic however, there are no information on the standardization of this plant. The aim of this study is to provide values that can be used for identification and determination of its quality; these include the macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical screening, fluorescence and physicochemical analyses of the leaf and stem of P. nigrescens. Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of the leaf and stem showed the presence of reducing sugars, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. Quantitative determination of saponin and flavonoid content of the leaf were 2.5% and 10.9% respectively. The determined mean values for total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash were 16±0.36, 7.9±1.21, 11.1±0.60 (% w/w) respectively. Microscopic examination of the leaf revealed P. nigrescens is hypostomatic with paracytic stomata, presence of non-glandular trichomes (multicellular and possibly stellate) in the abaxial epidermal layer, prismatic calcium oxalate crystal, and polygonal epidermal cells with straight anticlinal walls. The characteristic microscopic features of the petiole include collenchyma, sclerenchyma, parenchyma and xylem vessels. Other microscopic characters in the transverse section of the stem include epidermal cells, sclereids, vascular bundles, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma amongst others. The average length and width for stoma and trichomes are 72±1.9, 17±1.5; 82.5±1.2, 77.5±1.0 (µm) respectively. Presence of hairs was observed on the anticlinal wall in the adaxial surface. The macroscopic examination of the leaf showed leaf arrangement – opposite, both surfaces – glabrous, leaf shape – cordate, leaf veination – pinately veined and a distinction in colour of both surfaces with adaxial surface a darker shade of green in comparison to the abaxial surface. The qualitative, quantitative and physiochemical parameters established in this study will provide standards that can be used in the identification, authentication and quality control of P.  nigrescens.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

19.Total Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Potential of Rokrose (Cistus salviifolius) Leaves and Flowers  Grown in Tunisia
Ahlem Rebaya,  Souad Igueld Belghith, Jamila kalthoum Cherif,   Malika Trabelsi-Ayadi
Abstract
This study was undertaken in order to examine the potential antioxydant of Tunisian Cistus salviifolius (leaves and flowers)  and their composition of antioxidants including total polyphenol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins content,  The research was conducted on  five extracts (ethanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and water extract) in order to identify new sources of antioxidants. The total phenolic, flavonoid and Proanthocyanidin were determined spectrophotometrically using Folin – Ciocalteu colorimetric method as described by Singleton et al, Zhishen method and Broadhurst method.  The different extracts were subjected to the scavenging tests of DPPH, ABTS and FRAP radicals. The aqueous extract of C. salviifolius leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic (56.03 g GAE.100 g -1 of DW), flavonoid (28.35 g catechin eq. 100 g -1 of DW) and Proanthocyanidin content (3.70 g catechin eq. 100 g -1 of DW). The obtained results showed also that the aqueous and ehanolic extract were detected   with best antioxidant capacity (IC 50 = 2.18 and 3.52 µg.mL-1). A positive relationship between antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) and polyphenolic compounds of the tested C. salviifolius leaves and flowers was found. High positive linear correlation was found between DPPH and total phenolic in the flowers (r2 = 0.9966). The results clearly showed that utilization of polar solvent enable extraction of significant amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. The richness of C. salviifolius  in antioxydant allow justifying the traditional uses of this plant in the treatments of rheumatism, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, C. salviifolius could be as a good source of natural antioxidant.

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

20. Quantitative Determination of Total Anthracene Derivaties in Rubia Syrup Preparation
Shmygareva A A, Kurkin V A, Sankov A N
Abstract
A  quantitative analysis method for total anthracene derivatives in Rubia Syrup preparation  with the using of  direct spectrophotometry at analytical wavelength 520 nm there was developed. The technology for producing of Rubia syrup from the decoction of rhizomata et radices of Rubia tinctorum L. in the ratio “the raw material: extract” 1:8 was elaborated. The relative degree of the determination of the  total anthracene derivatives in Rubia Syrup in developed method  with confidence probability 0,95  is no more than ±4,17%. The content of total anthracene derivatvies in Rubia syrup varied from 0,02±0,001% to 0,025±0,001% (calculated on ruberythrinic acid).

Abstract Online: 21-January-2016

21. Antihyperglycemic and In Vivo Antioxidant Activities Of Phyllanthus Watsonii A.Shaw Roots In Streptozotocin Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats
Nalamolu Koteswara Rao, Krupavaram Bethala, Sreenivas Patro Sisinthy, Sugumaran Manickam
Abstract
Phyllanthus species have been used for treatment of many diseases. Many researchers reported their antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Phyllanthus watsonii A. shaw was screened for antidiabetic and in vivo antioxidant activities in type 2 diabetic rats. P. watsonii roots extracts were prepared using successive solvent extraction process using petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. The extracts administered to the streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats and evaluated for reduction of glucose levels. Both ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts produced significant blood glucose lowering effect. Extracts was administered to type 2 diabetic rats for 21 days at the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg and evaluated for changes in thiobarbituric acid reactiove substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes, catalase and peroxidase levels. Significant increase in TBARS and conjugated dienes and reduction in catalase and peroxidase were observed. Ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts could significantly decrease TBARS and conjugated dienes; significantly increase catalse and peroxidase levels. Dose dependent antioxidant effect was observed. Chloroform extract could not produce any significant effect. Ethanolic extract produced effect has no significant difference with normal rats glucose, TBARS, Conjugated dienes, catalase and peroxidase levels.

Abstract Online: 31-January-2016

22. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Black Tea (Camellia Sinensis)
Patil M P, Patil K T, Ngabire D, Seo Y B, Kim G D
Abstract
The aim of present study to evaluated the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of commercially available black tea (Camellia sinensis). Methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts black tea were prepared by soxhlet extraction. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH free radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and total antioxidant capacity assay. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed for Gram positive bacteria Bacillus cereus ATCC13061, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538p, Staphylococcus saprophyticus KCTC3345, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 and Gram negative bacteria Proteus vulgaris KCTC2512, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC2004, Pseudomonas putida ATCC49128 and Serratia marcescens KCTC42171. Phytochemical results indicated presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes, lipid and reducing sugars. The methanol extract exhibits strong antioxidant activity and all bacteria were susceptible to the methanol extract. The results demonstrated that black tea has antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity and importance as an alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in therapeutics and food industry.

Abstract Online: 31-January-2016

23. Preliminary Screening of Artemisia argyi for Antioxidant Potentials
Anto Cordelia Tanislaus Antony Dhanapal, Ti Wee Ming, Hnin Pwint Aung, Sam Jun Hao
Abstract
Introduction Artemisia argyi is an aromatic herb traditionally used to help treat menstrual disorders, infertility, epistaxis, uterine bleeding in pregnancy, excessive menstrual flow and acts as an antipruritic. The present investigation was undertaken to appraise the antioxidant profile and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia argyi by using polar solvent extraction. Methods The aqueous, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of Artemisia argyi were screened for the presence of phytochemicals. Total phenolic content and total flavonoids content were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method. Antioxidant profile for flavonoids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids were quantified using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP- HPLC). Radical attenuating abilities of the different extracts were investigated using ABTS radical scavenging ability, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRAP), iron chelating activity and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. Results The methanol extract showed the strongest extractability for hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The methanol extract of Artemisia argyi possessed highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents.  The lowest EC50 values for ABTS, DPPH and NO were recorded in methanol extract at 0.11 ± 0.01 mg/ mL, 63.34 ± 1.10 μg/mL and 0.96 ± 0.01 mg/ mL respectively. In FRAP assay, methanol extract exhibited the highest frap value, 2.38 ± 0.06 mmole Fe2+ equivalents /g extract. The aqueous extract showed the highest iron chelating activity with the EC50 value of 3.05 ± 0.07 mg/ mL.  EC50 values of ABTS, DPPH and NO assay showed negative correlation with the total phenolic and total flavonoid content while iron chelating and FRAP assays expressed positive correlation. Conclusions This study revealed that Artemisia argyi possess greater antioxidant potential in methanol and addresses the health promoting effects of Artemisia argyi to become a lucrative nutraceutical source for antioxidants.

Abstract Online: 31-January-2016

24. Withdrawn

25. Evaluation of antioxidant and anthelmintic properties of Caesalpinia sappan L. leaves
Harjit Kaur, Amini M H, Ashish Suttee
Abstract
Caesalpinia sappan L. is a popular medicinal plant known to both the Ayurveda and Chinese traditional medicines since ancient time. The aim of this research was to study the qualitative phytochemistry and to determine the antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of C. sappan leaves. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of various plant bioactive metabolites in C. sappan leaves. Different solvent extracts of the crude drug were tested for their in vitro antioxidant potential using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) of the extracts were determined by spectrophotometric method. Methanol extract and ethyl acetate extract of the leaves were evaluated for anthelmintic activity against earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Results of this study revealed that C. sappan leaves methanolic extract has significant antioxidant potential as compared with standard, vitamin C. Methanol extract also exhibited potent anthelmintic activity with paralysis time (19.13±0.340 min) and death time (54.21±0.533 min). These activities are attributed to the complex chemical nature of C. sappan leaves. The result of present study revealed that C. sappan leaves can serve as a good natural source of potent antioxidants and anthelminthiasis medicines. As per our extent of information, C. sappan leaves anthelmintic activity is reported for the first time in this paper. Further works are required for identification of phytochemicals and studying in vivo pharmacological activities of C. sappan leaves.

Abstract Online: 31-January-2016






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research