Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


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Volume8,Issue3

1.Antimicrobial activity and spectral chemical analysis of methanolic leaves extract of Adiantum capillus-veneris using GC-MS and FT-IR spectroscopy
Haider Mashkoor Hussein, Imad Hadi Hameed, Omar Ali Ibraheem
Abstract
The objective of this research was study the phytochemical composition of Adiantum capillus-veneris and to evaluate the isolates for possible in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities. The compound obtained were screened by GC-MS method. While agar-well diffusion method was employed to measure antimicrobial activity against five bacteria and fourteen fungi and yeast. Thirty one bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Adiantum capillus-veneris. The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight, molecular formula, MS Fragment- ions and Pharmacological actions. GC-MS analysis of Adiantum capillus-veneris  revealed the existence of the α-D-Glucopyranoside , O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1.fwdarw.3)-ß-D-fruc, d-Mannose, 5,7-Dodecadiyn -1,12-diol, 3-Trifluoroacetoxypentadecane, 3-Trifluoroacetoxypentadecane, Pterin-6-carboxylic acid, Imidazole-4-carboxylic acid ,2-fluoro-1-methoxymethyl-,ethyl ester, D-Carvone, Pyrrolizin-1,7-dione-6-carboxylic acid , methyl (ester), D-Glucose ,6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl, Estragole, Phenol,2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl), 3-Allyl-6-methoxyphenol, Ppropiolic acid , 3-(1-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl), 7-epi-trans-sesquisabinene hydrate, Tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile, y-Sitosterol, Ergosta-5,22-dien-3-ol, acetate , (3ß,22E), Curan-17-oic acid ,2,16-didehydro-20-hydroxy-19-oxo,methyl ester, 9,10-Secocholesta -5,7,10(19)-triene-1,3-diol,25-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy], Cis-Vaccenic acid, L-Ascorbic acid , 6-octadecanoate, L-Ascorbic acid , 6-octadecanoate, Deoxyspergualin, Tributyl acetylcitrate, 10,13-Dioxatricyclo[7.3.1.0(4,9)]tridecan-5-ol-2-carboxylic acid, 18,19-Secoyohimban-19-oic acid , 16,17,20,21-tetradehydro-16, 9-Octadecenamide ,(Z), Olean-12-ene-3,15,16,21,22,28,-hexol,(3ß,15α,16α,21ß,22α),  (22S)-21-Acetoxy-6α,11ß-dihydroxy-16α,17αpropylmethylenedioxy, Ethyl iso-allocholate, Olean-12-ene-3,15,16,21,22,28-hexol,(3ß,15α,16α,21ß,22α) and Olean -13(18)-ene. The FTIR analysis of Adiantum capillus-veneris  leaves proved the presence of Alkenes, Aliphatic fluoro compounds, Alcohols, Ethers, Carboxlic acids, Esters, Nitro Compounds, Hydrogen bonded Alcohols and Phenols. Adiantum capillus-veneris was highly active against Aspergillus terreus (7.09±0.32). Methanolic extract of bioactive compounds of Adiantum capillus-veneris was assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas eurogenosa, Streptococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus by using the diffusion method in agar. The zone of inhibition were compared with different standard antibiotics. The diameters of inhibition zones ranged from 3.07±0.21 to 7.09±0.32 mm for all treatments.

Abstract Online: 07-February-2016

2. Phenolic Constituents and Biological Activities of Acalypha Wilkesiana Forma Tricolor Muell arg Seeds
Mohamed A El-raey, Tahia K Mohamed, Walaa A. El-kashak, Walid O Fayad
Abstract
Acalypha wilkesiana forma tricolor is an ornamental plant widely distributed in Egypt. The seeds of A.wilkesiana were extracted by 70% MeOH, and then subjected to solvent-solvent extraction. The total extract and ethyl acetate fraction were subjected to both biological and chemical investigations. Antimicrobial of these extracts were carried out using disc diffusion test on six species of pathogenic bacteria and seven fungal species. Cytotoxic activities were evaluated using acid phosphatase assay on HepG2 hepatocellular and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. The ethyl acetate fraction of acalypha wilkesiana seeds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity, whereas, it exhibited potent antifungal activity especially towards A. flavus, A. westerdijikia, F. verticelloides and F. proleferatum. Fortunately, combination of conventional drug antibiotic (tetracycline) and Acalypha wilkesiana seeds extract in portions (1:1 and 1:2) respectively, showed a distinct increase in the antibiotic activity compared to tetracycline itself, whereas the same combination with conventional antifungal drug(nystatin) did not show any increase in the antifungal activity. A. wilkisiana seeds showed also a distinct cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. Chemical investigation of A. wilkesiana seeds ethyl acetate extract led to isolation and identification of 12 polyphenolic compounds; among them the new natural product; brevifolin carboxylic propyl ester.

Abstract Online: 18-February-2016

3. Phytochemicals Screening and Evaluation of Antioxidants and Antibacterial Activities of Five Medicinal Plants
Zuhair Radhi Addai
Abstract
Extracts of medicinal plants Syzygium aromaticum, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum verum, Pimpinella anisum and Zingiber purpurea were investigated for their biological activity. The presences of phytochemicals, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were investigated. Parts of medicinal plants were extracted with acetone 50%. The extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method, while antioxidant activities were measured using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phytochemical screening was performed using a standard method. Syzygium aromaticum fruit extract exhibited the most activity in the test antioxidants and antibacterial activity when compared with other medicinal plants. Phytochemical analysis revealed that alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannin, and   carbohydrates were present in the extracts of Syzygium aromaticum, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum verum, Pimpinella anisum L. and Zingiber purpurea while saponin and steroids was only present in the Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber purpurea extracts. The studied medicinal plants have interesting antioxidant properties, antibacterial activity and a phytochemicals composition that could provide scientific evidence for some folk uses in the treatment of diseases and therefore it can provide natural source of antibacterial drugs and antioxidants and can be useful in preventing various diseases including cancer.

Abstract Online: 18-February-2016

4. Standarization of Artabortrys hexapetalus
Bajaj Sakshi, Wakode Sharad

Abstract
Objectives: To study the morphological, microscopical characters and physiochemical properties of the aerial parts of Artabortrys hexapetalus (Annonaceae) to ensure the authenticity of plant standardization parameters of this plant has studied. Methods: In order to study the Microscopical characters, transverse sections of drug has been carried out by free hand. Using multiple reagents, various chemical tests were performed to identifymany microscopic structures.Preliminary phytochemical screening and quantitative estimation have been determined along with HPTLC fingerprinting.CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat applicator, TLC Scanner, Reprostart and WINCATS software were used for fingerprinting.Results:The microscopic structures of plant revealed the presence of collenchyma,parenchyma cells and palisade cells. Presence of trichomes, parasitic stomata, vascular bundles were also observed.In powder microscopy lignified xylem vessels, stomata and trichomes were clearly seen. Various physicochemical parameters like ash value,moisture content and extractive values were determined to standardize the drug.Chemical tests and HPTLC fingerprinting of multiple extracts revealed the presence of various plant secondary metabolites.Conclusion:These findings will be useful in establishing pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards for identification as well as assessment of purity and quality of this plant, which is definitely gaining the relevance in plant drug research and establishment of plant monograph.

Abstract Online: 18-February-2016

5. Photo-protective Effect of Murraya koenigii (Curry Leaf) Against Photodamage Induced in Swiss Albino Mice Under Acute Exposure to UVB Radiation.
Pande A R , Mascarenhas B, Bhagwat A MDesai K
Abstract
Exposure of the skin to UVB radiation causes skin damage. UVB is considered lethal as it spontaneously causes sunburn, is genotoxic, and responsible for significant depletion of dermal antioxidants (enzymic and non-enzymic). It initiates photochemical reactions resulting in extensive free radical generation and in turn oxidative stress.  The harmful effects of chemical based commercial sunscreens has led to the exploration of “safe” and “economical” alternatives. One approach is to use plant antioxidants as potential photoprotectives. Recent years have witnessed the application of antioxidative phytochemical compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and high molecular weight polyphenols, as beneficial photoprotective agents. However, the photoprotective role of commonly available antioxidant rich aromatic plants such as Murraya koenigii (Curry Leaf) is still less understood. In the present study, antioxidant activity of Murraya koenigii extracts was studied qualitatively and quantitatively. Hot and Cold chloroform extracts of M.koenigii showed maximum antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 17.46 µg/µL and 16.06 µg/µL respectively. Dermal antioxidant enzymatic response to a single UVB exposure was studied in Swiss albino mice by determining the change in catalase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities in the presence and absence of the plant extract. In the absence of the plant extract, the antioxidant activity of enzymes SOD and CAT decreased significantly (p<0.05) indicative of the stress induced. SOD enzyme showed a significant (p<0.05) improvement in its activity in the presence of the plant extract. The study thus indicates the photo-protective effect of cold chloroform extract of M.koenigii, against acute UVB damage induced in Swiss albino mice.

Abstract Online: 18-February-2016

6. The Development of New Approaches of Standardization of Rubia tinctorum Rhizomes et Radix
Shmygareva A A, Kurkin V A, Sankov A N
Abstract
A  quantitative analysis method for total anthracenderivatives in rhizomes et radices of Rubia tinctorum  with the using of  direct spectrophotometry at analytical wavelength 520 nm there was developed. The developed optimal conditions of extraction of anthracenderivatives in rhizomes et radices of Rubia tinctorum L. – extractant is 80% ethyl alcohol; the ratio of “raw-extractant” – 1:30; extraction time -90 min. The relative degree of the determination of the  total anthracenderivatives in rhizomes et radices of Rubia tinctorum L. in developed method  with confidence probability 0,95  is no more than ±3,18%. The content of total anthracenderivatvies in rhizomata et radices of Rubia tinctorum L. varied from 4,50±0,02% to 4,85±0,03% (calculated on ruberythrinic acid).

Abstract Online: 18-February-2016

7. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Lupeol Isolated from the Methanol Leaf Extract of Crateva adansonii Oliv. (Capparidaceae)
Michel K Tchimene, Chinaka O Nwaehujor, Moses Ezenwali, Charles C Okoli, Maurice M Iwu
Abstract
The study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant properties of lupeol isolated from the methanol leaf extract of Crateva adansonii. In order to assess the antioxidant effect of lupeol in vitro (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) spectrophotometric assay, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, Anti-lipid peroxidation assay, β -Carotene bleaching assay, Superoxide anion radical scavenging assay)  and in vivo (Lipid peroxidation assay, Assay of catalase (CAT) activity, Assay of reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration) experimental models were used. The effect of DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging showed that lupeol had better percentage antioxidant activities at high concentrations when compared with ascorbic acid (88.40 % and 82.37 % at 800 µg/ml respectively). The FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) results were similar to the DPPH with Lupeol at high concentration giving a FRAP value of 2.314 ± 0.06 which is slightly higher than that of ascorbic acid even at 1000 µg/ml. Lupeol efficiently scavenged hydrogen, due to its ability   to donate electrons to hydrogen peroxide.  The results of this work show that Lupeol possessed strong ABTS scavenging activity and a lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity in the human body.  Pretreatment with the lupeol increased the activities of CAT (catalase) which may be the mechanism of action of the observed reduction in lipid peroxidation. This assay revealed that the lupeol might prevent reactive radical species from damaging biomolecules such as lipoprotein, DNA, amino acids, sugar, proteins and PUFA in biological and food systems. The present investigation showed that lupeol has antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals.

Abstract Online: 18-February-2016

8. Pharmacological Evaluation of Topical Gel Containing Plant Proteinases on Wound Healing Using Excision and Incision Wound Model
Gunde M C, Gilhotra R M, Amnerkar N D
Abstract
The  aim  of  present  study  was  to  evaluate  wound  healing  activity  of  topical  gel  containing  plant  proteinases  using  excision  and  incision  wound  model.  In  excision  wound  model,  Circular  wounds  of  about  2.5cm  diameter  were  made  on  depilated  dorsal  thoracic  region  of  anaesthetized rat under  aseptic  condition.  All  the  topical  gels  were  applied  once  daily  starting  from  the  day  of  wounding.  The  percentage  of  wound  contraction  was  calculated  from  the  measured  wound  area  in 3  day  interval  and  epithelization  time  was  also  noted.  Histopathological study performed to check healing markers.  In  incision  wound  model,  Paravertebral  long  incision  of  about  6  cm  length  were  made  on  depilated  back  of  the  rats.  The  parted  skin  was  kept  together  and  stitched  at  about  0.5  cm  intervals  continuously  and  tightly  using  non  absorbable  surgical  sutures.  When  the  wounds  were  cured  thoroughly,  the  sutures  were  removed  on  day  9  and  the  tensile  strength  of  the  healed  wounds  were  measured  on  day  10.  Data  obtained  were  analyzed  using  one  way  ANOVA  and  post  hoc  test  done  using  graph  pad  prism version 5. The  results  of  present  study  indicated  that  chitosan  gel  containing  mixture  of  plant  proteinases  shows  good  wound  healing  activity  as  compare  to  other  groups  by  increasing  percentage  of  wound  contraction,  reducing  epithelization  time  and  improving  breaking  strength.  Histopathological studies also support the results. The  more  wound  healing  activity  may  be  due  to  synergistic  effects  of  plant  proteinases  and  chitosan  with  each  other.

Abstract Online: 18-February-2016

9. Comparative Study of Amino Acid Composition in the Seeds, Pulp and Rind from Citurllus colocynthis Fruits
Zead Helmi Mahmoud Abudayeh, Haiane Rachykivna Lamazian, Petro Sereda, Ivan Chekman, Ihab Ibrahim Al Khalifa, Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam, Loay Khaled Mohammad Hassouneh
Abstract
Different parts of Citrullus colocynthis fruits were studied to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of amino acids. For this purpose, ion-exchange chromatography technique using an Amino Acid Analyzer (T 339 M Mikrotecha Praha) was used. In all parts of the fruit studied, 17 amino acids were found, and 9 among them were essential. The most concentrated essential amino acid in all parts studied (mg/100 mg of sample) was arginine. The dominant amino acid contents present in each part: in seeds, glutamic acid; in rind, aspartic acid; and in pulp, arginine. On the other hand, the least concentrated amino acid contents in seeds, cystine; in pulp, methionine; and in rind, phenylalanine. The most abundant total amino acids were in seeds. We conclude that although the qualitative composition of amino acids in all parts was same, but the quantitative contents differ significantly from each other with a prevalence of amino acids in seeds. Citrullus colocyynthis fruit parts, especially seeds, are good protein sources of essential and non essential amino acids and can be used as food supplement which are the functional unit of protein required on a daily basis for good health of adults. This study is considered as the first approach to characterize Citrullus colocynthis based on its amino acids contents. Furthermore, the contents of amino acids found may provide researchers with useful information when used in combination with other parameters for determination of the quality of Citrullus colocynthis.

Abstract Online: 23-February-2016

10. Preliminary  Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Studies on the Flowers of  Nerium Oleander Linn.(White Cultivar)
Chaudhary  Kiran,  Prasad  D N,  Sandhu B S
Abstract
Nerium oleander is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocyanaceae. It is commonly known as oleander but has many other names like Nerium indicum mill. and Nerium odorum soland. The present study was carried out for pharmacognostic evaluation, physical evaluation, and phytochemical evaluation according to standard procedures. The flowers of of Nerium oleander were collected, shade dried and extraction was done by simple maceration method. The preliminary morphological studies, macroscopic as well as microscopic evaluation, physical evaluation and preliminary phytochemical screening  for the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, phenolics, steroids and saponins for petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Nerium oleander flowers were carried out. The physical evaluation was carried out for the determination of petroleum ether soluble extractive value, methanol soluble extractive value, water soluble extractive value; ash value includes total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash, moisture content, volatile oil content for the flowers of Nerium oleander .

Abstract Online: 23-February-2016

11. Comparative Physicochemical ash study of some Medicinal plants species of western Himalaya.
Acharya Bal Krishna, Hemanth Kumar Manikyam, Deepak Singh Janoti
Abstract
Air dried powdered plants material were evaluated for their comparative physicochemical ash content study of Berberis aristata (Root), Toona ciliata (Bark), Rhododendron arboreum  (Flower, Bark, Leaves), Alpinia Speciosa (Leaves), Thuja orientalis (Leaves), Cedrus deodara (Bark), Lantana camara (Leaves), Hemidesmus indicus (Leaves), Curcuma amada (Rhizome). The higher extent of Total ash (Physiological ash and Non-physiological ash) were found in Rhododendron arboreum Bark (12.224+0.101), while higher extent of Water soluble ash were found in Toona ciliata Bark 4.049+ 0.088, while higher content of Non-Physiological ash (acid insoluble ash) was found in Lantana camara Leaves  (2.276+0.186).

Abstract Online: 23-February-2016

12. Dimeric Phloroglucinol Derivatives but not Benzopyrans from Hypericum Species Have No Toxicity on Cerebellar Primary Neurons
Betti A H, Stolz E  D, Barros F M C,  Müller L G,von Poser G L, Rego J L, Rego J C, Vaudry D, Rates S M K
Abstract
Hypericum polyanthemum, H. caprifoliatum and H. myrianthum, are vegetal species native to southern Brazil and demonstrated antinociceptive and antidepressant-like effects. These species have a strong tendency to accumulate phenolic compounds with the phloroglucinol substitution pattern, such as benzopyrans (HP1, HP2, HP3) and dimeric phloroglucinol derivatives (uliginosin B, hyperbrasilol B, japonicin A). Pre-clinical studies suggest that dimeric phloroglucinols and benzopyrans might constitute promising molecular patterns to develop central nervous system drugs: uliginosin B and hyperbrasilol B displayed antinociceptive and antidepressant-like effects; japonicin A and HP1 showed antinociceptive effect only. However, limited information is available on their neuronal toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these compounds can be associated with neuronal toxicity by using cerebellum primary cell cultures. Cell cultures of primary cerebellar granule cells were prepared from 7 to 9 days rats.  Growing concentrations of HP1, HP2, HP3, uliginosin B, hyperbrasilol B and japonicin A (10-10 to 10-6 M final concentration) were added directly to cell cultures and neuronal survival was assessed 72 h later. Exposure of cell cultures to HP1, uliginosin B, hyperbrasilol B and japonicin A (10-6 and 10-10 M) for up to 72hours, did not affect granule cell survival  suggesting that these compounds are not neurotoxic, while HP2 (10-6 and 10-7 M) and HP3 (10-7 M) were. This study indicates that uliginosin B, hyperbrasilol B and japonicin A are devoid of neuronal toxicity, which encourages further studies on dimeric phloroglucinol derivatives, aiming at developing new antidepressant and analgesic drugs.

Abstract Online: 23-February-2016

13. Effect of A Single Dose Adminstration of Wheat Bran Extract and its Active Components on Acute Ischemicbrain Injury
Shaaban H, Shafei A A, Abdel Jaleel Gehad A, Ibrahim B M, Hassan A H
Abstract
Three known compounds were isolated from wheat bran (Graminae), namely β-sitosterol 3-O– β,D-glucopyranoside (WB1), Sucrose (WB2) and 10(cis), 13(cis)-octadecadieneoic acid (WB3)for first time by successive column chromatography.  The structures were determined mainly by spectroscopic method (1H, 13C–NMR). This study aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity and determine the effect of ethanol extract of wheat bran and its active components on oxidative stress induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) by occlusion of the left common carotid artery (CCA) in the rat.  They restored the I/R-induced depletion of super oxide dismutase activity (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, with reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents that elevated during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.  In conclusion, WBI, WB3 and total ethanol Bran extract ameliorated the oxidative stress resulted from cerebral ischemia-reperfusion confirmed by histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis.

Abstract Online: 23-February-2016

14. Antidiabetic Potential of Brassica oleracea Var. Italica in Type 2 Diabetic Sprague Dawley (SD) Rats
Shah M A, Sarker M M R, Gousuddin M
Abstract
Now-a-days functional foods are considered as the most convenient means for the prevention and management of chronic diseases with minimal or no side effects. Brassica oleracea var. Italica (family Brassiceae) is a popular dietary vegetable eaten all over the world. It has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial and anticancer properties but antidiabetic activities are not yet extensively explored. The present study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic potential of Brassica oleracea var. Italica in type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.  Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was induced in the SD rats with high fat diet and injecting a low dose (35 mg/kg) of streptozocin. Diabetic rats were treated with Brassica oleracea var. italica extracts at a dose of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Metformin (250 mg/kg body weight) was used as a standard antidiabetic drug. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance, glycated haemoglobin, serum insulin and Hemoglobin were determined from the serum by using standard kits. After 28th day, daily administration of Brassica oleracea var. Italica in diabetic treated SD rats showed improvement in body weight, water and food intake as compared to diabetic control rats. out of the three different doses viz., 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, the highest dose (800 mg/kg) caused a significant attenuation in the blood glucose at 180 min in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic control group (P<0.001).The study demonstrated that ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea extract have potential antidiabetic activities. Thus Brassica oleracea as vegetable or its extract can be useful to control hyperglycemia.

Abstract Online: 23-February-2016

15. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities in Various Beans Extracts of Five Legumes from West of Java-Indonesia Using Dpph and Abts Methods
Irda Fidrianny, Dilla Elviana, Komar Ruslan
Abstract
The aim of this research were to determine antioxidant activity from different polarities beans extracts of five legumes beans using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and correlation of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content in various extracts of five legumes beans with their IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of ABTS antioxidant activities. Extraction was done by reflux using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant activities using DPPH and ABTS assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were conducted by UV-visible spectrophotometry and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of ABTS scavenging activities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. All of ethanol extracts from five legumes beans were categorized as very strong antioxidant by DPPH and ABTS methods. Phenolic compounds in red kidney bean extracts were the major contributor in IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of ABTS scavenging activities. DPPH and ABTS assays showed linear results in red kidney bean and bogor peanut sample.

Abstract Online: 29-February-2016

16. Volatile and Non-polar Chemical Constituents of cultivated Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus
Wekesa N J, Lilechi D B, Sigot A, Cheruiyot J K, Kamau R. W, Kisiangani P

Abstract
Oyster mushrooms have been widely used as food because of their nutritional properties. Despite being regarded as good potentials in producing bioactive compounds without causing toxicity to humans, little phytochemical studies have been done on Kenyan widely cultivated Oyster mushroom. The present investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from P. ostreatus by GC-MS Technique. This analysis revealed that the volatile non- polar compounds for P. ostreatus extract with the highest normalized amounts were 1, 3-dimethylbenzene (32.803%) and phenyl ethyl alcohol (21.557%). Other compounds like 1-octen-3-ol (0.864%), 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid (0.783%), n-undecane (0.127%), cedrol (0.106%) and heptadecane (0.146%) were also obtained as minor components from the P. ostreatus crude extract of hexane.

Abstract Online: 29-February-2016

17. Anti-bacterial, Antifungal Activity and Chemical Analysis of Punica grantanum (Pomegranate peel) Using GC-MS and FTIR Spectroscopy
Ghaidaa Jihadi Mohammed, Mohammad J Al-Jassani, Imad Hadi Hameed
Abstract
Medicinal plants are important source of antibacterial compounds. These plants contain secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, phenolics, terpenes and volatile oils The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition of methanolic peel extract. The phytochemical compound screened by GC-MS method. Twentyseven bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Punica granatum. The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight, molecular formula, MS Fragment- ions and Pharmacological actions. GC-MS analysis of Punica granatum revealed the existence of the 2H-Pyran,2,2´-[1,10-decanediylbis(oxy)]bis[tetrahydro-, 6-Oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one, 2,5-Furandione, 3-methyl-, 2-Furancarboxaldehyde,5-methyl, D-Glucose, 6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl, D-Limonene, Lactose, DL-Arabinose, 5-Methyl -2- pyrazinylmethanol, 6-Acetyl-ß-d-mannose, α-D-Glucopyranoside , O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1.fwdarw)-ß-D-fruc, 4-Hexenal,6-hydroxy-4-methyl-,dimethyl acetal, acetate, ( Z), 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro- 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, 4-Chloro-3-n-hexyltetrahydropyran, 4-Methyl itaconate, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 4,6-di-tert-butyl-m-cresol, 3-butyl-4-nitro-pent-4-enoic acid , methyl ester, 1,2-Cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid ,4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-,dimethyl, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17ß-ol, Cis-Vaccenic acid, 9-Octadecenamide, 8,14-Seco-,3,19- epoxyandrostane-8,14-dione,17-acetoxy -3ß-meth, Dasycarpidan-1-methanol,acetate(ester), α-Tocopheryl acetate and γ-Sitosterol. The FTIR analysis of Punica granatum peel proved the presence of Alkenes, Aliphatic fluoro compounds, Alcohols, Ethers, Carboxlic acids, Esters, Nitro Compounds, Alkanes, H-bonded H-X group, Hydrogen bonded Alcohols and Phenols. Punica granatum was highly active against Aspergillus fumigatus (7.00±0.150). Bioactive compounds of Punica granatum was assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity against Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia using the diffusion method in agar. The zone of inhibition were compared with different standard antibiotics. The diameters of inhibition zones ranged from 5.91±0.200 to 1.00±0.110 mm for all treatments.

Abstract Online: 29-February-2016

18. Chemical Constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds
Consolacion Y. Ragasa,  Vincent Antonio S Ng, Chien-Chang Shen
Abstract
Chemical studies of the ethanol extracts of the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. yielded 4-(4′-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (1),  a mixture of 1 and 4-(3′-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (2) in a 2:1 ratio, 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (3), a mixture of 3 and niazimicin (4) in a 2.5:1 ratio, triolein (5), β-sitosteryl oleate (6),  and a mixture of β-sitosterol (7) and stigmasterol (8) in a 4:1 ratio from the immature seeds; 3, 5, 6, a mixture of 7 and 8 in a 3:1 ratio,  oleic acid (9), and 1-octadecene (10) from the mature seeds;  and  5, a mixture of 7 and 8 in a 4:1 ratio, and 9 from the brown seeds.  The major constituents of the immature seeds are the isothiocyanates 1 and 3, while the major constituents of the brown seeds are the lipids 5 and 9.  The structures of 1-10 were identified by NMR spectroscopy.

Abstract Online: 29-February-2016

19. Antiviral, Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Chemical Constituents of Adansonia digitata Grown in Egypt
Ateya A, Ammar N, El-Eraky W,  El-Senousy W, El Awdan,S, Amer A
Abstract
The Areal parts of Adansonia digitata were successively extracted by gradient solvents. The resulting  extracts were submitted  to bioassay in order to  uncover their biological potential. The antiviral activity indicated  significant activities: adenovirus type-7 56.6%(MeOH extract) and 66.6%(water extract)while rotavirus Wa strain 63.3% and 70% and coxsackievirus B4 70%  titre  reduction,  while the HepG2 cytotoxicity(IC50 19.3 µg/ml vs  24.46 µg / ml for doxorubicin) , analgesic (82.5%  vs 79.6%  for  standard aspirin), antioxidant(38.3 μg/ml  vs  4.80 μg/ml for vitamin C) as well as  the anti-inflammatory (61.5% vs 59.5% for indomethacin) indicated promising  activities . Repeated chromatographic columns for these extracts afforded  nine chemical compounds . Spectral analysis of these compounds using UV, MS and NMR confirmed the presence of several flavonoids: apigenin, luteolin, Genkwanin, Luteolin -7-O- galactoside, Chrysoeriol-7-O – glucoside  and Luteolin -7-O– glucoside. In addition, α-amyrin palmitate, Ursolic acid and Ursolic acid derivative [24-(Trans) Ferulyl)Oxy-3-Hydroxy-Urs-12-En-28-Oic acid] were obtained for the first time from the plant. Total  plant flavonoids(3.73 mg/100 mg leaves extract and 1.491 mg /100 mg fruit pulp) and Vit C content(9.33 mg/100g leaves extract and 0.8 mg/100g seed extract)were also determined.

Abstract Online: 29-February-2016

20. Chemical Constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Lavandula stoechas (lamiaceae) from Morocco against the malaria vector Anopheles labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae)
El Ouali Lalami A, EL-Akhal F, Maniar S, Ez zoubi Y, Taghzouti K
Abstract
The use of synthetic larvicides to control vector populations is detrimental to human and environmental health and selects for insecticide resistance. Plants can be alternative sources of effective and safe mosquito control agents. In the present work the chemical composition and larvicidal activity, of essential oil of Lavandula stoechas (lamiaceae), growing in wilds of Morocco, against the malaria vector Anopheles labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae), were studied. The obtained percent yield of the hydro-distilled volatile oil from aerial parts of Lavandula stoechas, was 1.74 ± 0.24. The GC/MS analysis of Lavandula stoechas essential oil has led to the identification of 20 components. Camphor (36.14%), 1.8-Cineole (25.16%), Camphene (11.44%) and Fenchone (9.08 %), were the major constituents of which. The biological test performed using a methodology that is inspired from WHO standard protocol, revealed that the essential oil of Lavandula has larvicidal properties.  The minimal dose required to achieve 100% larvicidal effect on Anopheles labranchiae was 500 mg/l for essential oil of Lavandula stoechas. The Lethal Concentration (LC50 and LC90) values were 112.51 mg/l and 294.51 mg/l respectively. The relationship between the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oil of Lavandula stoechas is confirmed by the above-mentioned results.  Therefore, the potential for exploiting these essential oils, such as bioinsecticides for vector control, can be taken into account.

Abstract Online: 29-February-2016

21. Pharmacognostic and Phythochemical Studies of Croton linearis Jacq. Leaves.
García-Díaz J, Escalona-Arranz J, Rojas-Vargas J, Machado-García R, Gordillo-Pérez M, Escalona-Caparros A
Abstract
Leaves from Croton linearis Jacq are usually used by Cuban population to treat thefever, but there is almost no information about this plant; that’s why in the present research we accomplish a phytochemical and pharmacognostical study of Croton linearis Jacq. leaves. Methods: Macro and micromorphological analysis, residual moisture andtotal ashesof the leaveswere performed.An experimental design consisting in the combination of three extractive methods (soxhlet, ultrasound and stirring maceration) and foursolvents (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water) was alsocarried out (12 extracts) in order to determine the best extractive combination through the determinationof the total solublesubstances andqualitativechemical composition.To the best extractive combination, its physicochemical (pH, refraction index and relative density)and chemical parameters (fingerprint and thin layer chromatography) were determined. Results: The macro and micromorphological description of the leaves, the values of residual moisture (11.0 ± 1.41 %,) and total ashes (4.54 ± 0.57 %) is informed. The ethanol extracts showed the highest values of total solids for the three extractive methods (0.840 ± 0.071, 0.553 ±0.058 y 0.478 ±0.139), presenting the major diversity of metabolites: alkaloids, triterpenes, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, amino acids, flavonoids and tannins whilethe stirring maceration was the best method. The pH, refractive index and relative density of the extract results of this combination (Ethanol/stirring maceration) is informed as well as it UV-Visible fingerprint. The TLC study showed presenceofa majority substance with UV/Visible absorption at λ 665 ηm. Conclusions: The pharmacognostical and phytochemical parameters determinedwill be useful in order to authenticate and standardize the vegetal drug, while thephysical-chemical and chemical parameters of ethanol extract can be used forits quality control.

Abstract Online: 29-February-2016

22. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Selected Siddha Herbal Drugs – An In vitro Study
Rajalakshmi P, Vadivel V, Abirami K, Brindha P
Abstract
Herbal drugs such as cardamom (Elletaria cardamomum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), arrow root (Maranta arundinacea L.), yew leaves (Abies webbiana (D. Don) Spach), Indian rose chestnut (Mesua ferrea L.), pepper (Piper nigrum L) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry) have been used in the preparation of various Siddha formulations. The afore-said herbal drugs exhibited therapeutic effect against the loss of appetite, indigestion, gastric reflex, hiccup, flatulence, itching, scabies, cold, cough, head-ache and joint pains. Even though these herbal drugs have been used to manage arthritis, there is no scientific evidence regarding mechanism of action. Hence, the present study dealt with the evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of selected herbal drugs through in vitro studies so as to provide scientific evidences for their anti-arthritic effect.

Abstract Online: 29-February-2016

23. Withdrawn

24. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Power of Citrullus colcynthis from Togo
S.Limem, D. Banlipo, T Karmous
Abstract
Underdeveloped and developing countries suffer from Nutrition difficulties that require immediate attention. Consumption of   food affects physical and mental health of a person. This study evaluates the chemical constitution and antioxidant capacity of Citrullus Colocynthis, the main source of daily food of the Togolese. The spectrophotometric evaluation of phenolic compounds (total phenolic, flavonoid, procyanidine and carotenoid) show that Citrullus Colocynthis has an important phenolic content (569, 5±0,010 mg GAE/g extract). The amounts of minerals (Calcium, Iron, Potassium, Magnesium, Lithium, Sodium and Copper) were also established by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The percentage of ash, protein and fat was also studied. Furthermore, Fatty acid and Amino acid in Citrullus Colcynthis were evaluated by chromatographic method.  The total antioxidant activity was first estimated using the phosphomolybdenum method. In addition, four other   methods were used to analyze the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract, as well as FRAP assay (ferric reducing antioxidant potential), DPPH radical scavenging assay, ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assay.

Abstract Online: 29-February-2016






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research