1. Variability of Antioxidant Properties and Identification of Phenolic Contents by HPLC-DAD in Different Organs of Acacia albida and Acacia raddiana Karoune S, Kechebar M S A, Djellouli A, Belhamra M, Rahmoune C, Ksouri R
The mainly aims of this work is to study the interspecific variability of polyphenol contents and anti-radical activity of two species, Acacia albida and Acacia raddiana in order to select the best species in both respects, quantitative (phenolic content) and qualitative (antioxidant activity). Initially we performed a sequential extraction with four solvents: Hexane, Chloroform, Ethanol and Water on three organs leaves, fruit and bark, collected on field in the Tindouf region. The eighteen extracts obtained were assayed for total polyphenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and an evaluation of the antioxidant activity by testing the free radical DPPH. Results showed significant differences between organs of both species for the three extracting solvents as well as for the polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties. The ethanol extracts of Acacia albida exhibit the best results of total polyphenol concentration with 100.94 and 59.50 mg GAE.g-1DW, respectively for the leaves and bark. The IC50 values of the DPPH test is in favor of leaves and bark of Acacia albida for both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. For the ethanolic extract we recorded IC50 values of 28 and 26 µg.ml-1 for leaves and bark, while the aqueous extract exhibited the values of 22.5 and 29 µg.ml-1 for leaves and bark, respectively. Both extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD). These results allow us to conclude that the Acacia albida is the most active species in comparison to Acacia raddiana and the ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaves and bark have achieved the best values.
2. Pharmacognostical and Physico-Chemical Studies of Barringtonia acutangula Fruit
Mohanty A, Das C, Ghosh G, Sahu P K
Barringtonia acutangula belongs to family Barringtoniaceae, useful in the treatment of wound, syphilis, liver troubles. The present study has been attempted to evaluate pharmacognostical and physico-chemical studies of Barringtonia acutangula fruit and seed. Transverse section of fruit shows the presence of mesocarp, endocarp and endosperm. Seed shows the presence of endocarp, sclereids, endosperm and starch grains. The powder microscopy of fruit and seed show lignified sclereids, fragment of endosperm, starch grains, fibres, crystals and xylem vessels. Histochemical tests of fruit reveal the presence of lignins, starch and phenols which are characterised by different histological zones. Physico-chemical studies such as ash value, extractive value, moisture content, powder behaviour and fluorescence analysis were carried out on both fruit and seed. Total ash, water soluble and methanol soluble extractive values were found more in fruit than seed. Moisture content was found more in seed. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract indicates the presence of important secondary metabolite like carbohydrate, glycoside, saponins, alkaloids, tannins and phenols. These studies help in identification and authentication of the plant material. Such information can act as reference information for correct identification of particular plant and useful in making a monograph of the plant
3. Chemical Constituents, Antioxidant Property, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Tiliacora Triandra Chaveerach A, Lertsatitthanakorn P, Tanee T, Puangjit N, Patarapadungkit N, Sudmoon R
Tiliacora triandra has long been used as a traditional medicine and in cuisine in Thailand and neighboring countries. Leaf samples were randomly collected and extracted with methanol. The extracts were chemically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and free radical scavenging activities were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. After drying and re-dissolving the extracts in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests were performed using lymphocytes and HeLa cells. The major components found in all extracts, with yields of 8.59-26.29%, were vitamin E, phytol and 1-cyclohexenylacetic acid. At a concentration of 8.4 mg/ml, the methanol extract reduced the concentration of free radical DPPH (DPPH•) to 50% (EC50). Lymphocyte viability was 72.78% when treated with 10 mg/ml extract, a concentration that significantly affected DNA (p<0.05). The viability of HeLa cells was 50% (IC50) when treated with 0.41 mg/ml; this concentration also significantly affected DNA (p<0.05). The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, in agreement with their high content of vitamin E, and significantly affected the stability of lymphocyte and HeLa DNA, though without major toxicity at the cellular level. These results reveal guidelines with regard to consumption of this plant, which is particularly common in Thailand.
4. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts from Jacaranda mimosifolia and Pseudospondias microcarpa
Lazare Sidjui Sidjui, Rufin Marie Kouipou Toghueo, Valérie Mahiou-Leddet,Sebastien Hutter, EvelyneO llivier, Gabriel Ngosong Folefoc
Jacaranda mimosifolia and Pseudospondias microcarpa two medicinal plants used in Cameroon to treat various diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever, hyperglycemia, gonococci, anemia, diarrhea, filaria, angulillulose, rheumatisms were screen against K1 strain of P. falciparum in vitro. Out of the 15 extracts tested, two showed good (IC507.74–8.6 µg/mL), eleven exhibited moderate (IC50 from 10.50–36.55 µg/mL), while only one displayed mild (IC50 >50 µg/mL) antiplasmodial activity. Methylene cholride and ethyl acetate extracts from stem bark of J. mimosifolia were the most active with IC50 of 7.74 µg/mL and 8.6 µg/mL respectively. The cytotoxicity of these highly active extracts on HEpG2 were 20 µg/mL and 17.38 µg/mL with the good selectivity indices of 2.5839 and 2.0209 respectively. This study have revealed for the first time the antiplasmodial activity of solvent extracts of J. mimosifoliaand P. microcarpa and justify the traditional use of these plants. These plants are good candidates for isolation of anti-protozoal compounds which could serve as new lead structures for drug development.
5. Toxicity Study of Brassica oleracea Var. Italica Extracts in Sprague Dawley (SD) Rats. Shah M A, Sarker M M R, Gousuddin M
Objective: This study was designed to elucidate the acute and sub acute toxicity of the widely used plant Brassica oleracea var. Italica in SD rats. Method: Ethanolic extract isolated from the Brassica oleracea var. Italica was taken and their toxic effects were studied. Acute, sub acute and LD50 values were determined in experimental rats according to the Organization for economic cooperation and development guidelines (OECD). In toxicity study, the oral dose (300, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg) of Brassica oleracea var. Italica plant extract was administered to three groups in single dose and general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined up to 72 hrs and compared to normal group. Dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg of Brassica oleracea var. Italica for 28 days was orally administered for 28 days in two animal groups. The body weight, hematological, serum hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated and compared to normal group by sacrificing all group animals. From the Sub acute administration of Brassica oleracea var. Italica, the LD50 values were determined using graphical method. Result: In studies there was no mortality or any significant changes noticed in the SD rats after the administration of tested plant extract of 300, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg body weight respectively. The experimental animals did not showed any drug related changes in behavior, breathing, skin effects, water consumption, impairment in food intake and temperature. Furthermore B. oleracea Var. Italica extract did not produce any remarkable change in biochemical and hematological parameters following the administration of tested crude plant extract of 400 and 8000 mg/kg body weight for 28 consecutive days. Discussion: After calculation of LD50 values, we found a high therapeutic index value for Brassica oleracea var. Italica extracts. Oral administration of the extracts of the leaves of Brassica oleracea var. Italica at doses of 300, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg body wt for 28 consecutive days to SD rats did not induce any short term toxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the extracts of the leaves of Brassica oleracea var. Italica have a high scope of drug safety.
6. Preliminary Phytochemical Investigations of Three Species of Traditional Medicinal Plants of Tribal Regions of Maharashtra (India) S G Pawar, S Y Kamble, S R Patil, P S Sawant, E A Singh
Since ancient period, plant based traditional systems of medicines such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy have greatly contributed towards primary health care of human beings. At present also many herbal drugs are being used not only in various formulations of traditional systems but also in modern medicines. The present need of the hour is to authenticate, standardize the drug and scientifically prove its efficacy. Researches are now on to study scientifically active ingredients of traditional medicines. However, lacunas have been remained in many plants, in their scientific evaluation of active ingredients. In view of this, present study of proximate preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis of Euphorbia ligularia, Tectaria coadunata and Clematis hedysarifolia was carried out using standard conventional methods. For this study methanolic, aqueous and petroleum ether extracts were used. Preliminary phytochemical screening of all the three species indicated the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, anthraquinone and coumarin glycosides, steroids and flavonoids. Results of TLC and HPTLC studies of Clematis hedysarifolia revealed that extract contains wide range of active ingredients. The present findings are very encouraging and indicate that these plants need further extensive study for its therapeutic effect.
7. Essential Oil Composition of Pulicaria undulata (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) Growing in Algeria Manel Boumaraf, Ratiba Mekkiou, Samira Benyahia, Jean-claude Chalchat, Pierre Chalard, FadilaBenayache, Samir Benayache
The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of aerial parts of Pulicaria undulata (Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. 31 compounds were determined among which oxygenated terpenoids represented 74.3% while the non oxygenated fraction represented 22.7%. The major components were carvotanacetone (14.8%), δ-cadinene (8.2%), α-cadinol (4.7%) and thujanol (4.7%). These results differ from the few previous studies reported on this species.
The leaves of Reinwardtia indica was analysed for preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and biological activity. Proximate analysis has been performed to evaluate content of ash (11.09±0.10%), moisture (12.62%), fat (11.44%), fibre (2.44%), protein (29.23%), carbohydrate (45.79%) and nutritive value (403.05 Kcal/100 grams of leaves). The results of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various medicinal active phytoconstituents. Total phenolic content was highest for chloroform extract (41.66 mgGAE/g dry weights). The antioxidant potential of extracts was performed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. In DPPH assay highest activities shown by aqueous extract with IC50 value of 0.45mg/ml and also have FRAP value 1.62. Antimicrobial activity performed by agar well diffusion method and activity towards the selected microbes was best shown by chloroform extract. Overall results revealed that Reinwardtia indica leaves exhibits excellent nutritive value along with potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It can be used in medicine as antimicrobial as well as in food supplements to prevent their oxidation and rancidity of food.
9. Chemical Constituents from Stem Bark of Garcinia prainiana and Their Bioactivities On S, Aminudin N I, Ahmad F, Sirat H M, Taher M
Phytochemical investigations on the hexane and methanol extracts of the dried stem barks of Garcinia prainiana resulted in the isolation of two triterpenes; 3β-hydroxyeupha-5,22-diene (1), 3β-acetoxyeupha-5,22-diene (2) as well as five flavonoids, morelloflavone (3), O-methylfukugetin (4), volkensiflavone (5), amentoflavone (6) and 4′′′-methoxyamentoflavone (7). Except for (3) and (5), the rest of the isolated compounds are reported here for the ﬁrst time from this plant. The structures were established based on spectral analyses. The crudes and compounds were screened for DPPH radical scavenging assay and tyrosinase inhibition activity. The methanol extract and compound (3) were found to show high radical scavenging activity with IC50 15.1 and 15.7 mg/mL, respectively. As for tyrosinase inhibition assay, compound (3) was found to exhibit the highest activity with IC50 34.0 mg/mL.
10. Evaluation of Teratogenic Effect of Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis) Extract on Wistar Rats Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Dewi Safitri
Objectives: this study was conducted to obtain safety data of ethanolic extract of tempuyung leaves (EETL) on pregnant Wistar rats. Methods: Four groups of rats were used for this study, including control group, ethanolic extract of tempuyung leaves (EETL) at doses of 100 mg.kg-1, 400 mg.kg-1 and 1000 mg.kg-1, in which each group consisted of ten pregnant rats. Extracts were administered once daily starting from day 6 to day 15 of pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation period, laparotomy was performed to isolate the fetuses. For evaluation, all parameters related to fetal state such as fetal appearances, skeletal condition, organ weight, as well as fetal weight were determined. Results: There was no difference between EETL treated group with the control group in parameters: fetal weight, organ weight, mortality rates, macroscopically fetal appearance, skeletal condition. Moreover, abnormalities of organs were not presented in all extract treated group. Conclusion: administration of EETL at doses of 100, 400 and 1000 mg.kg-1bw in rats did not show teratogenic effects.
11. HSP70 Gene Expression Analysis in Dunaliella salina Under Salt Stress Bagher Mosaviazam, Amin Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein Morowvat, Ali Niazi, Pegah Mousavi, Ali Moghadam, Gholamreza Zarrini, Younes Ghasemi
Dunaliella salina a photosynthetic halotolerant microalgal strain was isolated during a screening program from Maharlu Salt Lake, Shiraz, Iran. After molecular identification and characterization, the influences of different salinity levels (0%, 5%, 12%, 20% and 30% NaCl) and different periods of salinity exposure (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48 h) on the expression of hsp70 gene in D. salina was investigated. The highest expression levels of hsp70 was seen under 12% NaCl concentration. Besides, When D. salina was stressed by NaCl, upregulation of hsp70 speciﬁc mRNA occurred within 1 h and remained increased during a culture of up to 6 h, as compared with normal cells.
12. Inhibitory Intestinal Glucose Uptake and Antioxidant In-Vitro Potentials of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Leptadenia hastata (Pers) Kabir N, Umar A I, Atiku M K, Usman M M, Yunusa I
Use of potent antioxidants and inhibitors of intestinal glucose uptake are one of the current therapeutic approaches employed clinically to control post porandial hyperglycemia and hyperglycemic induced oxidative stress for achievement of good glycemic control and to prevent the onset of diabetic complications. The present study was aimed at evaluating the in-vitro antioxidant and inhibitory intestinal glucose uptake potentials of the aqueous leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata (LH) for achievement of good glycemic control. The aqueous leaf extracts of LH was assessed using standard methods by studying the ferric reducing and DPPH radical scavenging activities using ascorbic acid as a standard drug and alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory activities using acarbose as standard drug for the assays. Results showed that the aqueous leaf extract of LH possessed a moderately low free radical reducing power (IC50 1200 µg/ml) and a high radical scavenging activity (IC50 651 µg/ml respectively. In addition, the extract possessed inhibitory activities for alpha amylase (IC50 1.00 µg/ml) and alpha glucosidase (IC50 2.62 µg/ml). The presence of alkaloids (3.88±1.71mg/g), saponins (18.92±1.66mg/g), phenols (20.96±4.81mg/g) and tannins (2.1±1.23mg/g) in the aqueous leaf extract of LH might be responsible for the pharmacological activity of LH. Conclusively, aqueous leaf extract of LH has a potential for use in the control of post porandial hyperglycemia and diabetes induced oxidative stress and can be used for future in-vivo antidiabetic studies.
13. Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Cleome Genus: A Brief Review Wael Abdullah, Wael M Elsayed, Khaled A Abdelshafeek, Naglaa M Nazif, Abdel Nasser B Singab
Family Cleomaceae is an important plant family, it includes seventeen genera and one hundred and fifty species in which Cleome genus is the most common one. This review summarizes the researches carried out on this genus concerning with it’s chemical constituents and the biological activity. It was found that the plants of this genus contain many chemical classes like essential oils, terpenes, flavonoids, glucosinolates, anthocyanins and alkaloids. Also it exhibited different biological activities as antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-schistomiasis, antibacterial, antidiarrheal analgesic anti-inflammatory and antimalarial.
14. Antioxidant and HPTLC Study of Black Glutinous Rice Extract from South Sulawesi Indonesia Abd. Rahim, Andi Arjuna, Ermina Pakki, Syatriani A. Syaiful, Abd. Muzakkir Rewa, Gemini Alam, Mufidah Murdifin
Black glutinous rice (BGR) is one of widely used materials for Buginese and Makassarnese people as traditional medicine ingredients and food compositions. It is a daily-consumed mixture for people with health problems such as diabetes mellitus, asthma, post-partum treatment, and gastritis. It has antioxidant effects due to its unique natural colorants, anthocyanin which been claimed as the main cause of its early-mentioned medicinal effectiveness. In order to have clear scientific evidence, this research was aimed to determine HPTLC profile and antioxidant activity of BGR. Black glutinous rice was extracted with acidic methanol, ethanol, and acetone solvents, then the analysis of anthocyanin was determined by the pH-differential and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. The antioxidant activity was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH), Nitric Oxide (NO) radicals scavenging, and β-Carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The highest total anthocyanin content was found in methanolic extract (0.166% b/b), followed by ethanolic extract (0.126% b/b) and acetonic extract (0.076% b/b). The antioxidant activity was inversely significant correlated (p<0.01) with the anthocyanin content; the highest antioxidant was observed in acetone extract with IC50 of 14.49 µg/ml for DPPH, 48.97 µg/ml for NO and 131.97 µg/ml for BCB assay. Furthermore, the HPTLC profile revealed that the primary compound in all BGR samples is cyanidin-3-o-glycoside, but there is another compound content that contributes to the higher activities of the BGR acetone extract. The antioxidant activity of black glutinous rice (Oryza Sativa Linn. var glutinous) may be due to the presence of the anthocyanin and other nonpolar compounds.
15. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Methanol Extract of Chlorophytum kolhapurens and Chlorophytum baruchii
Thakare P V, Sharma R R, Ghanwate N A
Chlorophytumborivilianum (Asparagaceae) is an important medicinal plant known as ‘Safed musli’ and is used in herbal drug industries. In present study we used two species of Chlorophytum viz., Chlorophytum kolhapurens and Chlorophytum baruchii for its potential antibacterial activity. Crude methanol extracts as well as active compound methanol extract of Chlorophytum species were screened for In vitro antimicrobial activity and also to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the species. Disc diffusion method was used to study the antimicrobial activity against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus fecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of Chlorophytum species confirmed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, proteins, amino acids, saponins and steroids. The phytochemical screening was also confirmed by HPTLC analysis for saponins. Chlorophytum kolhapurens showed highest activity against Proteus vulgaris, whereas Chlorophytum baruchii showed highest activity against Escherichia coli. In the present study, we concluded that the crude methanol extract of Chlorophytum species showed excellent antimicrobial activity as compared to active compound extract, and it is attributed due to the presence of phytochemicals.
16. Development of Quality Control Parameters for Standardization of Leaves of Ficus Species Shaikh A S, Mohammed Ibrahim, Khan Mohib
Ashvatha (Ficus religiosa Linn.), Nyagrodha (Ficus benghalensis Linn.), Udumbara (Ficus glomerata Roxb.) are few of the reputed panchavlkal drugs of ayurveda found abundantly throughout India. Various parts of these plants are used as antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, antistress, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory and analgesic. In present study, a detailed comparative pharmacognostic study of leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn., Ficus benghalensis Linn and Ficus glomerata Roxb. was carried out to develop quality control parameters which could be useful as a reference for experimental study of these plants in future. The study includes macroscopy, physicochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening, fluorescence analysis, UV Spectroscopic and thin layer chromatographic evaluation.
17. Pharmacological Test of Herbal Products from Temulawak (Curcuma Xanthorhiza) As Antihypercholesterol by In Vivo
Nurfina Aznam, Sri Atun
The purpose of this research was to observe the effects of temulawak (C. xanthorhiza) powdered and instant herbal products on hypercholesterol by in vivo. This research began with the manufacture of temulawak powdered and instant medicinal products from standard raw materials. The activity assay by in vivo using female Wistar strain rats aged 50 days with a weight around 150 grams which was fed with pellets and quail egg yolk. There were five rats in each group and were placed in a cage with a temperature of 25-32º C, and 98% relational humidity. The treatment to the tested animals was done to observe the rat blood lipid profile due to the treatment with temulawak powdered and instant herbal products, compared to the negative control (without quail egg yolk) and the positive control which was given the quail egg yolk and simvastatin as an antihypercholesterol. The treatment of each group of rats lasted for 50 days. All the rats were taken the blood from sinus orbitalis for the lipid profile analysis which includes determining total cholesterol levels, triglycerides, HDL (high density lipid), and LDL (low density lipid), before and after giving the Quail egg yolk, after a two week and a four week administration of temulawak powdered and instant herbal products. The results show that there are effects of the dose and four week duration of administration of temulawak powdered and instant herbal products on the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL in the rats’ blood.
18. Macroscopic and Morpho-Anatomical Diagnostic Features of Ziziphora bungeana Juz. From Kazakhstan Zhaparkulova A Karlygash, Sakipova B. Zuriydda, Ternynko I Inna, Raman Vijayasankar, Kurbatova V Natalya, Ross A Samir, Khan Ikhlas.
Studies have been conducted on organographic and anatomical structures of Ziziphora bungeana Juz. Diagnostic features which have been defined are as follows: aromatic plant with a specific pleasant smell. Stems are numerous, hardishly ribbed. Leaves are narrow-lanceolate or ovate. The plant has very thin hairs pointing downward. Anatomical diagnostic features include oil glands with eight radially arranged cells, glandular hairs with unicellular stalk and unicellular head, simple unicellular triangular-shaped hairs with roughly verrucose surface, and two- or three-celled thin-walled occasionally geniculate hairs. Cell walls of the leaf and stem epidermis have clearly visible thickenings. The stomatal complex is diacytic and has two phloem cells located transversely to the stomatic cleft with one of the subsidiary cells is less than the other. The stem is tetraquetrous. Under the epidermis there are several layers of the angular collenchyma arranged in four sides and consisting of the closely compressed, elongated and curved cells; two-three layers of the chlorenchyma cells are between the chlorenchyma bundles. The data obtained will be used in the future for prepation the Identification section of normative documents for medicinal plant raw materials of Ziziphora bungeana Juz.
19. Influence of Processing in Two Cultivar of Carica papaya from West Java-Indonesia to Antioxidant Activities, Total Phenolic, Flavonoid and Carotenoid Content Komar Ruslan, Anisa Nurfitri, Irda Fidrianny
The aim of this research were to determine antioxidant activity in various flesh extracts from three different processing of two cultivar of papaya using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and correlation of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content in various flesh extracts with their IC50 of DPPH antioxidant activities. Extraction was performed by reflux using different polarities solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant activities using DPPH assay, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were done by UV-visible spectrophotometry and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. All of ethyl acetate flesh extracts in two cultivar of C. papaya were categorized as very strong antioxidant by DPPH method. Phenolic and carotenoid compounds in raw C. papaya cv. calina were the major contributor in IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities.
20. Purification and Identification of 20KDA Protein from Parthenium hysterophorus
Praveen Kumar Vemuri, Bhavana Talluri, Gayathri Panangipalli, Siva Kumar Kadiyala, Suryanarayana Veeravalli, Vijaya Lakshmi Bodiga
The study was aimed to investigate which orthologues of Parthenium hysterophorus genes might encode the P20 protein. Polyethylene glycol fractionation of Parthenium hysterophorus leaf proteins has shown detection of low-abundance proteins. Samples incubated at -80°C also reduced precipitation time of protein to two hours. Further, sonication was used for removal of non-protein contaminants which increased protein solubility and improved protein identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. Tryptic digest of purified protein revealed the predicted size of the protein is ~20kDa by MALDI-TOF and identification of peptides present in the P20 protein is done by peptide sequence analysis. This study describes how a combination of bioinformatics and proteomics approaches led to the identification of novel P20 candidates.
21. Burn Skin Pathogens: Isolation, Identification, Antimicrobial Activity Pattern Against C. longa Extract and Computational Studies of its Components Essa Ajmi Alodeani
C. longa extract was obtained and tested against the burn skin pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella spp, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli. The finding of antimicrobial sxcreening disclosed that the methanol extract produced more effect than hexane extract. All the components in the extracted were examined for the drug likeness physicochemical properties, which depicted that all are in compliance with the Lipinski Rule of five except component six and all possessed bioactivity score in most active zone except component four that corresponds to moderately active zone.
22. Qualitative and Quantitative Estimation of Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds and the Biological Activities of Colvillea racemosa Cultivated in Egypt Azza A Shafei
The phenolic and flavonoid contents of the alcoholic extract of Colvillea racemosa were determined using HPLC and colorimetric analysis. Twentythree phenolic components and eleven flavonoidal compounds were detected. E-vanillic and benzoic acid (2489.16 and 454.43 ppm, respectively) were the major phenolic components, while hesperidin and naringin (329.73 and 193.39 ppm, respectively) were the major flavonoids. The colorimetric analysis of phenolic and flavonoidal contents resulted in 36.45 and 66.8 mg/gm respectively. The antimicrobial activity against some gram negative, gram positive bacteria and fungi were compared using ethyl acetate, alcoholic and acetone extracts. The acetone extract showed promising results. The cytotoxic activity was done using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiosolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliam bromide (MTT) assay against colon carcinoma cell lines (HCT-116) on the previously mentioned extracts. The results revealed that alcoholic extract was the most potent one with IC50 =4.52µg. Also, the antioxidant property of the alcoholic extract was examined using 2, 2-Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, providing IC50= 79.19 ug/ml.
23. Studies on the Enhancement of Cancer-Selective Cytotoxicity of Herbal Medicine by Combination Susanti S, Iwasaki H, Oku H
In this study, we evaluated the selective cytotoxicity of 9 herbal plant extracts in single or mixed doses by using a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. Single and higher doses of herbal extracts selectively suppressed the viability of cancer cells with slight toxicity to normal cells. A combination of lower doses of these extracts significantly increased the cytotoxicity to cancer cells with no adverse effect on normal cells suggesting that selectivity against cancer cells was enhanced and toxicity to normal cells was reduced by interactions between the wide arrays of compounds in the mixed formulations. We further tested for the positive or negative interactions between these crude extracts and arctigenin, the compound responsible for cancer-selective cytotoxicity in extracts of the herb Arctium lappa L. On the basis of changes in ED50 values, it was found that a combination of arctigenin with extracts from Prunus mume or Carum carvi enhanced the cytotoxicity to cancer cells with no detrimental effect on normal cells. These observations suggest that combination of herbal medicine can optimize cytotoxicity specifically to cancer cells while normal cells experience minimal toxicity. This study thus describes the optimization of herbal formulations through interactions between herbal plant extracts, and discusses the importance of this approach for enhancing cancer-specific cytotoxicity and opening a new avenue for cancer chemotherapy.
24. A Review on Protective Role of Phytoconstituents Against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Necrosis Raja S, Ramya I, Ravindranadh K
Heart disease remains the principal cause of death claiming millions of lives every year. Owing to technology and changes in life style the myth of myocardial infarction primarily affecting elderly people has been busted with heart disease claiming significant number of lives among young people also. Myocardial infarction occurs when a section of the heart is deprived of oxygen leading to necrosis of the tissue. Isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis came to light during the late fiftees. Conventional drugs are likely to reduce mortality, but their general applicability is limited by problems with toxicity and cost. Herbal medicine is used by more than one-fifth of the global population and it is an adept alternate to synthetic drugs. The objective of current review is to assess the cardio protective potential of phyto constituents like alkaloids, organo sulphur, carotenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, saponins and phenolic acid against isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Pretreatment of rats with these phytoconstituents significantly prevented the deviated biochemical variations such as marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant parameters to near normal status. This review article provides a comprehensive account of structure, dose and medical efficacy of cardio protective phytoconstituents.
25. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Spondias pinnata on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Ischemic Preconditioning of Heart Kishore H , Kaur B, Kalsi V, Suttee A
Background and Purpose: Cardiac ischemic preconditioning represents the most powerful endogenous protective mechanism against ischemia. Spondias pinnata is rich source of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The purpose of present study is to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Spondias pinnata (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) on ischemia- reperfusion injury and ischemic preconditioning of heart. Experimental Approach: Hearts from albino rats of Wistar strain were isolated and immediately mounted on Langendorff’s apparatus for retrograde perfusion. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was produced by mounting isolated rat hearts on Langendorff’s apparatus and global ischemia was produced for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. In ischemic preconditioning group, the hearts were subjected to four episodes of 5 min ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion after 10 minutes of stabilization and then 30 min global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was estimated macroscopically using TTC staining. The magnitude of cardiac injury was measured by Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Creatine Kinase (CK) concentration in the coronary effluent. The increase in infarct size and the release of LDH and CK are documented to be an index of I/R induced myocardial injury. Key Results: Spondias pinnata ethanolic extract significantly reduced ischemia reperfusion- induced myocardial injury in vitro, but it does not enhanced the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. Conclusion and Implications: Administration of Spondias pinnata ethanolic extract may prevent ischemic and reperfusion induced myocardial injury probably by its antioxidant activity.