Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume8,Issue6

1. Antioxidant and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition Activity of Landophia owariensis
Nwaji N N, Ojo O O, Ayinla Z A, Ajayi-Smith A F, Mgbenka U R, Nkwor A N, Onuoha M O
Abstract
High blood pressure is a common progressive disorder leading to various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, renal disease and diabetes. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the possible health benefits of antioxidants due to the role they play against cardiovascular ailments and their ability to scavenge free radicals. Many medicinal plants contain large amount of antioxidants. The present study evaluates the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of Landolphia owariensis, a common Nigerian plant used traditionally for the treatment of hypertension: The phenolics in the extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC method. ABTS and DPPH were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the extracts in vitro. A comprehensive assessment of the ACE inhibition properties of the extract was also evaluated. From the results, total phenolic content increases with increasing polarity of the extracting solvent with water extract showing the highest total phenolic contents (154.02mg.GAE/g,) and hexane extract the lowest (13.05 mg.GAE/g). A linear regression analysis showed that antioxidant activity of the extracts correlated very well with the total polyphenol content (R2 = 0.975) for DPPH, (R2 = 0.942) for TEAC.  The HPLC analysis indicates the presence of gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin and apiginine in substantial quantity only in polar solvents. ACE inhibition activity at different concentrations (0.25-4.0 mg/mL) showed varied 87.77% inhibitory activity at 4.0 mg/mL, which is comparable to Captopril standard drug with inhibitory activity of 90.07%. The molecular docking study also proved the isolated compounds from the extract exhibit good binding affinity and intermolecular interactions with different amino acids at the subsite of ACE.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

2. Phytochemical Investigation of Essential Oils from Ethanolic Extract of Polyalthia longifolia by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy
Doshi Gaurav Mahesh, Chaskar Pratip Kashinath
Abstract
Background: India has considered Polyalthia longifolia (PL) has one of the locally important plant. It has been known for its rich heritage with leaves and bark used in manufacturing of essential oil. The plant has its utility in skin diseases, diabetes, hypertension and helminthiasis as well as vitiated conditions of vata and pitta. Phytochemical screening of PL ethanolic extract of leaves has revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. Objective: The purpose of Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) studies on PL leaves was to explicate phytoconstituents which may prove its effectiveness in near future in the treatment of various diseases. Materials and Methods: Selected GC-MS coupling technique helped us to recognize the phytoconstituents based on their retention time and verification of MS spectra by MS libraries from PL leaves extract. Results: The components present were Caryophyllene, Oxirane tetradecyl, 5-(7a-Isoprenyl-4,5-dimethyl-octahydroinden-4-yl)-3-methyl-pent-2-en-1-ol, Cedrandiol (8S,14) and γ-Gurjunenepoxide-(2) from PL ethanolic leaves extract. Conclusion: In future, PL leaves may be subjected to different extraction and chromatographic techniques in order to check the presence of some additional phytoconstituents present in maximum proportion and their corresponding ethnopharmacological activity.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

3. Withdrawn for Improvements by Authors

4. Characterization of Bioactive Chemical Compounds from Aspergillus terreus and Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity
Ghaidaa Jihadi Mohammed, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Haider Mashkoor Hussein
Abstract
The aim of this research was analysis of the bioactive chemical products and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activity of Aspergillus terreus. Bioactives (chemical compounds often referred to as secondary metabolites) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) technique, then the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of the methanolic extract was evaluated. Forty seven bioactive compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Aspergillus terreus. Crude extract of Gramineae poaceae plant was very highly active (7.47±0.14) mm. The results of anti-bacterial activity produced by Aspergillus terreus showed that the volatile compounds were highly effective to suppress the growth of Streptococcus pneumonia. Aspergillus terreus produce many important secondary metabolites with high biological activities. Based on the significance of employing bioactive compounds in pharmacy to produce drugs for the treatment of many diseases, the purification of compounds produced by Aspergillus terreus species can be useful.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

5. Biological and Chemical Investigation of the Soft Coral Lobophytum pauciflorum Collected from the Egyptian Red Sea
Hassan M H A, Mohammed R, Hetta M H, Abdelaziz T A, El-Gendy A O, Sleim M A
Abstract
Soft corals of the genus Lobophytum, a marine invertebrate, have shown diverse biological activities as antiinflammatory, cytotoxic, and antibacterial. Our research is concerning with biological screening and discovering bioactive substances from the Red Sea soft coral Lobophytum pauciflorum. In vitro cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity using COX-1 and COX-2 kits and antimicrobial screening were carried out for n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions. The isolated compounds were elucidated using different spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry.  Also n-hexane fraction was subjected to GC/MS analysis. Bioassay guided fractionation resulted in isolation and characterization of two bio-active metabolites nephthenol (2) and gorgost-5-ene-3β-ol (3) with significant in vitro antiinflammatory activity against COX-1 and COX-2 compared to Indomethacin and Celecoxib. Four other compounds were also isolated: Heptadecan-1-ol (1), palmitic acid (4), stearic acid (5) and batilol (6). The isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activity ranging from 25 µg/ml to 50 µg/ml against the tested microorganisms. The fatty acid constituents of the n-hexane fraction were identified by GC/MS analysis; results revealed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester as major saturated fatty acid and 7,10-hexadecadienoic acid, methyl ester as major unsaturated fatty acid.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

6. Isolation and Identification of Steroid Triterpenoids from the Polar and Non-Polar Fractions of Caralluma attenuate (Wight) Roots.
Kiranmayee P, Anitha K, Usha R
Abstract
The present investigation aimed at to determine the probable phytochemical components from the non-polar to polar extracts of Caralluma attenuata. The compound extracted was subjected to UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT and SEPT. The resultant spectral data was used to elucidate the compound. The first compound was named as CAR-1 which gave a positive result with Liebermann-Burchard reaction. Spectral data showed that it contains thirty eight carbon resonances, side chain contains ten carbons and one terminal double bond, primary hydroxyl groups, and eight methyls, fifteen methylenes, ten methynes and five quarternary carbons. From the mass spectrum of CAR-1 the peak at m/z 555 (M+H)+ is considered as a base peak with molecular formula C38H66O2. The second compound was named as CAR-2 which is also a white crystalline solid and gave a positive result with Liebermann-Burchard reaction. Spectral data showed that CAR-2 contains 38 carbon resonances. In that side chain contains ten carbons which has a,b-unsaturated alcohol. From the mass spectrum of CAR-2 the peak at m/z 570 is considered as the molecular ion peak with molecular formula C38H66O3. The results indicating the compounds isolated are steroid/terpenoid.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

7. Antimicrobial Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Convolvulaceae)
Manirujjaman, Suchana S, Collet T, Nawshin L N, Chowdhury M A R
Abstract
Ethanolic whole plant extracts obtained from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb were screened against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) bacteria to evaluate their antimicrobial activity.  Of the four concentrations of plant extract tested (200 µg/mL, 300 µg/mL, 400 µg/mL or 500 µg/mL), 500 µg/mL elicited the greatest zones of bacterial inhibition across three of the bacteria.  In contrast, the growth of Salmonella typhi was not halted regardless of extract concentration.  At 200 µg/mL, only the growth of E. coli was inhibited.  Overall, although the greatest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated to be against E. coli at a concentration of 500 µg/mL (24.6±0.24), upon comparison to the other bacteria, both B. cereus and S. aureus educed similar zones of inhibition upon comparison to their positive antibiotic control.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

8. Centratherum anthelminticum and Withania coagulans Improves Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress in Triton X-100 induced Hyperlipidemic Rabbits
Tooba Lateef, Shamim A Qureshi
Abstract
Hypolipidemic screening of MFEt of W. coagulans, ESEt of C. anthelminticum and C. limon was conducted by using single dose (200 mg/kg) of each for 14 days in normal overnight fasted rabbits, where W. coagulans and C. anthelminticum gave significant activity. These later subjected to evaluate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic rabbits. Animals were divided into control and triton-induced hyperlipidemic (TIH) groups. The TIH group was further divided into TIH control, negative control, positive control (simvastatin) and four test groups, treated with MFEt of W. coagulans and ESEt of C. anthelminticum @ 200 and 600 mg/kg respectively. After 18 hours, rabbits were sacrificed to estimate lipid profile, ALT, CK, CAT, SOD, LPO, HMG-CoA reductase, lipase, atherogenic index (AI) and percent protection. The results demonstrated that both doses of W. coagulans and C. anthelminticum significantly improved lipid profile, HMG-CoA reductase & lipase activities and antioxidant status of test rabbits. AI was significantly decreased and percent protection was increased by both plant extracts in test groups. It was concluded that W. coagulans and C. anthelminticum showed good protection against hyperlipidemia and hyperlipidemia-induced oxidative stress by decreasing levels of serum lipids and improving the efficiency of antioxidant enzymes, thereby decreasing the risk of atherogenesis.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

9. Pharmacognostical Studies and Phytochemical Investigation of Andrographis echioides (L). Nees (Acanthaceae)
A Agnel Ruba, V R Mohan
Abstract
Andrographis echioides (L). Nees (Acanthaceae) commonly known as ‘Gopuram thangi’ in tamil. The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the leaf, stem and root of the above said plant. Pharmcognostic studies include microscopic, physico-chemical constant, fluorescent analysis and preliminary phytochemical evaluations. These findings should be suitable for inclusion in the proposal pharmacopoeia of Indian medicinal plants.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

10. Combination Effect of Broccoli Extract and Doxorubicin on Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Arrest in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cell Line
Pirani M, Sepehri H, Delphi L, Khosrawi A
Abstract
Background: Several studies have documented that phytochemicals in Broccoli extract (cruciferous) contain cancer-preventive activity. It was shown that this extract can kill cancer cells without any effect on normal cells. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of broccoli extract, doxorubicin (Dox) and their combination on cell viability and cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer model. Methods: Crude broccoli extracts was educed with 95% ethanol.  LNCaP cells were treated by different concentration of the broccoli extract and Doxorubicin for 24 and 48 hours. The cells’ proliferation rate was assessed using MTT assay. The apoptotic cells were observed morphologically using Acridine orange/ Ethidium bromide double staining and cell cycle analysis was done with flowcytometry.  Results: The results showed that both DOX and the crude extract of broccoli represented cytotoxic effects on prostate cancer cells, LNCaP, after 24h. Combination effects of these agents also decreased cells’ proliferation rate compared to the control group and the drugs alone. In the combination mode the amount of Dox as a chemical drug containing side effects, reduced significantly. Flowcytometric analysis of the cell cycle showed that the broccoli extracts, Dox and their combination caused increasing the number of cells in sub-G1 phase and G2/M arrest. In addition, Acridine orange/ Ethidium bromide staining revealed morphological changes of apoptosis in the treated cells. Therefore, it seems that crude extract of broccoli included apoptotic effects and could potentiate Dox effects. Conclusion: The present finding showed the broccoli extract potential to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. This may be used in cancer therapy to reduce chemical drug doses and sides effects.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

11. Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal Effect of Acetone Extract Fraction from The Stem Bark of T. populnea
Florance E J, Dhayabaran D, Nandakumar K
Abstract
Thespesia populnea is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea in India. In this study, acetone extract fraction from the stem bark of T. populnea (AFTP) was evaluated for its antidiarrhoeal activity. Acute oral toxicity (AOT) of AFTP was conducted as per OECD guidelines 425. AOT results revealed that AFTP is safe up to 2000 mg/kg. The antidiarrhoeal effect was evaluated by three experimentally induced diarrhoea models i.e. Castor oil induced diarrhoea, Prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) induced enteropooling in rats and charcoal meal test in mice. AFTP at the dose level of 2 and 4 mg/kg decreased the mean weight of faeces in castor oil induce diarrhoea. AFTP (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the mean volume of intestinal fluid in a dose dependent manner. AFTP 1, 2, 4 mg/kg decreased the intestinal propulsion of charcoal meal in the mice similar to the standard drug Atropine. These results suggest that AFTP could be developed as a potential antidiarrhoeal agent.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

12. Beneficial Effect of Artichoke Leaf Extract on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Urolithiasis in Rats
Gehad A Abdel Jaleel, Dalia O Saleh, Sally A El-Awdan
Abstract
Objective: Urolithiasis is one of the most painful ailments of the urinary tract disorders found in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-urolithiatic activity of artichoke leaf extract (ART) on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced urolithiasis in albino rats. Methods: urolithiasis was induced by adding ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v) to drinking water of rats for 28 consecutive days. Concurrently, ART (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated either from the 1st day in the preventive regimen or from the 15th day in the curative regimen. A standard anti-urolithiatic drug, cystone (CST; 150 mg/kg; p.o.), was also used. Results: EG-induced UL was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of uric acid, urea, creatinine and calcium with an increase in protein concentration in urine as indicators of renal damage. Moreover, induction of UL was associated with an elevated renal levels of lipid peroxides (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as reliable indices of oxidative stress. In both regimens, administration of ART (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.) restored the body weight, the kidney weight and the relative kidney weight. Moreover, ART decreased the serum levels of uric acid, urea, creatinine and calcium and also decreased the protein concentration in urine in a dose dependent manner. It also attenuated the kidney levels of MDA and GSH.   Conclusion: ART has a protective effect on the kidney functions in EG-induced UL in rats probably due to its potent anti-oxidant property.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

13. Effects of Methanolic Extract of Crataegus azarolus L. on Plasma Antioxidant Capacity and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Liver and Kidney of Rats
Bouaziz A, Khennouf  S, Djidel S, Baghiani A, Dahamna S, Amira S, Arrar L
Abstract
The aim of the   present study was to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Crataegus azarolus (MECA) on the plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in liver and kidney of   rats. Albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group served as the normal control, the second and the third groups were treated with MECA at dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Fourth group (positive group) was treated with 100 mg/kg of vitamin C for 14 consecutive days. The levels of   protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activity were assayed in liver and kidney homogenates using standard procedures.  The results showed that MECA (100 and 200 mg/kg) caused significant elevation of plasma antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging activity, whereas only the dose of 200 mg/kg was found to increase significantly the plasma reducing power. Also, the treatment with MECA increased protein level in liver and enhanced the antioxidant status in liver and kidney by reducing MDA level and increasing CAT activity and GSH level. These findings suggest that MECA has significant potential as a natural antioxidant to promote health and to reduce the occurrence or progress of diseases related to oxidative stress.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

14. Antibacterial and Phytochemical Analysis of Piper nigrum using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrum and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Ghaidaa Jihadi Mohammed, Aseel Mohammad Omran, Haider Mashkoor Hussein
Abstract
The aims of the study were to investigate the presence of phytochemical compounds from the fruits of Piper nigrum, using methanolic extraction and report the main functional components by using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The phytochemical compound screened by GC-MS method. A total of 55 bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of P. nigrum. The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight, molecular formula, chemical structure, MS Fragment ions and pharmacological actions. GC-MS analysis of P. nigrum revealed the existence of the Propanedioic acid , dimethyl ester, Bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane,6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene-,(1S), 3-Carene, Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-,(R), 1,6-Octadien-3-ol,3,7-dimethyl, 2-Methyl-1-ethylpyrrolidine, 2-Isopropenyl-5-methylhex-4-enal, L-α-Terpineol, (R)-lavandulyl acetate, Pyrrolizin-1,7-dione-6-carboxylic acid , methyl(ester), 7-epi-cis-sesquisabinene hydrate, Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-,(Z), Eugenol, Alfa.Copaene, Naphthalene,1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methyl), Epiglobulol, Caryophyllene, 1,4,7-Cycloundecatriene, 1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-,Z,Z,Z, α- ylangene, ß-copaene, Cedran-diol,8S,13, Isocalamendiol, Cinnami acid , 4-hydroxy -3-methoxy-,{5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl, (-)-Spathulenol, 1-Heptatriacotanol, Desacetylanquidine, 5-Isopropyl-2,8-dimethyl-9-oxatricyclo[4.4.0.0.(2,8)]decan-7-one, Estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17ß-ol, Trans-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N´,N´-tetraacetic acid, Phytol, Piperidine,1-(1-oxo-3-phenyl-2-propenyl)-, Eicosanoic acid , 2-(acetyloxy0-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl ester, 2,5,5,8a-Tetramethyl-6,7,8,8a-tetrahydro-5H-chromen-8-ol, Z-5-methyl-6-heneicosen-11-one, 2H-1,2-Benzoxazine-3-carbonitrile,2- cyclohexyloctahydro-4a,8a-d, Indoxazin-4-one ,4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3-undecyl, 9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,24,25-triol,(3ß,5Z,7E), 3-Oxo-10(14)-epoxyguai-11(13)-en-6,12-olide, 7-[2-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-3α,5ß-dimethoxycyclopentyl -1]-heptanoic acid, 2H-Benzo[f]oxireno[2,3-E]benzofuran-8,(9H)-one,9-[[(1,3-benzodio, Nalorphine, 2-Cyclohexen -3-ol-1-one , 2-[1-iminotetradecyl]-, Piperine, Fenretinide, 11-Dehydrocorticosterone, 5H-Cyclopropa[3,4]benz[1,2-e]azulen-5-one,1,1a,1b,4,4a,7a,7b, 17a-Ethyl-3ß-methoxy-17a-aza-D-homoandrost-5-ene-17-one, Bufa-20,22-dienolide m,14,15-epoxy-3,11-dihydroxy-,(3ß,5ß,11α,15, 9-Desoxo-9-x-acetoxy-3,8,12-tri-O-acetylingol, Retinal ,9-cis-, 6-ß-Naltrexol, Piperine, Ursodeoxycholic acid, 5α-Cholan-24-oic acid , 12α-hydroxy-3,7-dioxo-,methyl ester and Stigmasterol. The FTIR analysis of P. nigrum leaves proved the presence of Alkenes, Aliphatic fluoro compounds, Alcohols, Ethers, Carboxlic acids, Esters and Nitro Compounds. Methanolic extract of bioactive compounds of P. nigrum was assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia by using the diffusion method in agar. The zone of inhibition were compared with different standard antibiotics. The diameters of inhibition zones ranged from 5.00±0.16 to 0.40±0.12 mm for all treatments.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

15. Antioxidant Capacities of Various Grains Extracts of Three Kinds of Rice Grown in Central Java-Indonesia
Irda Fidrianny, Dyah Ayu Puspitaningrum, Komar Ruslan
Abstract
The goals of this research were to determine antioxidant activity from different polarities grains extract of three kinds of rice using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and correlation of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content with their IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of FRAP antioxidant activities. Extraction was carried out by reflux using different polarities solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant activities using DPPH and FRAP assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities and EC50 of FRAP capacities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of black rice and red rice grains were very strong antioxidant, using DPPH assays. Phenolic compounds in black rice and red rice grains extracts were the major contributor in IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity and EC50 of FRAP capacity. Grains extract of black rice, red rice and white rice had linear result in DPPH and FRAP assays.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

16. Effects of Cassia abbreviata Oliv. and Helinus integrifolius (Lam.) Kuntze on Glucose Uptake, Glut-4 Expression and Translocation in Muscle (C2C12 Mouse Myoblasts) Cells
Seabi I M, Motaung S C K M, Ssemakalu C C, Mokgotho M P, Mogale A M, Shai L J
Abstract
Background: Herbal remedies have been used to successfully manage diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanisms through which these remedies are able to manage diabetes mellitus are not well understood. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Cassia abbreviata (stem bark) and Helinus integrifolius (leaves) water extracts on glucose absorption and expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) 1 and 4 by muscle cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cells were treated with water extracts of both plants, and then incubated at 37 oC and 5% CO2 for 3 h and 24 h. Glucose uptake by cells was determined in the presence and absence of extracts of Cassia abbreviata and Helinus integrifolius. GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA levels were determined by PCR. GLUT4 translocation was determined using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Results and Discussion: A concentration-dependent increase in glucose uptake was observed in cells stimulated with Cassia abbreviata crude water extracts. Extracts of both plant species induced an increase in the translocation of GLUT4 in muscle cells, as evidenced by increased fluorescence intensity measured using flow cytometry. Treatment of cells with extracts of both plants did not affect GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA levels after a 3 h incubation period. However, 25 µg/ml led to down-regulation of GLUT1 mRNA levels after 24 h incubation. Conclusions: Cassia abbreviata increased the glucose uptake potential of cells, induced an increase the translocation of GLUT4 in muscle cells and also stimulated the expression of the GLUT1 gene. On the other `hand, Helinus integrifolius did not induce the absorption of glucose by muscle cells, but an increase in the translocation of GLUT4 was observed.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

17. Preliminary Findings on Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Aspilia africana on Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Na+ K+ ATPase Activity in the Rat
Ajeigbe K O, Falade O B, Onifade A A, Oyeyemi W A, Owonikoko W M
Abstract
Objective: Aspilia africana C.D Adams (Asteraceae) has been shown to enhance erythropoiesis in laboratory animals but its effect on erythrocyte membrane stability especially in stressful conditions is yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Aspilia africana (ALEAA) on erythrocyte osmotic fragility and Na+ K+ ATPase in rats. Methods: Male albino rats (150-170g) were treated with varying doses of ALEAA; 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/d for twenty-one (21) days. The control group received no extract but distilled water. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture. Osmotic fragility was determined by standard procedures while Na+ K+ ATPase activity and total protein concentration were determined spectrophotometrically from the erythrocyte ghost membranes prepared by osmotic lysis.  Results: The haemolysis percentage change was seen to be more pronounced in 500 and 750 mg/kg doses, where a significant decrease was observed when compared to the control group between 0.5-0.2% salt solution (p<0.05). The total erythrocyte protein was significantly higher in 500 and 750 mg/kg than the control (5.88 ± 0.52; 5.01 ± 0.20 vs 3.59 ± 0.21 µg/mL respectively). The extract also caused 44.1% and 102% increase in the activities of total Na+ K+ ATPase at 500 and 750 mg/kg respectively; while, an increase of 63% and 71.4% was observed in the ouabin sensitive ATPase activity. Conclusion: It is concluded that the aqueous leaf extract of Aspilia africana decreased the osmotic fragility, and enhanced Na+ K+ ATPase activity of the red blood cell in albino rats.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

18. In–Vitro Cytotoxic Active Compounds Isolated from Isatis microcarpa J. Gay Ex Boiss
Lotfy A Rehab
Abstract
This is the first study on the cytotoxic activity of Isatis microcarpa J.Gay ex Boiss.  a plant growing widely in north Sinai, Egypt. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the total extract, petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions were studied on hepatic (HEPG2) and breast carcinoma (T47D) cell lines. It could be concluded that, the most active fraction was the dichloromethane. Three compounds were isolated and identified from this fraction, two indigo dyes and one phenolic acid. They were identified as Tryptanthrin, Indirubin and gallic acid by using different spectroscopic methods.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

19. PA-9: A Flavonoid Extracted from Plectranthus amboinicus Inhibits HIV-1 Protease
Thayil, Seema M, Thyagarajan S P
Abstract
221 extracts from various parts of 33 Indian medicinal plants were tested to identify their protease inhibitor potential. The aqueous extract of Aporosa lindleyana, methanol and aqueous extracts of Baliospermum montanum, chloroform extract of Gymnema sylvestre, aqueous extract of Hedyotis corymbosa and aqueous extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed significant inhibition of a-Chymotrypsin, Leucine Amino peptidase and Papain.The aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited significant inhibition of HIV -1 specific Protease. A biology guided fractionation methodology devised in this study pinpointed the flavonoid bioactive fraction PA-9 to exhibit inhibition of HIV-1 protease at 100µg/ml.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

20. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Different Organs Extracts of Corn Grown in Cimahi-West Java-Indonesia
Irda Fidrianny, Eriani Wulandari, Rika Hartati
Abstract
The aim of this research were to determine antioxidant activity from different polarities organs extract of corn using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and CUPRAC (Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) and correlation of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content in different polarities extracts of corn organs with their IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of CUPRAC antioxidant activities. Extraction was conducted by reflux using different polarities solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant activities using DPPH and CUPRAC assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities and EC50 of CUPRAC capacities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. All of corn leaves extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts) were strong to very strong antioxidant, using DPPH assay. Flavonoid and carotenoid compounds in corn leaves extracts were the major contributor in antioxidant activity by DPPH method. DPPH and CUPRAC methods gave no linear result for antioxidant activity of corn cob, corn leaves and corn husk extracts.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

21. Determination of Verbascum songaricum Schrenk Morphological and Anatomical Characters
Balzhan G Makhatova, Baurzhan Makhatov, Ubaidilla Datkhayev, Daniela Tekelova, Toygul Serikbayeva
Abstract
Verbascum songaricum Schrenk is traditionally used in Kazakh folk medicine from ancient times for the treatment of various diseases. The article presents the results of determination of morphological and anatomical characters of Verbascum songaricum Schrenk, Scrophulariaceae family, growing in Kazakhstan were identified using microscopy methods. The results obtained may be used to develop the characteristics of the authenticity of medicinal plants.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

22. An Appraisal of Christia vespertilionis (L. F.) Bakh. F.: A Promising Medicinal Plant
Gouri Kumar Dash
Abstract
Christia vespertilionis (L. f.) Bakh. f., (Family: Fabaceae), commonly known as ‘Red butterfly wing’ is an important medicinal plants with promising antimalarial and anticancer properties. The plant has been enlisted under the IUCN Red list of Threatened Species. A through literature survey available from all possible scientific sources revealed very little information about this plant. There remains sufficient scope for the researchers to work on various pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of this plant drug. This review provides updated information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry and bioactivity of the plant that would be helpful to the future investigators.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

23. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Caesalpinia sappan L. Leaves
Harjit Kaur, Mohammad Humayoon Amini, Pranav Kumar Prabhakar, Amritpal Singh, Ashish Suttee
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this work was preliminary phytochemical screening and determination of in vitro antimicrobial activity of C. sappan leaves (Leguminosae) collected from forest area of Tamilnadu, India. Methods: The crude drug was successively extracted by Soxhlet assembly using Petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol as solvents. Preliminary phytochemical screening of different extracts was carried out using several colour and precipitative chemical reagents as per described methods. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fungal strains (Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans), Gram +ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram –ve bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using agar wells dilution method. Nutrient agar medium at 37 oC and sabouraud dextrose e agar medium at 28 oC were used in antimicrobial activity evaluation and antifungal activity evaluation respectively. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of C. sappan leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and amino acids in the crude drug. Caesapinia sappan leaf extracts exhibited marked dose dependent antimicrobial activity in vitro against tested fungi and bacteria. Methanolic extract was found to be more potent particularly against Streptococcus pyogenes (Gram +ve bacteria). Conclusion: Various phytochemicals were found to be present in C. sappan leaves. Methanolic extract of C. sappan leaves exhibited better antimicrobial activity in vitro and can be used as a good therapeutic approach for infectious disease management and therapy. Further studies on isolation of phyto-constituents and both in vitro and in vivo evaluation of pharmacological activities of isolated bioactive constituents of the crude drug are recommended as future works.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

24 Qualitative Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Hybanthus enneaspermus
Anupa M P, Chinju S, Murugan M
Abstract
The present study was aimed to determine the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of different extracts of Hybanthus enneaspermus (L). Dried plant leaf was extracted with different solvents such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and distilled water. Phytochemical screening was performed with standard protocols and this study showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, phenol and saponin. Also the ethanol and aqueous extract contained more phytochemicals. Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract was determined by DPPH assay, reducing power and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. The results showed that, the maximum radical scavenging activity in DPPH activity 24.32% and the standard was 45.41% at 60 mg/ml of concentration. The reducing power assay exhibited maximum absorbance of 1.038 at 60 mg/ml of concentration and in the hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, the percentage of inhibition was 35.11%. Thus the ethanolic leaf extract of H. enneaspermus has a significant antioxidant activity and used as a better source of natural antioxidants which might be helpful in preventing the progress of oxidative stress.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016

25. Withdrawn

26. Antidiabetic Potential of Aerial Parts of Mollugo pentaphylla L. and Characterization of a β-Amyrin Type of Triterpenoid
Maharana L, Pattnaik S, Kar DM, Ghosh G
Abstract
The aim of this work is to evaluate antidiabetic potential of aqueous extract and its various fractions prepared from the aerial parts of Mollugo pentaphylla L. Additionally, isolation and characterization of a β-amyrin type of triterpenoid from aqueous extract of this plant was also studied. The aqueous extract and its fractions obtained from column chromatography (excluding the n-hexane fraction) have significant (p<0.01) effet on glucose reduction. The n-butanol, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions of the aqueous extract of aerial parts of Mollugo pentaphylla at levels 200 mg/kg body weight showed significant antidiabetic properties in alloxan induced albino Wistar male rats. The isolated compound obtained from aqueous extract was characterized using different spectral analytical methods. Data of fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, 13C-NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of an isolated compound are in support of the presence of a β-amyrin triterpenoid nucleus, substituted with a sugar moiety resulting in the triterpenoid saponin. On the basis of the chemical and spectral evidences, the nomenclature of the triterpenoid saponin is, 2, 2, 6a, 6b, 9, 9, 12a-heptamethyl-10-(4′, 5′, 6′-trihydroxy-3′-(3′′, 4′′, 5′′, 6′′-tetrahydroxy-tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)-tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)-1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6a, 6b, 7, 8, 8a, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12a, 12b, 13, 14b-octadecahydro-2H-picene-4a-carboxylic acid. The structural novelty is the absence of the carboxyl group of the oleanolic acid in the present compound at the ‘C-4a position’, configurating it a different β-amyrin triterpenoid.

Abstract Online: 4-June-2016







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research