Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume8,Issue8

1. Effects of Methanol Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Seed on Ovary Antioxidant Enzymes, Serum Hormone Concentration and Histology in Wistar Rats
Daramola O O, Oyeyemi W A, Odiase L O, Olorunfemi A A
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of oral administration of methanol extract of Telfairia occidentalis seed (METOS) on ovary antioxidant enzymes, serum hormone concentration and histology in Wistar rats.  Twenty (20) female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups; Group A, (control) was administered distilled water, group B, C and D were administered 20, 40 and 80 mg METOS /kg bw orally respectively for 30 days. After the completion of treatment, all animals were sacrificed during the proestrus phase of estrous cycle by cervical dislocation. Blood sample was collected and serum was obtained. Ovary was also collected and homogenized. Antioxidant activity and redox status in the ovary were investigated, serum concentration of FSH, LH and Estrogen were also measured, the histology of the ovary was also studied.  There was an increase in superoxide dismutase level in all the experimental groups while MDA level decreased in the groups treated with 40 and 80 mg METOS/kg bw when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the level of catalase, serum concentrations of FSH, LH and estrogen. The histology of all the experimental groups were similar to that of the control group. In conclusion the result of this study suggests that methanol extract of Telfairia occidentalis seed (METOS) has antioxidant activity which is able to protect against lipid peroxidation and cell damage in ovary tissue. It also did not alter sex hormones.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

2. A Systematic Review on Huperzia serrata
Kaur Jaswinder, Singh Rajmeet, Singh Gurinder, Kaur Harpreet, Kaur Jasvir, Kaur Manpreet, Singh Parminder, Kaur Jaspreet
Abstract
Huperzia serrata is the genus belonging to the family Lycopodiaceae. It is a traditional Chinese remedy which is also known as Qian Ceng Ta. Chinese scientists Liu and his co-worker had discovered Huperzine A, which is known as a worldwide medicine. HuperzineA is an alkaloid which can be isolated from whole plant of the Huperzia serrata. It is mainly found in India, China, Nepal, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, Fiji, Samoa, Mexico, USA, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Russia, Taiwan, Australia and Cuba.  Several chemical constituents have been isolated from plants belonging to the category of alkaloids, flavones, Triterpenes and phenolic acids. It has been traditionally used as cold, fever, bruises, pain, strains, contusion, stasis swelling, rheumatism etc. Pharmacological activities such as anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociception, alzheimer, schizophrenia, anti-apoptosis effect, organophosphate poisoning myasthenia gravis, antioxidant and protection of mitochondria.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

3. Evaluation of Insecticidal Activity of Bioactive Compounds from Eucalyptus citriodora Against Tribolium castaneum
Nebras M Sahi
Abstract
Methanolic extract of bioactive compounds of Eucalyptus citriodora was assayed for in vitro anti-insect activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). GC-MS analysis of Eucalyptus citriodora revealed the existence of the α-Pinene , Eucalyptol , 2,4-Dimethylstyrene , Isopinocarveol , Cis-p- menthe-1(7),8-dien-2-ol , Bicyclo[3.1.1] heptan-3-ol,6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene-,[1S-(1α , 5-Caranol,(1S,3R,5S,6R)-(-)- , Terpinen-4-ol , Thymol , α-Terpineol ,  7-epi-trans-sesquisabinene hydrate , γ-Elemene , β-copaene , Azulene ,1,2,3,3a,4,5,6,7-octahydro-1,4-dimethyl-7-(1-methyl) , Alloaromadendrene , β-Guaiene ,  Epiglobulol , Globulol, 2-Naphthalenemethanol , decahydro-α,α, 4a-trimethyl-8-methyl , 8-epi-gama-eudesmol , α-acorenol , Perhydrocyclopropa[e]azulene-4,5,6-triol , 1,1,4,6-tetramethyl , Phenylalanine , 4-amino-N-t-butyloxycarbonyl-,t-butyl ester , 1,4-Naphthoquinone , 6-acetyl-2,5,7-trihydroxy- ,  1-Glyceryl ricinoleate , Decanedioic acid , dibutyl ester , Curan-17-oic acid ,2,16-didehydro-19-hydroxy-,methyl ester, 1,4-Naphthoquinone , 2-acetyl-5,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy- , 9-Octadecenamide , (Z)- , 9-Octadecenamide, 12-hydroxy-,[R-(Z)]- , Tertbutyloxyformamide , N-methyl-N-[4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-butynyl, 17-Pentatriacontene, Vitamin E and γ-Sitosterol. The FTIR analysis of Eucalyptus citriodora leaves proved the presence of Alkenes, alkyl halides and alkanes. Eucalyptus citriodora was highly active on accumulative mortality of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (adult).

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

4. Pharmacognostical Characterization, Phytochemical Screening and Finger Print Profile of the Plant Desmodium gangeticum DC
Vedpal, S P Dhanabal, P Dhamodaran, B Duraiswamy, M V N L Chaitnya, M R Jeyaprakash, Unni Jayaram
Abstract
Herbal medicine, also called botanical medicine or phytomedicine, refers to the use of any plant seeds, berries, roots, leaves, barks or flowers for the medicinal purposes. From the ancient days the conventional medicines and herbalism is becoming more mainstream for the treatment of various chronic diseases. Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practices based on the uses of plants and plant extracts. Herbalism is also known as botanical medicine, medical herbalism, herbal medicine, herbology, and phytotherapy. Sometimes the scope of herbal medicine is extended to include fungi and bee products, as well as minerals, shells and certain animal parts. The Pharmacognostical studies of the plant Desmodium gangeticum DC, Family-Fabaceae were scientifically validated in this present study. The various physicochemical properties were evaluated like ash values, extractive values etc. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that the dried roots of Desmodium gangitecum DC were extracted with the solvents of chloroform, ethanol and hydro- alcohol, showed that the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterol and flavonoids. The chromatographic analysis was studied with the help of Thin layer chromatography.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

5. Allelopathic Effect of Different Concentration of Leave Extract of Lawsonia inermis L., Seed Germination of Steria italica, Pennisetum americanum and Lectuca sativa
Naseema Rehmatullah, Afroz R. Khan, Muhammad Javed Khan, Muhammad Anwar, Pari Gull, Masoom Fatima, Waheed Ahmed Shah
Abstract
In the laboratory trial the extract of leaves, of Lawsonia inermis L was made in distilled water and kept for 24hr, 48hr, 72hrs against three test species Lectuca sativa¸steria italica and Pennisitum americanum. The leaf extract showed inhibition Lectuca sativa >steria italica >Pennesitum americanum in terms of germination percentage and seedling growth and fresh and dry weight. The 1.0 gm at 48hr extract showed completely inhibition in seteria italic and lectuca sativa. lectuca sativa showed inhibition in germination percentage and fresh and dry weight in 0.5 and 1.5 gm. The extract of leaf showed highly stimulation in seedling length of Pennisitum americanum in all concentrations. On the other hand, the concentration of (0.5, 1.0, 1.5gms) showed the inhibition in germination percentage and fresh and dry weight. The leaf extract showed the insignificance in all test spp. Hence, it is help to the hypothesis that Lawsonia inermis L contain such allelochemical which affect the seedling growth and germination rate of Steria italic Pennesitum americanumL and Lectuca sativaL.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

6.The Effect of Mefenamic Acid and Melissa officinalis on Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study
Faranak Safdari Dehcheshmeh, Neda Parvin
Abstract
Background and aim: Melissa officinalis was traditionally used for pain relief and treatment of some diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and Melissa officinalis (Melissa) on pain management in primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: In this clinical trial, forty- three eligible women with moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea were randomly allocated into the Melissa officinalis and mefenamic acid groups. The mefenamic group received 250 mg capsules every 8 hours from the onset of menstruation pain until pain relief for three consecutive cycles, and the Melissa group used one tea bag in the same manner. The intensity and duration of menstrual pain were assessed by the visual analog scale and a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed using student t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. Results: The intensity and duration of pain in both groups showed a significant descending trend (In both groups P<0.001); however, this trend was greater in Melissa group in terms of pain intensity (P=0.008), with no significant difference on pain duration (P=0.101). Conclusions: Melissa was more effective than mefenamic acid in relief of pain on primary dysmenorrhea. Regarding to safety of Melissa, it could be considered as an alternative treatment for primary dysmenorrhea.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

7.Determination of Bioactive Chemical Composition of Callosobruchus maculutus and Investigation of its Anti-Fungal Activity
Jenan Mohammed Ubaid, Haider Mashkoor Hussein, Imad Hadi Hameed
Abstract
Methanolic extract of bioactive compounds of Callosobruchus maculutus was assayed for in vitro anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium expansum, and Trichoderma viride. GC-MS analysis of Callosobruchus maculutus revealed the existence of the 4-Cyclooctene-1-carboxaldehyde, Benzenemethanol, 2-(2-aminopropoxy)-3-methyl, 1-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane, 2-Undecanone, 6,10-dimethyl-, Tricyclo[10.2.2.2(5,8)octadeca-5,7,12,14,15,17-hexaene, 1-Dimethyl(pentafluorophenyl)silyloxycyclopentane, 3-Methylene-bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-en-8-ol, Benzenesulfonamide , N-(bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-ylmethyl), (-)-Norephedrine, 4-Bromo-7-methylenebicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene, Benzene, 1-propenyl-, 1-Hexanol, 2-ethyl-, 1,2-Benzisothiazol-3-amine tbdms, 5-Methyl-6-phenyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine-2-thione, Propanamide, N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2,2-dimethyl, 3,6-Octadecadiynoic acid, methyl ester, 1-Chloroundecane, 10-(Tetrahydro-puran-2-yloxy)-tricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5)]dec-7-en, Pent-1-en-3-one, 1-(2-furyl)-5-dimethylamino, Methyl salicylate, 2-Amino-nicotinic acid methyl ester, 2,5-Dimethylhexane-2,5-dihydroperoxide, 1,4-Oxathiane, 4-oxide, 3-Cyclohexene-1-propanal, Cyclobutane(1,6)spiro(2,3-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-ene)-4-, Trans-8-Hydroxy-bicyclo(4,3,0)non-3-ene, Tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]decane, 1-[(hydrazinocarbonyl)amino]-, (7R)-cis-bicyclo[4.3.0]-3-nonen-7-ol, Ethaneperoxoic acid ,1-cyano-1,4-diphenylpentyl ester, 3-Amino-3-(4-isopropoxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propionic acid, Aziridinone, 1,3-bis(tricycle[3.3.1.1(3,7)]dec-1-yl), Hydrazinecarboxamide, 2-(2,6-cyclooctadien-1-ylidene, Cis-pinen-3-ol, Salicylaldehyde, thiocarbazone, Adamantane,1-isocyano, 2,7-Methanonaphthalen-3-amine , 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahyd, Pteridine-8-oxide, 6-aldoximino-2-amino-4(3H)-oxo-, 2-Dodecenal, 5H-Cyclohepta-1,4-dioxin  ,2,3,4a,6,7,9a-hexahydro-,cis-, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, Cyclohexanebutanoic acid, 2-methyl-3-oxo-, methyl ester, Octadecanoic acid, Butyl 9-tetradecenoate, 7-[3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl]guanine, 4-Heneicosanone, 1-cyclopentyl-, 4-Methoxycarbonylmethylundec-3-enedioic acid, dimethyl ester, 5-(4,5-Dihydro-3H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylene)-4,4-dimethylpyrrolidin, Phthalic acid ,octyl oct-3-yl ester. The results of anti-fungal activity produced by Callosobruchus maculutus showed that the volatile compounds were highly effective to suppress the growth of Aspergillus niger. Callosobruchus maculutus produce many important secondary metabolites with high biological activities.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

8.Chemical Constituents of Durio zibethinus Murr. Fruit
Consolacion Y Ragasa, Jariel Naomi B Bacar, Maria Margarita R Querido, Maria Carmen S Tan, Ramon S, Del Fierro, Jae Sue Choi
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Durio zibethinus Murr. fruit afforded monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (1), triacylglycerols (2), and a mixture of 2 and fatty acid methyl esters (3) from the pulp; 2, a mixture of β-sitosterol (4) and stigmasterol (5), a mixture of phytyl fatty acid esters (6) and β-sitosteryl fatty acid esters (7), and monoacylglycerols (8) from the exocarp; 2, a mixture of 4 and 5, and β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6′-O-fatty acid esters (9) from the seeds and carpel.  The structures of 19 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with literature data.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

9.A Comprehensive Review on Phytopharmacological Activities of Drynaria quercifolia L.
G Prasanna, R Anuradha
Abstract
Drynaria quercifolia is belongs to the family of Polypodiaceae, is native to tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Australia and Oceania and cultivated mostly as a medicinal plant. It plays an important medical role in many countries, especially in Asia. The plant is used to treat various health problems and is known to have no side effects. Various phytochemicals like 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, friedelin, epifriedelinol, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol 3-β-D-glucopyranoside has been isolated from the plant. The rhizome is reported to have anti-fertility, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, wound healing and antiulcer properties. This review has been designed to provide scientific information regarding phytochemical composition, medicinal uses and pharmacological potentials of Drynaria quercifolia L.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

10. Phytochemical Study of the Bioactive Fractions of Chrysanthemum fructescens L. Cultivated in Egypt
Ammar N M, El-Hawary S S, El-Anssary A A, El-Desoky A H, Abdelaal T A, Abdelrahman R F, Hattori M
Abstract
Phytochemical study of the aerial flowering parts of Chrysanthemum fructesens L. Family Astraceae, cultivated in Egypt, revealed the presence of an appreciable percentage of volatile oil and phenolic compounds. The volatile oil was prepared (0.5%) and analyzed by GC/MS which revealed the identification of 20 compounds, the major is (Z)-1-farnesene (37.21 %). The volatile oil was tested for antimicrobial activity and inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonus aerugenosa and Candida albicans. The non-polar extract and the volatile oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, using carrageenan-induced oedema in rats while the non-polar extract showed analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing with reduction of the writhing score (23.8 %). The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the polar aqueous methanolic extract of C. frutescens was evaluated. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of 6 compounds 4,5-di-o-caffeoyl quinic acid (IC50 = 16.18 µg/ml), methyl 4,5-di-o-caffeoyl quinic (IC50=13.25 µg/ml), 1,5-di-o-caffeoyl quinic acid (IC50=42.9µg/ml), methyl 1,5-di-o-caffeoyl quinate (IC50=77.0 µg /ml), apigenin 7-o-glucopyranoside (IC50=78.00mg/ml) and mellilotoside (IC50>200 µg/ml).

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

11. Anti-oxidant Activity of Quercetin-3-o-glucuronide from Nelumbo nucifera
Jerome Rozario M, John Merina A, Amaladasan M, James Balgan Anand A
Abstract
The fresh florets of Nelumbo nucifera is examined to contain the flavonoid Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide. Modern physical methods like UV, NMR and chemical reactions, PC and hydrolytic studies were used to ascertain the structure. The isolated Glycoside has been found to contain ample anti-oxidant activity as it is compared with a standard.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

12. Experimental Evaluation of Antioxidant Action of Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Roots in Potassium Dichromate Induced Oxidative Stress by Assessment of Reactive Oxygen Species Levels
Mradu Gupta, Saumya Kanti Sasmal, Nandita Karmakar, Saswati Sasmal, Saikat Chowdhury
Abstract
Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. has been ascribed many medicinal properties in Ayurvedic literature. Its roots contain many polyphenols and its pharmacological actions include anti-microbial, hypo-lipidaemic, anti-antherosclerotic, antiviral, hepato-protective, spasmolytic, antidiuretic, antiulcer, antipyretic, antioxidant & anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, in vivo antioxidant analysis of aqueous extract of its roots has been done in animals, especially rats, after inducing acute and chronic oxidative stress using potassium dichromate. Total phenol content determined using Folin- Ciocalteu reagent was found to be 23.94 µg Gallic acid /mg. Acute toxicity study using mice showed no significant toxic symptoms or mortality up to 1500 mg/kg dose. Total Antioxidant Capacity by Phosphomolybdate Assay in concentrations of 3, 6 and 9 mg/ml was evaluated to be 11.74 ± 0.59, 14.32 ± 1.25 and 16.18 ± 1.50 (µg/mg) equivalents of ascorbic acid. Determination of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (d-ROMs Test) to evaluate the level of hydroperoxides in terms of U. CARR units indicated that effect of agents causing chronic or acute oxidative stress can be mostly neutralized by research drug administration. Similarly, Determination of Reactive Oxygen Species by ELISA kit in the form of Optical Density values suggests that effect of acute and chronic oxidative stress is drastically reduced due to simultaneous administration of research drug.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

13. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Effects of Macrotyloma uniflorum Extract
Pritha Chakraborty, Jayanthi Abraham
Abstract
Context: Macrotyloma uniflorum, commonly called horse gram, is a leguminous crop. It is known to play a key role in plant defense responses with its unique characteristics. Aim: As the effect of Macrotyloma uniflorum extracts on the area of cytotoxicity is unexplored, the present work was aimed to evaluate the effect of extracts on cancer cell line and also on clinical pathogens following experimental and analytical procedures. Methods: Phytochemical and analytical studies (TLC and GC-MS) showed that Macrotyloma uniflorum is rich in different bioactive compounds. Antimicrobial activity of Macrotyloma uniflorum was also checked against nine clinical pathogens and methanol extract has shown moderate activity against most of the tested pathogens. Results: Moderate to high antioxidant and anticancer activity of Macrotyloma uniflorum extract against MG 63 cell line, has supported the fact that this crop can be used as an alternate functional food with high nutrition value.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

14. A Review on the Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Two Lesser-known Hibiscus species: H. taiwanensis and H. schizopetalus
S K Wong, Eric W C Chan, H T Chan

Abstract
In this short review, the current knowledge on the chemical constituents and pharmacology of two lesser-known Hibiscus species of H. taiwanensis and H. schizopetalus  is updated with some description of their botany and uses. With phenolic acids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and sterols as chemical constituents, H. taiwanensis has pharmacological properties of antioxidant, cytotoxic, HIV replication inhibition, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Chemical constituents of H. schizopetalus include anthocyanins and triterpene esters with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities. Possessing diverse chemical constituents and pharmacological properties, both H. taiwanensis and H. schizopetalus have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycaemic activities in common. Other Hibiscus species possessing such properties include H. tiliaceus, H. mutabilis, H. cannabinus, H. rosa-sinensis and H. sabdariffa.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

15. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of the Methanolic Extract of Olea europaea L. Leaves in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats
Bencheikh D, Khennouf  S, Bouaziz A, Baghiani A, Dahamna S, Amira S, Arrar L
Abstract
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Olea europaea L. leaves (MEO) on the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats. Body weight, biochemical and histopatholoangical changes were recorded. The results showed that MEO contained high polyphenolics and flavonoids contents with values of 403.72±0.02 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg dry extract and 52.54±0.018 µg quercetin equivalent/mg dry extract, respectively. Also, MEO showed a strong DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.040 mg/ml), reducing power (IC50 = of 0.093±0.014 mg/ml) and inhibited the linoleic acid oxidation in ferric thiocyanate method with 80. 76 ± 2.03%. The administration of MEO at doses of 200 and 600 mg/kg increased catalase activity and GSH level and decreased lipid peroxidation, serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Furthermore, the histological damages in pancreas and liver tissues were reduced. These results indicated a good hypoglycemic and anti-oxidant activity of Olea europaea leaves. These results may explain its use in the folk medicine in the control of diabetes and preventing the diabetic complications by means of its antioxidant properties.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

16. Dietary Evaluation, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Crude Extract from Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) against Human Prostate Cancer Cell Line (PC-3)
Dugganaboyana Guru kumar, Palanisamy Chella Perumal, Kiran Kumar, Sridhar Muthusami, Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan
Abstract
Natural products have continually played an important role in drug discovery because it serves as active principles in drugs as well as templates for synthesis of new drugs. Present study is attempted to evaluate the dietary evaluation, antioxidant property and cytotoxicity (human prostate cancer cells) of crude extract of Chia seeds. Results, phytochemical screening and dietary evaluation revealed the presence of tanins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, cardio glycosides, phenols and important minerals were present in the crude extract of Chia seeds. The total estimation of secondary metabolites of chia seed were found to be in moderate level. The cytotoxicity assay exposed that, crude extract of chia seeds inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, the crude extract of Chia seeds can be used as a therapeutic option in prostate cancer cells. However, further studies are warranted to substantiate the current findings.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

17. Screening of Phytoconstituents, FT-IR Analysis and In vitro Antioxidant Potential of An Endemic Plant Crotalaria longipes Wight & Arn
Paulpriya K, Tresina P S, Sornalakshmi V, Mohan V R
Abstract
The present study is to investigate the phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of aerial part of Crotalaria longipes. Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures. The total phenolic content of the methanol extract was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure and total flavonoid content of methanol extract was determined by Aluminium chloride method. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, catechin, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, sugars and xanthoproteins was found to be present in the methanol and ethanol extracts of aerial part of C. longipes. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of C-I, C-F, C-N, C-O, C=C, C=O, C-H and O-H groups. The total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the methanol extract was found to be 1.08 g 100 g-1 dry weight basis and 1.24 g 100 g-1 dry weight basis respectively. DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide radical scavenging activity and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity of methanol extract of C. longipes aerial part exhibited the IC50 values of 32.41, 29.13, 36.91 and 33.16 μg/mL respectively. The reducing power activity showed increase with increase in concentration of extracts. The antioxidant potential may be directly linked to the phenolic and flavonoid contents present in the aerial part of C. longipes. The outcome of the present investigation clearly indicates that C. longipes aerial part showed potential phytochemicalS and they can be used as antioxidants.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

18. Evaluation of Anti-Cholesterol Activity of Ethyl Acetate and N-Hexane Extracts of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) Hutch and Dalziel (African Walnut) Towards Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Ezealisiji K M, Stanley C N, Ekanem E S
Abstract
The main risk factor of atherosclerosis which is directly related to coronary heart disease is Hypercholesterolemia and this is the most common cause of death in the developing world. Ethno-medical claim on Tetracarpidum conophorum is that it is used in the treatment of hypertensive patients. Also, previous studies have shown that the seed of Tetracarpidum conophorum has antioxidant properties. The present research was aimed at determining the anticholesterol activity of n-hexane extract and ethyl acetate fractions of Tetracarpidum conophorum compared to atorvastatin in decreasing the plasma level of total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride and increasing the HDL level on hypercholesterolemic rats. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups. Group I was fed with standard diet as negative control group and all the other groups were fed with high-fat diet and were also given fructose solution. High-fat diet and fructose solution increased the level of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride and decreased the level of HDL-cholesterol significantly compared to the negative control group. The treatment groups were given 3 various doses of (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 ml/kgBW) of crude extract, ethyl acetate and n-hexane fractions respectively and artovastatin 2.7 mg/kgBW daily for ten days. The data were analyzed by one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s Post Hoc Test. The best results were shown by 2.0 ml/kgBW of n-hexane extract fraction in decreasing total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride as well as increasing HDL-cholesterol when compared with the standard cholesterol lowering agent (artovastatin).   Ethyl acetate fraction (2.0 ml/kg) showed significant effect in increasing HDL- cholesterol and decreasing LDL- cholesterol.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

19. In-Vitro Evidence of Effective Anti-Plasmodium Activity by Plumeria rubra (L) Extracts
Highland H N, Mathew S, Jani D V, George L B
Abstract
Malaria is known to account for a large segment of death in most tropical countries. In current times the advent of virulent, drug-resistant strains of the Plasmodium parasite has activated the search for innovative, effective, anti-plasmodial agents, with negligible side effects. Hence, plant extracts, loaded with active phytochemicals, are presently proving effective in the battle against malaria and its diverse forms. In the present study therefore, two selected extracts of Plumeria rubra were studied to determine the major secondary metabolites and active phyto-components. The anti-malarial efficacy of these extracts were then verified in-vitro on 3D7 and RKL-9 P. falciparum strains. The consequence of the test on cultures of infected RBCs for 24 hours were compared with normal RBCs alone, Plasmodia infected untreated RBCs, Plasmodia infected treated RBCs and scored according to the WHO guidelines. The EC 50 values were derived and the study revealed that the dry plumaria rubra leaves and stem methanolic extract proved most potent in containing the parasite proliferation. This was associated with the phytochemical data which showed that these extracts were opulent in active phyto-constituents, and hence attested to be effective anti – plasmodial agents even against the drug resistant strains, such as RKL-9. Plumeria rubra is used traditionally for numerous diseases and hence the present study may aid to recognising main molecules in the pursuit of a potent anti-malarial agent.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

20. Insecticidal Activity of Methanolic Seeds Extract of Ricinus communis on Adults of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Brauchidae) and Analysis of its Phytochemical Composition
Haider Mashkoor Hussein, Jenan Mohammed Ubaid, Imad Hadi Hameed
Abstract
The objectives of this study were analysis of the secondary metabolite products of Ricinus communis and evaluation anti-insect activity against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Brauchidae). GC-MS analysis of Ricinus communis revealed the existence of the Pregn-5-ene-3,11-dione , 17,20,21-bis[methylene bis(oxy)]-, 9,10-Secocholesta -5,7,10(19)-triene-3,24,25-triol , (3β,5Z,7E)- , 8-Octadecenal , Pyrrolizin-1,7-dione-6-carboxylic acid , methyl(ester) , Tertbutyloxyformamide , N-methyl-N-[4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-butynyl ,  1,2,4-Triazino[5,6-E][1,2,4]-triazine-3,6-dione , hexahydro- , Deoxyspergualin , α-D-Glucopyranoside , O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1.fwdarw.3)-β- , Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid , 2-hydroxy-,ethyl ester , Aminoacetamide , N-methyl-N-[4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-butynyl]- , Pregna-3,5-dien-9-ol-20-one , 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol , Ascaridole epoxide , Trans-3,4,5-Trimethoxy-β-nitrostyrene , 3-(N,N-Dimethyllaurylammonio)propanesulfonate , Tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile , Pentaerythritol , bis-O-(9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]non-9-yl)-di-O-methyl , 5H-Cyclopropa[3,4]benz[1,2-e]azulen-5-one,9,9a-bis(acetyloxy) , 1H-Purin-2-amine , 6-methoxy-N-methyl- , 1,2-Cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-dim , Glycyl-D-asparagine , 1-Tetradecanamine , N,N-dimethyl- , Gibberellic acid , 2,7-Diphenyl-1,6-dioxopyridazino[4,5:2′,3′]pyrrolo[4′,5′-d]pyrida , Propiolic acid , 3-(1-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl)- , l-(+)-Ascorbic acid2,6-dihexadecanoate and  Phytol. Methanolic seeds extract of Ricinus communis was highly active on accumulative mortality of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Brauchidae) (adult).

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

21. Chemical Constituents of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees
Maria Carmen S Tan1, Glenn G Oyong2, Chien-Chang Shen3, Consolacion Y, Ragasa
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees led to the isolation of  andrographolide (1), 14-deoxyandrographolide (2), 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide (3), a mixture of β-sitosterol (4a) and stigmasterol (4b) in a 3:1 ratio, and chlorophyll a (5) from the leaves; a mixture of 4a and 4b in a 3:2 ratio, 5,2′-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone or skullcapflavone I (6), and a mixture of long chain trans-cinnamate esters (7a) and β-sitosteryl fatty acid esters (7b)  from the roots; 4a, monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (8), lupeol (9),  and triacylglycerols (10) from the pods; and 2 from the stems.  The structures of 13 and 6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, while the structures of 4, 5 and 710  were identified by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

22. Analysis of the Secondary Metabolite Products of Ammi majus and Evaluation Anti-Insect Activity
Haider Mashkoor Hussein, Imad Hadi Hameed, Jenan Mohammed Ubaid
Abstract
Aims of our study were analysis of the secondary metabolite products of Ammi majus and evaluation insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight and molecular formula. GC-MS analysis of Ammi majus revealed the existence of the Pregn-5-ene-3,11-dione , 17,20:20,21-bis [methylenebis(oxy)]- ,  Penta-2,4-dien-1-one , 5-dimethylamino-1-[5-(4-dimethylamino)] , 8-Octadecenal , 9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,24,25-triol , (3β,5Z,7E)- , 3,7-Diacetamido-7H-s-triazolo[5,1-c]-s-triazole , Piperidine , 2,3-dimethyl- , d-Mannose , 1-Nitro-2-acetamido-1,2-dideoxy-d-mannitol , Paromomycin , d-Glycero-d-ido-heptose , Aminoacetamide , N-methyl-N-[4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-butynyl]- , Pyrrolizin-1,7-dione-6-carboxylic acid , methyl(ester) ,  5-Allyl-6-methyl-2-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-oxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin- , 3-O-Methyl-d-glucose , Dasycarpidan-1-methanol , acetate ( ester)   and Corynan-17-ol,18,19-didehydro-10-methoxy-,acetate (ester). Methanolic extract of Ammi majus was active on accumulative mortality of Tribolium castaneum (adult).

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

23. Standardisation of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy Herbs collected from Jalandhar, Punjab
Shyam Baboo Prasad, Abhishek Sharma
Abstract
The present study deals with pharmacognostic evaluation including the morphological, microscopical characters. TLC chromatogram and different phsicochemical standard has been developed.  Physicochemical constants of Convolvulus pluricaulis including determination of loss on drying, ash values and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of various leaf extracts was also carried out and it is revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents. The results of the standardization may throw immense light on the botanical identity of Convolvulus pluricaulis which may furnish a basis of judging the authenticity of the plant and also to differentiate the drug from its allied species and detect adulterants.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

24. RAPD and ISSR Polymorphism in the Medicinal Plants: Ocimum sanctum, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum
Sarwat M, Srivastava S, Tajdar H Khan
Abstract
Ocimum is used in a variety of food industry and herbal drug industry. It is an important constituent of various traditional medicines. Its essential oil content gives it a unique flavour. Its popular in curing various human diseases like malaria, colic, vomiting, common cold, cough and skin problems. More than 60 varieties of Ocimum with a variety of leaf colour from green, to red to violet. Its important to analyze the genetic basis of this variety. In our study, we have studied four species of Ocimum: O. sanctum, O. basilicum, O. gratissimum and O. americanum taken from different geographical regions. These species differ with each other in oil contents and secondary metabolites, like: linalool, estragole, and cineole. Very few studies have been done to study the genetic variation among these species. We report a preliminary study on estimation and analysis of genetic variation through random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and intersimple sequence repeat polymorphism (ISSR). The RAPD results showed amplified fragments in the range of 2500 to 250 bp., 60 % of them were polymorphic and the others monomorphic. We have got certain species specific bands for Ocimum sanctum which can be utilized for authentication of the species. Among the ten ISSR primers tested, we have got bands in the size range of 250 bp to 1 Kb., and the % polymorphism among the three species is found to be around 40%. Our results showed that both RAPD and ISSR techniques are sensitive, precise and efficient tool for genomic analysis in the species’ of Ocimum. Such kind of studies are very useful to put Ocimum species in appropriate taxonomic groups. DNA based markers like ISSR are more useful than the traditional morphological and biochemical markers.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

25. DNA Fingerprinting and Molecular Marker Development for Baliospermum montanum (Wïlld.) Muell. Arg.
Lurwan Muazu, Ramaraj Elangomathavan, Samiraj Ramesh
Abstract
Baliospermum montanum is one of the medicinal plants, commonly known as ‘Denti’, belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae found in India, Nepal, Burma and Malaya. It has many medicinal values as the pharmaceutical compounds isolated from its secondary metabolites are used for the treatment of various diseases.  In the present study, the result shows that the B. montanum genomic DNA extracted, which were randomly amplified using 20 set of primers by arbitrary PCR-based DNA fingerprinting (RAPD) for screening, whereby only 16 primers were able to produce bands at a different score while the remaining three primers remain unamplified. However, out of reproducible primers (MAP-1-16), three primers (MAP-1, 12 and 14) were found to produce more specific bands, which were selected for specific amplification analysis. Prior to the sequence analysis of specific amplicons (BM MAP-1, BM MAP-13, and BM MAP-14), the following sequences was retrieved at different size per band, i.e BM MAP-1 (604bp), BM MAP-13 (493bp) and BM MAP-14 (506bp) respectively. However the origin of replication fragments (ORFs) shows BM MAP 01- 604bp has 7 ORFs, BM MAP 13-494bp with 3 ORFs, and BM MAP-506bp has 10 ORFs. In addition, these sequences were submitted to the NCBI website after been analyzed (BLAST) (GenBank accession numbers KX139410.1, KX139411.1 and KX139412.1) that they have no any similarities by the available literature. Thus, could be specifically applicable as a molecular marker of B. montanum DNA fingerprint for identification of medicinal plant adulteration or other molecular analysis.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016

26. In vitro Screening of the Pancreatic Cholesterol Esterase Inhibitory Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Grown in Syria
Brimo Haek Asmaa, Nayal Ream
Abstract
Hypercholesterolemia is implicated in atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases. Plants have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of Ecballium elaterium, Pinus brutia, Plantago lanceolata, Schinus molle, and Hedera helix in vitro. Methanolic and water extracts of different parts of plants were prepared. Essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle and fruit juice of Ecballium elaterium were also tested. Results have shown that percentage inhibition of pancreatic cholesterol esterase for fruit juice and dry aqueous extract from leaves of Ecballium elaterium, dry methanolic extract of Hedera helix leaves and Pinus brutia bark was 22.25±0.9%, 21.58±0.48, 17.96±0.60%, and 19.97±0.29%, respectively at concentration of 0.2mg/ml. These findings demonstrate that these plants seem to be potential inhibitors of cholesterol esterase which may result in reduced cholesterol absorption and consequently delay of the progression of micro- and macrovascular complications.

Abstract Online: 10-August-2016







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research