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Volume8,Issue9

1. Leaf Tissue Arrangement, Histochemical Investigation and Callus Induction from the Medicinal Hemi-Parasite Osyris alba L.
Stavroula Mamoucha, Nikolaos S Christodoulakis
Abstract
Osyris alba is a dioecious shrub used in traditional medicine for its bioactive secondary metabolites. It is used for its antiparasitic, antimicrobial and anti-bleeding activity. In the present study the leaf tissue arrangement, histochemsitry and callus formation of Osyris alba L. were investigated. Leaves (fresh and embedded) were observed by Light, Polarized Light and Electron Microscopy. Fresh stem was also observed by Light Microscopy. The sub-cellular localization of secondary metabolites was detected. Furthermore, in vitro production of its secondary metabolite, by using cell cultures, was also preformed. The compact leaves are amphistomatic, with a single layer of epidermal cells and contain idioblasts cells with crystals. They present a positive reaction to histochemical reagents for the major groups of secondary metabolites. In the preliminary histochemical screening, callus also gave positive results. In conclusion, the medicinal nature of the plant is attributed to its phytochemical profile. Plant cell culture technologies can be used for the production of its bioactive molecules.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

2. Pharmacognostical Assessment and Anticonvulsant Activity of Whole Plant of Cassia occidentalis Linn
Mahanthesh MC, Jalalpure S S
Abstract
Objective: To survey the pharmacognostical characteristics and in vivo anticonvulsant activity of chloroform, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of whole plant of Cassia occidentalis Linn. Methods: Cassia occidentalis Linn Negro coffee whole plant were successively extracted using chloroform, alcoholic and aqueous solvents. The extracts were screened for phytochemicals using HPTLC and GCMS techniques. The extracts were also screened for acute toxicity and anticonvulsant activity, against MES and PTZ induced convulsions, using Wistar albino rats. Results: The phytochemical screening study reveals the presence of more chemical constituents in chloroform extract followed by alcoholic and aqueous extract. We found no significant changes in average body weight of animals, up to tested oral dose of 3000 mg/kg, during acute toxicity study. The in vivo study reveals the anticonvulsant activity of chloroform and alcoholic extract against MES and PTZ induced convulsions. The chloroform extract is found to be more potent, similar to Phenytoin, in controlling both MES and PTZ induced convulsions than alcoholic and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that the chloroform extract of whole plant of Cassia occidentalis Linn has remarkable anticonvulsant activity. Also, our study indicates the potential application of Cassia occidentalis Linn whole plant in the treatment of convulsive disorders as a need of modern health science. However, the further studies are needed to screen the active constituent having anticonvulsant effect. Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

3. Anticancer, Antimicrobial and other Pharmacological Properties of Shikonin and its Derivatives
Saradha Devi M, K Ashokkumar, S Dhivya
Abstract
Shikonin is a lipophilic red pigments and is found in the outer surface of the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizori of the Boraginaceae family. It is a potent pharmaceutical substance with a well-known and extensive range of anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and wound healing activity. Significant research has been conducted on shikonin effectiveness on several tumours and on their mechanism of anticancer action. Shikonin and its derivatives have some antiproliferation and antimetastasis activities in various cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. Few decades onward, a wealth of new information arising from research efforts, on the anticancer and antimicrobial properties of shikonin has been accumulated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an updated data published on antimicrobial, anticancer activities, and other health properties of shikonin and their derivatives. Furthermore, the novel mechanisms for shikonin and its derivatives reported in the contemporary study make these compounds attractive candidates for the treatment of deadly diseases. Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

4. Comparition Study of Physical and Chemical Properties of the Oil Extracted from Fresh and Storage Aniseed and Detrmination of the Optimal Extraction Methods
Anas Rajab
Abstract
Several methods of extraction of volatile oils from the Pimpinella Anisium L. seeds were experimented, and the best method was determined when the seeds were soaked with organic solvents at room temperature. The hexane is considered a good solvent to extract total and volatile aniseed oil. The following physical and chemical properties of extracted aniseed oil were studied: refractive index, density, acidity, acid value, moisture, volatile substances, saponification value and absorptivity in ultraviolet UV. It was found that aniseed oil is cannot be used as cooking or food oil.
The long-term stability was studied for aniseed. It was found that the main total quantity of aniseed oil and its components was decreased interval of time.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

5. In Vitro Anti-adenovirus Activity, Antioxidant Potential and total Phenolic Compounds of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm) Extract
Mohammad-Taghi Moradi, Ali Karimi, Somayeh Alidadi, Leila Hashemi
Abstract
Adenovirus causes a number of diseases in Human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-adenovirus agents seems to be required. Many studies showed that components derived from medicinal plants had effective antiviral activity. Therefore, the present was aimed to evaluate activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract against adenovirus in vitro. In this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of Melissa officinalis was prepared and its anti-adenovirus activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol–2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50% Cytotoxicity Concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used, respectively. The results revealed that the 50% Cytotoxicity Concentration (CC50) on HEp2 cell line and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) on adenovirus of the extract were 294.9±12.7and 15±2.7µg/ml, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI), of 19.66. This extract inhibited adenovirus replication in post-adsorption stage (p<0.05). The IC50 of DPPH radical was 16.8±1.41µg/ml, compare with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 µg/ml. The total phenol and Flavonoid contents were 227.6±4.41mgGAE/g and 12.5±2.1mg/g, respectively.
We conclude that, having SI value of 19.66 with inhibitory effect on adenovirus replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, Melissa officinalis L. extract could be considered as a potential anti-adenovirus agent.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

6. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Herbal Preparations Based on Leaves and Fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill.
Shmygareva A A, Kurkin V A, Sankov A N
Abstract
In the present study there were developed the methodic of qualitative analysis of phytopharmaceuticals preparations: “Senna syrup” and “Senna thick extract” by means of Infrared spectrophotometry. As a result, more in-depth study of “Senna syrup” and “Senna thick extract” conducted by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to compare and qualitative analysis of phytopharmaceutical preparations.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

7. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity and total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Spathe Extracts from 10 Cultivar Varieties of Phoenix dactylifera L.
Farboodniay Jahromi M A, Moein M R, Ahmadi S
Abstract
This research work deals with the study of antioxidant activity and evaluation of total phenol and flavonoid content of spathes ethanolic extracts of various P. dactylifera L. cultivar varieties including Mazafati, Piarom, Khasooei, Shakri, Hanaei, Hajghanbari, Shahani F (female tree), Shahani M (male tree), Halileh and Zahedi. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and total flavonoids content (TFC) by Dowd method. The antioxidant activity evaluation was conducted using various free radical assays including DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), NO (Nitric Oxide) and ABTS (2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid). Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was also performed as a measure of antioxidant capacity of the extracts. Results declared highest phenol and flavonoid contents for Shahani M variety, 38.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 1.12 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g of dry spathe respectively when compared to other cultivars. This variety exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical. Strong scavenging ability was recorded for Mazafati extract (IC50, 19±0.02 µg/mL) against ABTS free radicals while the extracts of six varieties surpassed quercetin in manifestation of nitric oxide inhibitory properties. The results also showed highest FRAP value for Shahani M extract (IC50, 78±0.32 µg/mL). Despite minor variations observed in phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity among different varieties, these P. dactylifera spathe extracts can be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

8. Characterization of the Essential Oils from Commercial Chamomile Flowers and Chamomile Teabags by GC-MS Analysis
Lopez M, Blazquez M A
Abstract
Chemical composition of seven Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oils samples has been analyzed by GC-MS in order to evaluate the differences between trademarks. A total of 70 compounds accounting 92.16-95.76% of the total essential oil were identified. The existence of two types of chamomile essential oils, one rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (66.85-77.48%) and the other rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (58.12%) was established. a-Bisabolol oxide B (6.57±1.20, 23.65±3.27%), a-bisabolone oxide A (7.89±0.36, 7.01±0.44%) and a-bisabolol oxide A (58.18±1.99%, 27.95±4.32%) were the main oxygenated compounds in the essential oils from both chamomile flowers and teabags at commercial food items, whereas large amount of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trans-b-farnesene (38.22%) followed of a-bisabolol oxide A (16.74%) were found in the chamomile essential oil at retail Pharmacies. Chamazulene was present (1.5-4.44%) in all analyzed essential oils. The results showed qualitative and quantitative differences that can affect not only the organoleptic characteristics but also its pharmacological activity.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

9. Validation of HPTLC Method for Quantification of Embelin from Embelia ribes Burm. F.
Amit Saraf, K Srilata Srinivas, Alka Chaturvedi
Abstract
The study was carried out to develop a validated HPTLC method based on ICH guidelines for the quantification of embelin from medicinally important plant Embelia ribes Burm.F. Methanolic extract of the dried fruit of the plant was sonicated and used for the analysis. CAMAG Linomat 5 and CAMAG TLC scanner was used for HPTLC studies. Chromatography was performed on aluminium-backed silica gel 60F254 E. MERCK KGaA HPTLC plates of 250 µm thickness were used. Chloroform: ethyl acetate: formic acid (5:4:1 v/v/v) was used as the mobile phase and derivatization was carried out with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid. The method was developed and validated for specificity, linearity, range, accuracy and precision. Linearity was established in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 µg when plotted against their respective peak area. LOD and LOQ values were found to be 0.46 µg/mL and 1.39 µg/mL respectively. The External Standard Method and linearity graph was used for quantification analysis. The concentration of embelin in dried fruits of the plant is found to be 1.657µg/mg or 0.1657%. The statistical analysis conclusively establishes statistical fitness of the method. It is a specific, sensitive and reproducible HPTLC method for the quantification of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm.F.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

10. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Platycerium angolense
Obafemi T O, Onasanya A, Olaoye O A, Afolabi O B, Awe O J, Anadozie S O, Ojo O A, Adedeji E
Abstract
This study aims to elucidate the in vitro antioxidant activity and composition of methanolic extract of Platycerium angolense (MPA). Phytochemical screening was carried out on the extract while metal chelation and the radical scavenging activity of the extract against 2, 2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS·+and nitric oxide (NO) radicals was also evaluated. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify compounds present in the extract. Phytochemical screening showed that the extract contains saponins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. It was also observed that the extract has an excellent ability to chelate ferrous ion as well as a high DPPH radical scavenging activity. However a moderate scavenging activity was observed for other radicals tested in this study. Furthermore, HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acids and tannins. It could be safely concluded that the observed antioxidant activity observed in the extract might be as a result of its constituents.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

11. Pharmacognostic Studies of the Leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Linn. (Vahl) (Verbenaceae)
Udodeme H O, Odoh U E, Ugwu P N, Diovu E O, Okonta E O, Onyekere P F, Ezugwu C O
Abstract
The pharmacognostic standards of fresh, powdered and transverse sections of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (SJ) leaf was carried out to determine its macroscopical, microscopical (both qualitative and quantitative), analytical standards and phytochemical profile. The macroscopy revealed a simple, glabrous, relatively thick and slightly fleshy leaf that is obovate with symmetrical base, bluntly acute apex, with a serrate-dentate margin. The qualitative microscopy of the powdered leaf shows xylem vessels with phloem parenchyma cells, epidermal cells with diacytic type of stomata, epidermal cells with anticlinal sinuous wall, palisade cells attached to epidermal cells, multicellular uniseirate trichomes, irregular shaped prism calcium oxalate, and small bundle of fibre. The quantitative microscopy of the leaf of SJ showed the values of palisade ratio, stomatal number (upper and lower epidermis), stomatal index (upper and lower surface), vein-islet number and vein termination number to be 4.42 ± 2.53, (105.67 ± 2.73, 277 ± 17.08), (28.00 ± 2.31, 21.00 ± 2.51), 15.67 ± 0.66 and 3.50 ± 0.00 respectively. For the analytical standards; 11.85 ±0.06, 2.17 ± 0.00, 8.80 ± 0.14, 2.04 ± 0.02, 2.51 ± 0.15, 4.85 ±0.22 and 4.30 ± 0.02 were obtained for total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive value, water soluble extractive value and moisture content respectively. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of SJ leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, resins, proteins, steroids and terpenoids. These specific standards obtained through experimentation are of importance in the establishment of diagnostic indices for the identification, standardization and preparation of monograph on the plant.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

12. Screened Phytochemicals of A. esculentus Leaves and their Therapeutic Role as an Antioxidant
Tiwari Ayushi, Dubey Prachee, Gupta S K, Watal Geeta
Abstract
Medicinal plants are valuable natural source for the development of potentially safe drugs. The biological activities associated with these plants are due to the presence of certain phytochemicals which act either individually or synergistically. Hence, the present study deals with phytochemical screening and assessment of antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Abelmoschus esculentus leaves using different assays viz. total phenolics, total flavonoids, total flavonols, reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), NO and superoxide anion radicals. The phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. The total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols present in the Abelmoschus esculentus leaf extract were 9.61 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g, 9.25 mg of Quercetin Equivalent (QE) /g and 6.12 mg of QE/g of dry extract, respectively. Reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration-dependent as it increase with increase in concentration and it was maximum at the highest evaluated concentration of 80 µg/ml. Significant antioxidant efficacy of A.esculentus leaves was further confirmed by IC50 values of DPPH °, NO ° and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays as it was found to be 53.96, 59.15 and 52.50 µg/ml respectively. Since, the results were almost at par with, Ascorbic acid taken as reference therefore, the aqueous extract of A. esculentus leaves, having therapeutically important phytochemicals, could be developed not only as an antiaging agent but also as an agent for managing oxidative stress due to diabetic compilcations.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

13. Quantitative Determination of Quercetin in Michelia Champaca (L.) Flowers by HPTLC Technique
Ananthi T, Anuradha R
Abstract
A sensitive and reliable high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantitation of quercetin in the dried flowers of Michelia champaca. The methanolic extract of flowers was chromatographed on silica gel 60 F254 plates with toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid, 5: 4: 1 (v/v/v), as mobile phase. Detection and quantitation were performed by densitometric scanning at ?= 254 nm, by using deuterium lamp. The accuracy of the method was checked by conducting recovery studies using the standard addition method and the average recovery of quercetin was found to be 0.1439%w/w. The proposed HPTLC method provides a good resolution of quercetin from other constituents present in methanolic extract of dried flowers of M.champaca. The method is rapid, simple and precise.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

14. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Different Polarity Extracts from Chrysanthemum segetum L. Growing in Algeria
Samira Kennouche, Sabrina Bicha, Ali Bentamene, Joel Crèche, Fadila Benayache, Samir Benayache
Abstract
In the present study, we reporte the evaluation of antioxidant properties and phenolic and favonoid contents of Chrysanthemum segetum L. growing in Algeria. The chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (AcOEt) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts prepared from the aqueous EtOH extract of the flowers, were tested using two methods of antioxidant assays: 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). The results showed that EtOAc extract which had the highest level of polyphenol and flavonoid contents (216.18±12.97 mgGAE/g and 126.64±11.35 mgQE/g respectively), exhibited the most potent antioxidant capacity in each assays, showing the highest IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity (23.58 µg/mL) and the highest A050 of CUPRAC capacity (14.85 µg/mL) compared to the n-BuOH extract and CHCl3 which was the weakest extract. This study suggested that the differences of the potency of the antioxidant activity may be explained by the differences in the polyphenol and flavonoid levels.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

15. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Polar Extract from Centaurea fragilis Dur. Using HPLC-TOF/MS
D Azzouzi, R Mekkiou, I Demirtas, F Gül, R Seghiri, O Boumaza, S Benayache, F Benayache
Abstract
In recent decade, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has become the most selective techniques for rapid screening and characterization of known and unknown constituents from the extracts of medicinal plants. Centaurea species are known for their multiple biological activities. With the aim of estimating the chemical composition of n-BuOH extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea fragilis, a rapid qualitative and quantitative screening was carried out using HPLC-TOF/MS. The use of HPLC-TOF/MS technique resulted in the qualitative and quantitative determination of nineteen (19) compounds from which 9 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids knowing for their pharmacological properties.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

16. Phytochemical Screening and FT-IR Analysis of Ficus benghalensis Fruits
Gopukumar S T, Princy Alexander, Jainamboo M, Praseetha P K
Abstract
Medicinal plants are in use for thousands of years and are renowned for their effectiveness in various treatments. The medicinally usable plants were identified and extracted for biochemical profile and characterized for finding functional groups. Ficus benghalensis is a large evergreen tree, belongs to the family Moraceae. It is commonly known as “Indian Banyan Tree”. Phytochemical screening of Ficus benghalensis fruit were performed in three solvents viz; methanol, chloroform, and aqueous were used to obtain extracts from powdered fruits which extracts were subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Phytochemicals constituents were abundant in methanolic fruit extracts. The characterization of functional groups were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

17. Global Need for Novel Herbal Drug Formulations
Parth Sharma, Surajpal Verma, Plakshi Misri
Abstract
In India over the ancient times people used plants to extract plant actives to make drug formulations. Herbal drugs have enormous therapeutic potential which can be explored through various beneficial drug delivery systems. In recent time the less use of herbal formulations due to lack of their standardization. Great advancement has been made in the uses of plant therapeutics, on development of novel herbal formulations like polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, liposomes, phytosomes, nanoemulsions, microsphere, transferosomes and ethosomes etc. These formulations have reported to have various advantages over the traditional formulations such as improved solubility & bioavailability, reduced toxicity, controlled drug delivery, protections of plant actives from degradation. Also these having the drug targeting properties with improved selectivity, drug delivery and effectiveness with dose reduction which not only increase the safety but also patient compliance. This review article illuminates the current status of novel herbal formulations and explains the different method of preparation of such formulations. In nutshell the combinations used of novel drug delivery technology and herbal medicines provides a boon for a safer and effective therapy for humans.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

18. Essential Oil Composition of Centaurea choulettiana Pomel (Asteraceae) from Algeria
Djihane Azzouzi, Ratiba Mekkiou, Pierre Chalard, Jean-Claude Chalchat, Ouahiba Boumaza, Ramdane Seghiri, Fadila Benayache, Samir Benayache
Abstract
The essential oil of air-dried flowers of Centaurea choulettiana Pomel was obtained by steam distillation and was analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Forty components were identified in the essential oil with the sesquiterpenes were the most abundant class of compounds (32.61%). Carbonylic compounds were also identified in high quantities (24.6%), while Hydrocarbons were found in low quantities (14.85%). However, oxygenated monoterpenes were present in lower quantities with a percentage of 3.41%.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

19. The Study Effects Antimicrobial of Foeniculum vulgare mill and Achilles mille folium Plant on Bacterial Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infections and Nosocomial Infection
Hassan Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Mohammad Molavi, Kolsoom shirzadi karamolah, Nayere Zare Fahim
Abstract
Urinary tract infections due to global prevalence and their complications such as, kidney stones, miscarriage, urinary tract disorders, hypertension, uremia, are very important. Moreover, they increase antibiotics resistance and drug side effects; all these reasons fo explain the replacement herbal medicines and natural antimicrobial substances with chemical drugs. In this study, the standard strains (ATCC) was used. Next, Foeniculum vulgare mill and Achilles mille folium plants during the growing season were collected and dried in a darkened place. Then, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plants were prepared by the soaking mmethod distillation with water. The concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, µg/ml were prepared. Then, in order to determine antimicrobial effects, the disk and agar diffusion method and (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC were used. The results of this study showed that the alcoholic and aqueous extraction plants had antibacterial effects on these bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The antibacterial activity increased with increasing concentration. In this study, Achilles mille folium plant did not affect the inhibitory of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The findings of this study and other studies in this field showed that, alcoholic and aqueous extracts Achilles mille folium and Foeniculum vulgare mill plants can have the inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

20. Hypolipidemic Effect of Achillea biebersteinii Ethanolic Extract in Hamsters with Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia
Babelly Mais, Abajy Mohammad Yaser, Nayal Ream
Abstract
Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic activity of Achillea biebersteinii Afan in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic Golden-Syrian hamsters. Achillea biebersteinii Afan ethanolic extract was administered by oral gavage at a dose of 400mg/kg daily for 20 days to hyperlipidemic hamsters. Atorvastatin was used as reference standard at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Achillea biebersteinii Afan showed a significant decrease in the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL. There was also significant decrease in hepatic total cholesterol and triglycerides. According to the results of our study the extract effectively suppressed the high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in hamsters; this study provides the first report about Achillea biebersteinii Afan hypolipidemic effect suggesting the potential protective role in Coronary heart disease.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016

21. Anti-Epileptic Activity of Acalypha indica Methanolic Leaves Extract with Animal Experiment
Prem Kumar, P Chakrapani, B Arunjyothi, A Rojarani
Abstract
Epilepsy is a set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures. Nearly 90% of epileptic patients are found in developing countries. Epileptic seizures result from abnormal, excessive or hyper synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. The cause of most cases of epilepsy is unknown, although some people develop epilepsy as the result of brain injury, stroke, brain tumor, drug and alcohol exploitation. Acalypha indica is one of the species of the Euphobiaceae family. Acalypha indica shows anticonvulsant activity apart from many other medicinal properties such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant. Fecl3 induced epilepsy in sprague dawly rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of methonolic extract of Acalypha indica. The methanolic extract of Acalypha indica leaves was administered orally in graded doses of 200 mg/kg sprague dawly rats and the effects were compared with diazepam as standard and normal saline as control in fecl3 induced method. The Acalypha indica leaf extract has shown significant decrease in the duration of tonic hind limb extension suggesting anticonvulsant effect. The performance results indicate that methanolic extract of Acalypha indica leaf extract have potential anticonvulsant activity.
Abstract Online: 10 September, 2016






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research