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1. Coconut Waste As a Potential Source for Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Compounds
Elsbaey M, Abdel Bar F M
Despite the reported cytotoxic activity of the endocarp of Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae), the active principles were never characterized. The total extract (T), methylene chloride (M) and ethyl acetate (E) fractions were investigated for selective cytotoxic activity towards prostate cancer cell line (PC3) compared to normal cells (WI38), T showed remarkable activity (IC50=10.89 ± 2.1 μg/ml), M and E showed comparable moderate activity. All showed significantly higher IC50 values towards WI38 with selectivity index (SI) values of >18.3, >11.8 and 6.6, respectively. The phytochemical investigation of M has led to isolation of  coniferaldehyde (1), sinapaldehyde (2), p-hydroxy benzoic acid (3),  protocatechuic acid (4),  vanillic acid (5), protocatechuic aldehyde (6), balanophonin (7), guaiacylglycerol-β-coniferyl aldehyde ether (8), E-piceatannol (9), kompasinol A (10) and apigenin (11). The cytotoxic and antioxidant potential of the isolates was investigated. Compounds 1, 4, 79 and 11 showed selective cytotoxic activity against PC3. Compounds 6, 9 and 10 showed remarkable antioxidant activity. .  These results added a medicinal value for the coconut endocarp, instead of being as a wasted resource; it could be renewable inexpensive source of potential leads for selective cytotoxic drugs.

2. Antiepileptic and Antioxidant Activity of Some Medicinal Plants: A Review
Jeenu joseph, Lincy joseph, Mathew George
Medicinal plants are the oldest form of healthcare known to mankind. Antioxidants are considered to be important in fighting against the damages done by the free radicals produced due to oxidative stress. Antiepileptic drugs help to minimize or to irradiate the convulsive shocks and seizures as a result of abnormal and excessive nerve cell activity. Standardized, well established in vitro and in vivo methods are available for experimental evaluation of antioxidant and antiepileptic agents. A step wise procedure from in vitro and in vivo seems reasonable to reduce the large quantity of potential drugs to a few promising agents for further clinical testing. This review has focused on some herbal drugs with both antioxidant and antiepileptic property such as Brassica nigra, Bacopa monniera, Ficus religiosa, Convolvulus pluricalis, Jatamansi and Acorus calamus

3. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extracts from the Leaves, Stems, and Roots of Tulbaghia violacea
Lerato Nellvecia Madike, Samkeliso Takaidza, Michael Pillay
Tulbaghia violacea has been used extensively in South African traditional medicine for treatment of a number of ailments. Few studies have examined the bioactive compounds present in the plant. This study assessed the phytochemicals present in the leaves, stems and roots of T. violacea. The phytochemicals were extracted separately with distilled water and 70% ethanol by maceration. A wide variety of pharmacologically active compounds such as tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, phenols and coumarins were present in some of the T. violacea plant parts. However, phlobatannins, leucoanthocyanins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and anthocyanins were absent in the plant. This study showed that most of the phytocompounds were present in the leaves of T. violacea compared to the stems and roots. This is significant for conserving the species since the leaves of the plant can be harvested for medicinal use while the rest of the plant is left intact for regeneration of the plant. This study also showed that the two solvents extracted different amounts and types of phytochemicals from the different parts of the plant suggesting that a single solvent may not be able to extract all the known bioactive compounds from a plant.

4. Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical, Physio-Chemical and Acute Toxicity Studies on the Leaves of Manilkara zapota (l) Van Royen var. PKM1
Swarnakumari S, Premanand S
The present research work was extend out for the leaves of Manilkara zapota (L) Van Royen var. PKM1 to investigate the pharmacognostical characters, physiochemical constants, phytochemical studies for the presence of various secondary metabolites and  its toxicity was  screened using brine shrimp lethality assay. In pharmacognostical work, both macroscopical and microscopical characters were examined. Physiochemical constant like ash value, loss on drying and extractive values of successive solvents with increasing order of polarity were analysed. Preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted with various solvent extracts, exposes the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and phytosterols and wherein ethanolic extract of leaves indicates the presence of flavonoids. Further investigation on toxicity was carried out with the ethanolic extract of the leaves, showed 100% mortality in the range of 1500 ppm/ml compared to standard podophyllotoxin which showed lethality at 3ppm level. This work will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this particular species which is imbibed with medicinal values.

5. Quality Standardization of Flowers of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.
Bindu Gopalkrishnan, Roy Chiranjeev
Harsinghar/Parijataka is a sacred plant grown near the temples as well as in residential areas in India. Each and every part of the plant is used as medicine by the aboriginals. It is botanically known as Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. from family Oleaceae. The stem bark and leaves have been studied in details. Although the flowers of parijataka have curative properties in inflammations, ophthalmopathy, flatulence, colic etc. the study is lacking. Hence it was felt necessary to put forth the pharmacognostical standards for the said flower. The present work involves the macroscopic, microscopic and histochemical studies of petals and corolla tubes. The entire flower was investigated for powder microscopy, fluorescence, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis. Thus these standards will be of utmost important in identification of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis flower.

6. Comparative Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Khadirashtaka yavakuta (Powder) and Kashaya (Decoction)
Chandani Goswami, Vd. Hitesh Vyas, Harisha C. R.
Khadirashtaka Kashaya, a compound Ayurvedic formulation is prescribed mainly in the management of Kushtha Vyadhi( skin diseases), Visarp Roga (erysipelous) and Masoorika (type of measels) and it is mentioned in Sangraha Grantha like, Yogaratnakara, Gadanighraha, Bhaishajya Ratnavali. The era is rising with many of novel dietary habits and lifestyle which are ill-assorted with health. Consumption of incompatible food combinations, heavy meals; faulty temperature acclimatisation leads to several metabolic changes which results in unhealthy skin. Their prolonged exposure leads to long lasting dermatological abnormalities having vitiated Rasa and Rakta Dhatu. Khadirashtaka Kashaya helps to break the pathogenesis of skin disorders by its bitter-astringent taste, light and dry properties as well as blood purifying activity. Till date no work was found having comparatively scientifically analysed on this drug. In Present study Khadirashtaka Kashaya and Khadirashtaka choorna have been evaluated for Pharmacognostical analysis. Finished product microscopy and decoction showing the quality and genuineness of all the constituents of Khadirashtaka Kashaya (Decoction) has been done. Organoleptic features of coarse powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standard range.

7. Inhibition of In Vitro Fructose-Induced Protein Glycation by Litchi chinensis
Swathi Putta, Eswar Kumar Kilari
Non enzymatic glycation is a chain reaction between reducing sugars and the free amino groups of proteins, involved in severity of diabetes and diabetic complications. Litchi chinensis used as consumed fruit and as a drug to treat certain diseases. In this study the antioxidative effects of L.chinensis and also its effect against protein oxidation and advanced glycation end products. The antioxidant potential of aqueous fruit pericarp extract of L.chinensis (APLC) was evaluated in vitro using a model of fructose-mediated protein glycation. The antioxidant activity of APLC conducted for superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and also demonstrated antioxidant activity with Fe+2 chelating activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were applied. Fructose (100mM) increased fluorescence intensity of glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) in terms of total AGEs during 21 days of exposure. Moreover, fructose caused more protein carbonyl (PCO) formation in native BSA.  The APLC prevents oxidative protein damages including effect on PCO formation which are believed to form under the glycoxidation process. The APLC at different concentrations (25-250µg/ml) has significantly decreased the formation of AGEs in term of the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA.

8. Sodium Valproate-Induced Hepatic Dysfunction in Albino Rats and Protective Role of n-Butanol Extract of Centaurea sphaerocephala L.
Amina Maya Lahneche, Ratiba Boucheham, Nassima Boubekri, Sabah Bensaci, Sabrina Bicha, Ali Bentamenne, Fadila Benayache, Samir Benayache, Djamila Zama

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of n-butanol extract of Centaurea sphaerocephala (C.sphaerocephala) and Vitamin E against sodium valproate-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in male rats. Male rats were divided into eight equal groups treated with plant extract (50mg/kg, 100mg /kg), Vit. E (100mg/kg) and VPA (300mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, animal were scarified and samples (blood and liver’s tissue) were removed isolated for biochemical and histological study. VPA-treated rats showed hepatic injury characterized by a significant increase in biochemical parameters (serum transaminase, cholesterol and triglycerides).  Also, VPA induced oxidative stress exhibited a significant increase in MDA level and significant decrease in GSH levels, CAT and GPx activities. These effects were accompanied by histopathological changes in liver. While the pretreatment by n-butanol extract of C. sphaerocephala reversed the alteration induced by VPA and reduced its toxic effects. The results showed a significant decrease in serum markers and liver’s lipid peroxidation whereas GSH level and the activities of GPx, CAT enzymes were   significantly increased. Histopathological observations correlated with the biochemical parameters. VPA-induced hepatotoxicity involved free radical production, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging property of Centaurea sphaerocephala would have provided the protection against hepatic damage.

9. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides) Crude Extract Against Skin Infection in Wound Healing
Faller E M, Kanes S N, Zajmi A, Ramli M D
Wound healing is a dynamic phenomenon that results in the restoration of anatomic continuity and function on which can be delayed by pathogenic bacteria. This research was designed to explore the antimicrobial efficacy of Tillandsia usneoides against skin infections in wound healing. Physical and chemical evaluations were done through phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography. The effect of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Tillandsia usneoides against pathogenic bacteria were evaluated on antimicrobial activities using disc diffusion and broth dilution susceptibility assay. The excision bioassay analysis was used in examining the wound healing process in mice. The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids. Thin layer chromatography revealed a high Rf value for flavonoids (0.75mm) and alkaloids (0.60mm). The antibacterial assay showed a high zone of inhibition (ZI) for both methanolic extract (>23mm, >22mm and >20mm) and ethanolic extract (>22mm, >22mm and >17mm) for P.aeruginosa, S.aureus and S.epidermis respectively. Resistance against aqueous extract was observed based on the lowest zone of inhibition (<4mm). Gentamicin was used as the positive control (>28mm) and DMSO as the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration results confirmed that methanolic and ethanolic extracts restrained the growth of tested bacteria in the range of 125 to 500mg/mL and showed bactericidal efficacy. Wound healing assay indicated that methanolic extract had a higher potency of wound closure (12 days; <1mm) compared to ethanolic and aqueous extracts (13days; >1.5mm and 13days: >1.8mm respectively). Povidone-Iodine was used as the gold standard (15days; <2mm) in the study. In conclusion, methanolic extract of T. usneoides has a great potential with regard to its antimicrobial and wound healing activity to be developed as a novel drug in the future.

10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Traditional Medicine Among People of Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria
Ohemu T L, Sariem C N, Dafam D G, Ohemu B O, Okwori V A, Olotu P N, Jerome C O
Traditional medicine (TM) status in population with access to modern medicine is not well clear in the whole country, even though the acceptance of TM is a well-established fact. TM has gained popularity in all regions of the developing world. This study is aimed at accessing the general knowledge, attitude, practice, the extent of use, benefits and safety of TM among people of Jos North L.G.A. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out on 300 residents of Jos North L.G.A. A systematic random sampling was used to select households at intervals of six. Data was collected through the use of structured open and closed ended questionnaires and interview and the data were analysed using SPSS 20.  274 out of 300 questionnaires were valid. Among the respondents, 56.9% are between 19-28 years. 100% of the participants have good knowledge of TM, 62.8% had no adverse effect from the use of TM, while 70.1% do not agree that TM is safer than modern medicine. 70.4% of the participants plan to use TM in the future.  29.9% of the respondent prefer TM, 31.8% prefer modern medicine while 38.3% prefer both.  The population in Jos North has good knowledge with high acceptability and use of TM. The main reasons for the high acceptability are due to lesser cost, availability, effectiveness and efficacy

11. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard “Seeds”
Bindu Gopalkrishnan
Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard   belongs to   family   Sapotaceae. It is commonly called as Rayan /Khirni.  The local people and aboriginals use the oil extracted from the seeds for cooking purpose.  The seed has several therapeutic uses too.  They are used in   spermicidal activity, besides it is recommended for leprosy, ophthalmic, ulcers and in the opacity of the cornea.  The oil from the seed is considered to be demulcent and emollient, used in piles.  Although seeds and oil are in use; deliberate attempt to study them has lacked.  Pharmacognosy can be the first step in deciding the status of a plant organ as a crude medicine.  Hence comprehensive Pharmacognostic study of Manilkara hexandra seed was done.  In the present investigation various aspects of pharmacognosy like macroscopy, microscopy, histochemical analysis, powder study, preliminary phytochemical screening, fluorescence analysis, and physicochemical constants were laid down

12. Concept of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Perspectives of Ayurveda and Modern Science
Patel M G, Prajapati D P
Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a hormonal disorder affecting 12-18% women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS have irregular menstrual cycle, excess of androgens, insulin resistance, serum lipids alteration, anovulation, acne, hirsutism and infertility. According to Ayurveda this type of clinical features are found in Pushpadhni jataharini (disease similar to Polycystic ovarian syndrome mostly having hyperandrogenism and anovulatory cycle) and Nashtartva (no proper growth of follicles and chronic anovulation). It involves the imbalance of dosha, dhatu and upadhatu. Evidence based medical management of PCOS is done by controlling irregular menses, treatment of hirsutism and acne, management of infertility and insulin resistance. The chemical based drugs induce ovulatory cycle in women, instead of allowing it to restore to its original healthy rhythm. The successful treatment of infertility is usually possible in the majority of patients with PCOS by using natural, non-invasive and non-chemical remedies. The present review provides information about some herbal plants, extracts of plants, active constituents from plants and some formulations clinically tested in animal models inducing PCOS and humans suffering from PCOS.

13. Evaluation of Bryophyte for Green Fungicides as Alternative Treatment to Control Plant Pathogen
G S Deora, D Suhalka
The aqueous, acetonic and methanolic  extract of  Riccia gangetica, a bryophyte, was found to be effective against  phytopathogen. The fungitoxicity of the extract was measured by percent spore germination inhibition and  hyphal length using hanging drop technique. Extract of plant were prepared in aqueous solution, acetone and methanol  from 10-100 concentration. The solvent concentration with highest antifungal activity was recorded in 100 per cent methanolic extract. Rest of the plant extracts exhibited moderate to minimal antifungal activity. Distinct morphological changes were observed in treated fungal spores  in comparison to control . The treatment clearly showed anomalies in the spores which becomes shrinked and malformed.

14. Evalution of Phytoconstituents of Syzygium arnottianum Leaves
M P Krishna, M Mohan
Aim: The present study is carried out to explore the major phytoconstituents and functional groups present in the methanolic extract of the leaves of Syzygium arnottianum using FTIR and GC-MS. Methods: For the identification of the phytochemical constituents, Perkin – Elmer GC Clarus 500 system (Auto system XL) Gas Chromatograph equipped and coupled to a mass detector Turbo mass gold – Perkin Elmer Turbomass 5.2 spectrometer with an Elite – 5MS (5% Diphenyl / 95% Dimethyl poly siloxane), 30m x 0.25 μm DF of capillary column is used. The molecular weight and structure of the compounds were determined by analysis of the mass spectrum of GC-MS using the database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST) library data. For the analysis of functional groups, ATR- FTIR spectroscope (Shimadzu IR Prestige-21) is used. Results: The GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract of S. arnottianum revealed the presence of 11 bioactive compounds with valuable biological activities. The FTIR analysis indicated the presence of alcohol, alkane, alkene, alkyl halide, alkyne, amine, aromatic, carbonyl, ether, acid, aldehyde, anhydride and ester.  Conclusion: The phytochemical profile of the plant S. arnottianum leaf extract indicates the presence of various bioactive compounds which can be utilised further for medicinal purposes.

15. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Studies on Methanolic Extract of Caryopses of Echinochloa frumentacea Link
Swaroopa Rani Vanapatla, Sana Syed, Praneetha Pallerla, Ravi Kumar Bobbala
Background: The present study was aimed to evaluate the methanolic extract of caryopses of Echinochloa frumentacea (EFME) for its in-vitro antioxidant activity and in-vivo hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol and antihepatotoxic activity against D-Galactosamine induced hepatic damage in rats. Materials and Methods: The flavonoid and phenolic contents, of EFME were estimated and the antioxidant studies were conducted for the extract, EFME using various methods such as DPPH, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and reducing power assay. Liver damage was induced by administering paracetamol (3g/Kg) and the hepatoprotective activity of the extract was assessed on the basis of improvement in the altered level of various serum biochemical parameters and in the changes occurred in the histology of liver of the rats taking Silymarin (100mg/kg) as the standard. Among the three test doses of EFME, 100 mg/kg was found to be the effective. Hence, EFME 100 mg/kg was selected to assess its antihepatotoxic activity against D-Galactosamine (400 mg/kg) induced hepatic damage in rats. Results: The flavonoid and phenolic contents of the extract, EFME were found to be 7.56±1.29mg and 138.53±2.11mg of rutin and gallic acid equivalents per gram of extract respectively. The extract exhibited antioxidant activity and significant (p<0.01) hepatoprotective activity. Conclusion: The study revealed that the extract EFME at 100 mg/kg has shown significant hepatoprotective and antihepatotoxic activity against paracetamol and D-Galactosamine induced hepatic damage in rats respectively.


International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research