DPPH Scavenging Activities and Phytochemical Content of Four Asteraceae Plants
Raden Bayu Indradi, Irda Fidrianny, Komar Ruslan Wirasutisna
Pharmaceutical Biology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia
Received: 1st April, 17; Revised 20th May, 17, Accepted: 12th June, 17; Available Online:25th June, 2017
Free radicals are atoms or molecules that have one or more unpaired electrons on its outer orbital, highly reactive, and could damage cell inside human body. Human body produce antioxidant to neutralize free radicals, but human ageing and stress oxidative conditions would increase the formation of free radicals, therefore an exogenous antioxidant are needed. Asteraceae family is the largest family among the plant kingdom therefore it has great potential as source of exogeneous antioxidants. The objectives of this research were to determine antioxidant activities of aerial part of elephant’s foot (Elephantopus scaber L.), false daisy (Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.), Indian pluchea (Pluchea indica (L.) Less), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H Wigg.) using DPPH method, determine total flavonoid and total phenolic content, and analyze correlation between total flavonoid content and total phenolic content with antioxidant activity. Extraction was carried out by reflux with increasing polarity using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method. Total flavonoid content was determined using Chang’s method and total phenolic content evaluated using Folin—Ciocalteu reagent. Correlation of total flavonoid content and total phenolic content was analyzed by Pearson’s method. Ethanolic extract of Indian pluchea showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 DPPH 16.66 ± 0.08 µg/mL. The highest total phenolic content (23.49 ± 0,56 g QE (Quercetin Equivalent)/100 g) was given by ethyl acetate extract of Indian pluchea, while the highest flavonoid content (16.48 ± 0.25 g GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent)/100 g) was showed by ethanolic extract of Indian pluchea. Total phenolic content of elephant’s foot, false daisy and Indian pluchea herbs extracts showed significantly negative correlation with their IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities. Indian pluchea herbs extract had the highest antioxidant activity using DPPH method compared to elephant’s foot, false daisy and dandelion herbs. Phenolic compounds were the major contributor in antioxidant activities of elephant’s foot, false daisy and dandelion herbs extracts by DPPH method.
Keywords: Antioxidant, DPPH, Asteraceae, Pluchea indica.