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1. Medicinal Flowers in the Management Of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review
Suja Pandian. R

Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a noncurable but controllable disease. The disease necessitates constant reassessment of glycaemic control in people with diabetes and appropriate adjustment of therapeutic regimens. For several centuries medical practitioners have long been acknowledged the therapeutic properties of certain flowers. The medicinal properties of flowers are evaluated from the aspect of potential health benefits concerning mainly the influence of color, odour and flavour components in relation to antioxidant activity, and scavenging activity of reactive oxygen radicals. Though many flowers available in our surroundings have medicinal uses and are widely used in indigenous system, there is a scarce data about the medicinal uses of flowers. This review highlights therapeutic utility of medicinal flowers and enriches our knowledge regarding pharmacological aspects of the flowers used in managing diabetes.

2. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis of Leaf Extract of Herbal Plant (Thunbergia laurifolia)
Mahalakshmi R, Nishanth K, Sudharshan M, Aadarsh Prasanna, Balabhaskar R
Herbal medicinal plant Thunbergia laurifolia, was collected, powdered and extracted using methanol. The extract was used for studying the phytochemical compounds. Further HPTLC was performed on the extract using CAMAG HPTLC system to study the phytoconstituents. The CAMAG HPTLC system was equipped with Linomat 5 sample applicator, cabin with ultra violet light and winCATS Planar Chromatography software. The samples were analysed in the CAMAG HPTLC system at different ultra violet wavelengths- 254nm, 366nm and white light- 540nm. The results obtained showed different peaks and Rf values at 2.0 µl, 6.0 µl and 4.0 µl. The highest concentration of phytoconstituents recorded were 64.58% at 254nm, 27.06% at 366nm and 40.14% at 540 nm. The results of the HPTLC fingerprinting analysis of the methanolic leaf extract of Thunbergia laurifolia revealed the presence of 8 to 11 polyvalent phytoconstituents.

3. Phytochemical Investigation and Validation of Antioxidant Potential Of β-Sitosterol from Tubers of Eulophia herbacea and Eulophia ochreata
Patil Manisha, Patil Chandrashekhar, Mahajan Raghunath
Many species of the genus Eulophia from family Orchidaceae are used as excellent health-promoting agent, in traditional medicine to treat diarrhoea, stomach pain, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, gynaecological problems, paralysis, cough, anaemia, piles, impotency, tuberculosis, epilepsy, blood purification. Phytochemical investigation has been carried out qualitatively as well as quantitatively on tuber powder and extracts of Eulophia herbacea and Eulophia ochreata prepared in different solvents. The order of % of extracts obtained in different solvents is water > methanol > benzene > chloroform > petroleum ether for E. herbacea as well as E. ochreata. Secondary metabolites like phytosterol, mucilage, phenol, proanthocyanidine and flavonoid have been detected in both the test plant extracts. β-sitosterol has been isolated and purified from methanolic extract of both the plants using TLC, HPLC and spectroscopically, however β-sitosterol is more in E. ochreata than E. herbacea. Both the Eulophia species have been found to possess significant radical scavenging activity against 1, 1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). IC50 value of E. herbacea and E. ochreata was found to be 51.04 µg/ml and 50.13µg/ml respectively. Further validation of antioxidant potential of β-sitosterol confirmed its in vitro antioxidant property through DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power properties.The medicinal property of Eulophia may be attributed due to the presence of phenol, flavonoids and β-sitosterol with profound antioxidant potential. The therapeutic effect of this plant may be accounted for its counteracting action on free radicals in vivo.

4. Potential Role of Carica papaya Leaves in Regulating Cholesterol as Inhibitor HMG COA Reductase in the Liver on Wistar Rats Hyperlipidemia
Hasimun P, Sulaeman A, Mahakam H, Esde S R
Objectives: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases is hyperlipidemia. The aim of this study was to determine the inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase enzyme activity of Carica papaya (Carica papaya L.) ethanol extract to decrease cholesterol levels in the blood. Methods: This study was performed on 24 male Wistar rats aged two months weighing 200-250 g randomly divided into 6 groups, that was group 1 (negative control group), group 2 (the positive control group), group 3 (Simvastatin 0.9 mg /kg), and group 4-6 (extract at a dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg). All groups, except group 1, received drinking water containing 25% D-Fructose for 21 days. On day 21, each group was measured for total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides levels in the blood. The rats were sacrificed and its liver was isolated for HMG CoA reductase activity measurement. Results: The results showed that papaya leaves extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg decreased the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol. The IC50 of ethanol extract of papaya leaves as HMG CoA reductase inhibitor was 243 mg/kg. Conclusions: Based on these results it could be concluded that the ethanol extract of papaya leaves (Carica papaya L.) had antihyperlipidemic activity, one of its mechanism action was inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase, the enzyme that plays a role in the synthesis of endogenous cholesterol.

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research