Bi-Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal

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1. Study of Antibacterial Activity of Chenopodium album Leaves Extract
Kaur M, Sharma S, Garg S, Arora M
This study describes the antibacterial activities of three different solvent extracts of leaves of Chenopodium album. Methanol, acetone and chloroform extracts of C. album were prepared. The antibacterial activity was assessed using well plate method and were examined for the size of zone of inhibition. Different extracts were investigated against the test organisms namely Lactobacillus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The maximum activity was observed at 100% concentration of different extracts of leaves. The maximum zone of inhibition for 100% concentration were observed as E. coli (19 mm) and Lactobacillus (19 mm) in diameter respectively. C. album did not show any antibacterial activity against B. subtilis.  Antibacterial activity was compared with standard Amoxicillin and it was found to be 23 mm diameter for Lactobacillus and 25 mm for both E. coli and B. subtilis in terms of zone of inhibition.

2. Phytochemical Study and In vitro Anthelminthic Properties Studies of the Trunk Barks Aqueous Extract from Acacia Nilotica Var. Adansonii (Guill & Perr). O Ktze (Mimosaceae)
A G l Boly, M B Belemlilga, A Traore, S Ouedraogo, E T I P Guissou
The present study was to estimate the in vitro anthelminthic effect of the aqueous extract of the trunk barks of Acacia nilotica var. adansonii, plant used in this traditional medicine against gastro- intestinal parasites. Trunk barks of Acacia nilotica var. adansonii were used as plant material, eggs and adults worms of Haemonchus contortus were the animal material used. The adult worms and the eggs were put in contact with increasing concentrations of the extract. A phytochemical screening of the plant material was also performed. This study revealed the presence of chemical groups with anthelminthic properties such as tannins, triterpenics, saponosides in the aqueous extract. The vermicide effect was indicated by the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) of adult worms equal to 1.28 mg / mL compared to the levamisole LC50 which was 3.25 mg / mL.  The rate of eggs hatching inhibition was 93.84 % at the extract concentration of 0.1 mg / mL. Anthelminthic properties of Acacia nilotica var. adansonii would be real, which justifies its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites

3. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus paradisi and Naringin -An In vitro Study
R Roghini, K Vijayalakshmi
The present study attempts to find naturally-occurring antioxidants of fruit-based which give efficacy by additive activities. Citrus paradisi, known as Grape fruit contains significant bioactive components such as Naringin. The present study examines the free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Citrus paradisi and Naringin. The study was carried out with different radical scavenging assays like hydroxyl, DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, super oxide. Citrus paradisi extracts showed lower radical scavenging activities in assays such as DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl when compared with Naringin. Naringin showed the higher radical scavenging effect with nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide in comparison with citrus paradisi extract. However, both were analysed by using ascorbic acid as standard. The current study gives evidence that both showed potential free radical scavenging activity.

4. Influence of Sucrose on Growth and [6]-Gingerol Production of In vitro-Grown Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)
Eufrocinio C Marfori, Mary Jane C Dela Cruz
The effect of sucrose on growth and [6]-gingerol production of in vitro– grown Zingiber officinale was investigated. Individual shoots from multiple shoot clumps were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with varying amounts of sucrose, i.e. 30, 60, 90 and 120 g/L. After three months of incubation, the growth and [6]-gingerol production of the cultures were compared. Results showed an increasing number of microrhizomes formed in response to increasing concentration of sucrose from 30-90 g/L except at a higher concentration of 120 g/L which was found to be already inhibitory. Likewise, the highest [6]-gingerol production was observed in medium supplemented with 90 g/L sucrose suggesting a positive correlation of [6]-gingerol production with the number of microrhizomes. These results suggest that sucrose concentration can be manipulated to improve [6]-gingerol production in ginger tissue culture.

5. Effect of Pterospermum acerifolium Willd on Inflammation and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines
Manna A K, Nanda U, Kar S
In our present study, the effect of alcoholic fraction of Pterospermum acerifolium seeds on inflammation and inflammatory cytokines was evaluated in-vitro by using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in vivo by croton oil induced mouse ear edema (acute study) and Carrageen induced rat paw edema. The extract exhibited significant inhibition of the production of tumor necrotic factor-a and interleukin-6 by PBMCs stimulated lipropolysaccirides (LPS) in a dose dependent manner. The extract, at the selected dose of 150 and 300mg/kg body weight per oral exhibited significant dose dependent anti-inflammatory response with 27.77% and 47.17% inhibition of inflammation in croton oil induced mouse ear edema and Carrageen induced rat paw edema respectively.

6. Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Ethnomedicinal Plants Used in the Jongilanga Community, Mpumalanga
Lall N, de Canha MN, Reid A, Oosthuizen CB, Langhansova L, Mahore J, Winterboer S, Hamilton C, Kumar V, Gasa N, Twilley D
Seventy-four ethanolic extracts were prepared from traditionally used medicinal plants in the Jongilanga community in Mpumalanga South Africa. The aim was to determine the biological activity of the selected plants against cancer, mycobacteria species and acne. From the results, it was evident that Mundulea sericea was able to inhibit the proliferation of human melanoma cells (A375) with a fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) ranging between 50 and 100 µg/ml as well as the ability to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Propionibacterium acnes with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 125, 31.25 and 7.9 µg/ml respectively. This further led to the investigation of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity as well as the influence of the extract on mycothiol disulphide reductase (Mtr) and glutathione reductase enzymes (Gtr) as potential targets against the above-mentioned diseases. M. sericea inhibited the COX-2 enzyme, responsible for inflammation, with an IC50 value of 10.70 ± 1.14 µg/ml, furthermore compounds previously isolated from M. sericea showed potential inhibition of COX-2 in molecular docking studies. Low radical scavenging capacity against the DPPH free radical with an IC50 value of 60.52 ± 2.40 µg/ml was obtained, however, M. sericea showed a higher affinity towards Mtr as compared to Gtr, which makes it an ideal plant for use as an antimycobacterial agent.

7. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Curcuma longa L. Rhizome and Standardization of its Formulation by HPLC Using Curcumin as Marker
Abraham A, Samuel S, Mathew L
Objective: To evaluate Curcuma longa rhizome by pharmacognostic and phytochemical analysis and standardize one of its formulations by HPLC. The present work includes macroscopic study, microscopic analysis of cross section and powder of rhizome, fluorescence analysis, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical assay and chromatographic fingerprinting of its polyherbal formulation, Pathyashadangam kwath using curcumin as marker carried out as per standard laboratory procedures. The study helps to provide both diagnostic features for identification and preventing adulteration of Curcuma longa L and HPLC chromatogram for standardisation of its formulation. Results: Microscopic analysis revealed the presence of a broad parenchymatous cortex with abundant starch grains in the cross section, spiral vessels, starch grains having hilum towards the narrower end, fibres and cells with oleo resin in powder microscopy. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of three peaks corresponding to curcuminoids in the formulation. Conclusion: Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation can be used for confirming the identity of Curcuma longa rhizome and HPLC using curcumin as marker can be used for standardisation of its formulations.

8. Stabilization of Food Colourant and Antimicrobial Activity in Fruit Extracts of Basella rubra. L
Pawar N, Shinde M, Junna L
Betalains have potential as the natural colourant and functional food with pharmaceutical purposes in food applications. The total betalain content of Basella rubra L. grown at Kalaburagi region is evaluated for the first time. The present study is carried out to determine the pigment stability and antimicrobial activity of fruits of Basella rubra. Total betalain content of fruits was evaluated and it was found to contain a high amount of 48.15 mg betacyanins and sparing amount of 2.53 mg betaxanthins and total betalains account for 50.69mg/100g of fresh fruit pulp. The influence of different additives on the colour stability of pigment was evaluated. More than 80% pigment colour is stable in the presence of 5% sucrose at 4 °C under dark condition. The betalain extract of Basella rubra L fruits showed significant antimicrobial activity against S.typhi, Aspergillus flavus, Microphomia fungi and Rhizopus stolonifer. It is for the first time that the total betalain content and anti-microbial activity of Basella rubra cultivar grown in Hyderabad Karnataka region of Karnataka, India is reported.

9. Evaluation of Anti Microbial and Anti Fungal Activity of Acalypha indica L., Leaf Extract
Sudhakar Chekuri, Arun Jyoti B, Saraswathi Sompaga, Shivaprasad Panjala, Roja Rani Anupalli
Anti-microbial and anti-fungal activity of different solvent extracts of Acalypha indica (Euphorbeace family) was tested against bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonasaeruginosa, E.Coli, KlebsiellaPneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus) and  fungal strains (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Candida tropicalis andCandida kefyr) using the Agar Well diffusion method . It was observed that all the extracts showed positive activity) against bacteria and fungi. Ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica showed more potency against Staphylococcus aureus with an inhibition zone of12.46 (mm) and Methanolic extract exhibited higher activity against E.coli with an inhibition zone of11.26 (mm). Ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica showed prominent antifungal activity against candida albicans with an inhibition diameter of 12.53 (mm) and Aspergillus niger with a diameter of 9.21 (mm) when compared to other solvent extracts. Erythromycin and Ketoconazole were used as positive standards for antimicrobial and anti fungal experiments. In the present study, Ethanol extract showed a varying degree of inhibition to the growth of tested organisms compared to Methanol, Acetone and Chloroform against Bacteria and Fungi. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial and antifungal compounds in shade dried extracts of Acalypha indica against human pathogenic organisms.

10. Pharmocognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Leaf of Sphaeranthus indicus
Dhanapal Venkatachalam, Samuel Thavamani b, Muddukrishniah
Objective: To study detailed Pharmacognostic profile and preliminary phytochemical investigation and isolation of volatile oil, and TLC and GLC analysis of volatile oil of the leaves of Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.) commonly known as Globe-thistle belongs to the family Asteraceae. The leaves of Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.) used traditionally in Ayurveda for hyperlipidemia, epilepsy, mental illness, jaundice, diabetes, leprosy, fever cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases and AIDS. The reports showed that it is also used for hypertensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, anti-hyperglycaemic and hepato protective. It grows in rice fields, dry waste places and cultivated lands in tropical parts of India. Methods: Leaf of Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.) was studied by Macroscopical, Microscopical,Quantitative Microscopy, Physicochemical, Phytochemical analysis of leaf powder and extracts,  isolation of volatile oil from the leaf, TLC and GLC analysis of the oil of the leaves  and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically leaves are simple, alternate, oblong, spatulate, spinous, surface pubescent, base decurrently forming the wings of the stem, acute, glandular, hairy and narrowed at the base up to 5.0×1.5 cm, leaf margins are coarsely serrate or dentate. Fresh leaves are dark green in colour and dried leaves are greenish black colour. The leaves are bitter in taste with pleasant odour when fresh, the aroma gradually diminishing on drying and storing. The leaf has distinct midrib and thick, soft lamina. The midrib is plano-convex in cross-sectional view with single top-shaped collateral vascular bundle surrounded by parenchymatous cells.  No sclerenchyma cells are seen in the vascular bundle. The lamina is dorsiventral; however the mesophyll tissue is not well differentiated into palisade and spongy tissues. Characteristic epidermal trichomes are abundant on the leaf. Some of the trichomes are covering-type and are multicellular, uniseriate, unbranched and whip-like others are biseriate, broad, unbranched, conical with vertically oblong cells and a few tiers of apical glandular cells. Stomata are anomocytic; anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are highly wavy. Vein islets are distinct, with one, simple or branched vein terminations. Petiole is circular in sectional view with aerenchymatous outer ground tissue, broad central tissue and is open ring of discrete collateral vascular bundles. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, extractive values and ash values were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, terpenoids, carbohydrates, flavonoids (Isoflavone), tannins and volatile oil. TLC studies reveal that  the presence of isoflavone glycosides.   Essential oil have been analysed by GLC and their components were identified and quantified. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research