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1. Launaea pinnatifida Cass. A Species of the Controversial Drug Gojihva: Comprehensive Review
Makwana H T, Pandya D J
According to the Ayurvedic literature Launaea pinnatifida Cass is belong to the class of controversial drug Gohjiva. This plant is well known and valuable herb as per the traditional and Ethnobotanical information.  This plant has been used since ancient time as herbal remedy for jaundice, diuretic, blood purifier and hepatoprotective action by the tribal people of the Western Ghats. However, the plant remains largely unexplored. Systematic pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of the plant by means of standardization leads to the generation of data which is useful for future reference. The traditional medicinal activities suggest that it may yield important bioactive phytoconstituents. Present work dealing with the compilation of available data of Launaea pinnatifida (L. Pinnatifida) including pharmacognostical work, phytochemical studies and pharmacological work. Microscopic evaluation confirmed the presence of the lignified cork cells parenchyma with prismatic crystals. The histochemical study of root powder confirms the existence of mucilage, tannins, starch, lignin and crystals. Pharmacognostical studies revels the presence of   many primary and secondary metabolites including carbohydrates, alkaloids, amino acids, glycosides, steroids and tannin in root powder. As far as phytochemical study is concern; only few phytochemical constituents have been isolated from L. pinnatifida including Taraxasterol from leaves taraxeryl acetate from the roots. Apart from this; triterpenoid saponins along with known compounds glutenol and hopenol B were isolated from Methanolic extract of seed of L. pinnatifida. Ethanol fraction of the leaves of L. pinnatifida has reported potent hepatoprotective activity, antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activity.

2. Phyto-Pharmacological Review of Solanum xanthjocarpum Schrad and Wendl
Arora P, Ansari S H
Solanum xanthocarpum, Schrad and Wendl (family: solanaceae) commonly known as the kantakari or Indian night shade is known for its invariable medicinal properties in traditional system of medicines. Plant is found throughout India mainly at dry and waste places as weed along roadsides. Phytochemically, S. xanthocarpum contain a number of phytoconstituents including alkaloids, sterols, saponins, flavonoids and their glycosides and carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids etc. Large medicinal value of the plant is mainly due to presence of steroidal alkaloids, mainly, solasodine and solasonine and many others. Scientific studies report antiallergic, antiasthmatic, antifertility, nephroprotective activity, immunomodulatory activity, cardiotonic activity and anti-urolithic properties. of plant. Plant is also one of the components of several traditional herbal formulations, dashmularista and kanakasava. In vitro and in vivo experimental studies of S. xanthocarpum provide evidence for traditional use of plant as an antiasthmatic, immunomodulatory and diuretic drug.

3. Glucose-lowering Effect and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Taraxacum officinale in Wistar Rats.
Sarkodie JA,  Debrah P, Kitcher C, Frimpong-Manso S, Oppong Bekoe E, Winston O, Akoto G, Hasford C, Asiedu-Gyekye I, Banga KBN,  Kwadwo Nyarko AK.
Background: The use of traditional medicine in treating and managing chronic diseases is currently a common practice. Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), commonly used as food, has been reported to have several pharmacological properties including blood glucose lowering effects in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the hypoglycemic property of the leaves of T. officinale was investigated. Methods: The leaves of T. officinale were pulverized and extraction was done using distilled water. The extract was analysed for various classes of phytoconstituents. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and Carrageenan-induced foot edema respectively. The hypoglycemic effects of the extract werestudied in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats at three doses (10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg). Linear mixed model technique was used to analyze the multiple glucose measurements per rat. This model acknowledges the presence of dependency by introducing rat-specific random effect(s) which measures the individual rat variations either at baseline (random intercept) or at the different time point (random slope).  Results: Saponins and polyphenols were found to be present in the extract. The linear mixed model estimated the overall trajectory of blood glucose levels. A random-intercept model was found to be sufficient to model the effect of treatment evolution. The results exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in the blood glucose levels of STZ-induced diabetic rats compared with the positive control (insulin treated group). Conclusion: The study has provided evidence that aqueous extract of T. officinale has hypoglycaemic property comparable to insulin over a period of time.

4. Antimicrobial Potential of Metformin
Patil T R, Patil S T, Patil S, Patil A
Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide fast growing non infectious, metabolic disorder. Hyperglycemia of this disease favors various infections. The choice of non antibiotic, antidiabetic drug metformin to treat diabetes mellitus which has antimicrobial activity was found to decrease the incidence and the severity of infections resulting in to improved outcome. It was found that metformin has antimicrobial activity against many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, parasites, fungi and viruses. The most promising antimicrobial activity was found against mycobacterium tuberculosis. The possible mechanisms for this anti tubercular activity of metformin are activation of AMPK and mitochondrial ROS production, acceleration of phagosome-lysosome fusion, improved immune response, increased CD 4 and CD 8 cells, rise in mycobacteria specific interferon secretion by CD 8 cells, reduced expression of inflammatory genes. Patients of diabetes mellitus with tuberculosis who received anti tubercular treatment along with metformin as an antidiabetic drug had better prognostic outcome than the similar group of patients who did not receive metformin. Metformin was also observed to increase survival in mice having endotoxemia as a result of the inhibition of mediators of the inflammation. Thus metformin was found to have promising antimicrobial activity which needs to be confirmed by meticulously planned human studies.

5. Phytochemical Constituents of Plant Species of Pterocarpus (F: Leguminosae): A Review
Abouelela M E, Abdelhamid RA, Orabi MAA
Fabaceae (Leguminosae) is a large important family of flowering plants, commonly known as the legume, bean, or pea family. It comprises about 18,000 species classified into around 650 genera. Amongst them, plant species of the genus Pterocarpus have been shown to produce valuable phytochemical classes including flavonoids, isoflavonoids, pterocapans, aurones, lignans, stilbenes, sterols, triterpenes and sesquiterpenes. A wide spectrum of health benefits and potential biological activities of Pterocarpus plants have been reported, including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, and protective effects on the liver, gastric mucosa, and nervous system. This review describes the structural diversity of the chemical constituents of Pterocarpus plants which could be a guide for further research aspects.

6. In Vitro Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Methanolic Extract of Physalis minima Unripe Fruits
K Sunitha, M Nagulu
At the present plants play a key role in Medicine. Many phyto pharmaceuticals are used to treat different ailments. In the present study, methanolic extract of Physalis minima unripe fruits was screened for immunomodulatory activity using anti-oxidant activity by determining DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, Immunomodulatory activity by Nitroblue tetrazolium test. The extract showed that the plant extracts have ability to act as free radical scavengers in DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing ability in Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, ability to prevent lipid peroxidation in Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, ability to stimulate the phagocytic activity in leucocytes in Nitroblue tetrazolium test. The literature survey revealed that these studies were not reported earlier. So, the present study was aimed to reveal the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of the plant extract. The study reports concluded that the extract possess immunomodulatory activity.

7. Characterisation and Evaluation of Anti-Larval Properties of Aromatic Plants Against Aedes aegypti
Jincy A George, Jibu George Babu, Paari K A
Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum are the most commonly used spices for its flavour, aroma etc. Methanolic extracts of the four plant samples were tested against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae which later develops as the vector for dengue virus that affects immunologically compromised individuals. The efficiency of the plant extracts were studied with respect to the third and the fourth instar larvae stages of Aedes aegypti mosquito. The larvicidal activity of the four plant extracts were conducted at 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations. Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest larvicidal capability when compared to the other three extracts with 100% mortality at all the concentration with fourth instar Aedes aegypti larvae and 100% mortality at 10% and 15% concentration with third instar Aedes aegypti larvae. Curcuma longa showed the next better activity with 38.4%, 84.6% and 100% of mortality at 5%, 10% and 15% of extract concentration respectively for third instar Aedes aegypti larva. Extracts of Curcuma longa showed 76.9%, 100% and 100% mortality respectively with fourth instar Aedes aegypti larva. Piper nigrum and Cinnamomum verum extracts exhibited higher anti-larval activity in fourth instar stages compared to third instar larva. The GC-MS analysis of partially purified plant extracts concluded the presence of Caryophyllene (RT: 13.830), alpha humulene (RT: 14.300), germacrene D (RT: 14620), p-cumenol (RT: 10.921) Oxime benzaldehyde (RT: 13.045) that confer larvicidal activity in extracts of Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum verum and Syzygium aromaticum respectively. The toxicity of the extracts (1%, 5%, 10% and 15%) tested on Danio rerio did not show any adverse effect. The study also standardised a gel formulation comprising larvicidal compounds (1%) using petroleum ether and their allergic nature was assessed by skin irritability and sensitivity assay. This research can be extended to identify the essentials of the commonly used plant materials as a promising mosquito repellent.

8. Current Trends in Seaweed Research – Overview
Karthik B, Vinoth Kumar R
Depletion of non-renewable resources becomes unavoidable in this growing population to meet the need of its food supply requirements. The needs for the exploration of renewable, cost effective and non-toxic drugs are also increasing; this situation turns our focus towards the natural resources. One among such resource is seaweeds. They are macroscopic marine algae with global distribution. Recent research trends show the application of seaweeds in bio-fuel technology, wastewater treatment, therapeutic biomolecule identification, nutritious food source, bio-fertilizers and cosmetics, etc. Japan and China is using this valuable resource to meet their food supply demand from fourth and sixth centuries. The presence of commercial products like carrageenan, agar, etc. in seaweeds has increased their industrial application in a greater way for the human welfare. Here, we will discuss the recent trends in seaweed research and their various commercial applications.

9. GC-MS Analysis of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf of Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.
Jayashree I, Geetha D H, Rajeswari M
To detect the bioactive compounds of ethanolic extract of Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. leaves using GC-MS analysis. Thirty compounds were identified from the test plant.  Some of the bioactive compounds screened include Lupeyl acetate, Phytol, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid,(Z,Z,Z)-, 3-Eicosane, Neophytadiene, Docosane, Dodecanoic acid and  1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid. The compounds were identified by comparing with retention time and peak area and by interpretation of mass spectra. From the result it can be concluded that the bioactive compounds have many applications like anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties.

10. Anti-hyperglycaemic Activity of Tribulus terrestris Fruit Extract Restores Metabolic Imbalance in Letrozole Induced -PCOS Mice
Parikha, Poonam Singh, Amitabh Krishna
Prevalence of obesity in women with PCOS varies from 50-80% and whether obesity leads to PCOS or vice versa is still a matter of debate. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Tribulus terrestris on improving metabolic abnormalities associated with PCOS. PCOS was induced in mice by oral administration of letrozole for 21 days. PCOS induced mice treated with fruit extract of T. terrestris for 25 days restored body mass and showed a marked improvement in histo-morphological features of the ovary, pancreas and adipose tissue by decreasing expression of prohibitin, by decreasing serum glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and by acting on key metabolic factors (pAKT, GLUT8 and IR). These findings also showed ameliorating effect of T. terrestris on insulin resistance as indicated by HOMA-IR and QUICKI values in the treated PCOS mice. Thus, the extract of T. terrestris might be considered as a potential therapeutic choice for a large majority of women dealing with PCOS.

11. Antioxidant Potential of Various Parts of Delonix regia
Salunkhe M B, Pise N M, Gaikwad D K
The young leaves, buds, petals and pods of D. regia were analysed for antioxidant potential. The various concentrations of methanolic extract were used for detection. It was noticed that the DPPH radical scavenging activity of leaves and flower, petals exhibits higher than the buds and pods. The metal reducing power and H2O2 scavenging of leaves, flower, buds and pods shows overall similar antioxidant potential but less than the standards. Thus plant parts of D. regia might be utilized in various nutritional and pharmaceutical formulations as a natural source to improve its antioxidant potential.

12. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Isolated from Two Piper Species Collected in Comoros
Soidrou S H, Farah A, Satrani B, Ghanmi M, Lachkar M, Ahamada Himidi A
The volatile composition of two piper species growing in Comoros was investigated in this study.  The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their analyses were performed by GC and GC/ MS. Sesquiterpene compounds are predominant in Piper borbonense C. DC. essential oils, but in Piper capense L. f. essential oil, monoterpene compounds were predominant. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH reduction method. Piper borbonense leaves and Piper capense essential oils were most active than Piper borbonense twigs essential oil, but this activity was less than BHT activity. Essential oils were also investigated for their antimicrobial activity on bacteria and fungi. Piper borbonense twigs essential oil was most active against all tested bacterial strains. The lower activity was observed in Piper borbonense leaves essential oil. For fungicidal testing, the highest activity was observed in essential oil from Piper borbonense leaves compared to that from twigs. The lower activity was observed in Piper capense essential oil.  These oils are demonstrated a strong activity in vitro as potential antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research