Bi-Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal

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1. Phytochemical and Pharmaco-Toxicological Assessment of Hydro Ethanolic Extract of Taverniera aegyptiaca Boiss
Salah M El-Kousy, K Abo El-Sooud, Khadiga F Amer, Sayed A El-Toumy, Ahmed R Hassan
Taverniera aegyptiaca Boiss is a wild plant is grown at the Red Sea coast, Egypt.  Traditional uses of this species drive us to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmaco-toxicological aspects of the hydro ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of T. aegyptiaca. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various bioactive secondary metabolites as flavonoids, terpenes, glycosides, saponins and sterols compounds which might be responsible for their medicinal attributes. Alkaloids and tannins were not detected. The safety of ethanolic extract of T. aegyptiaca is evidenced by the high LD50 value of the extract (>5g/kg). In addition, there wasn’t significant modification in the general behavior of the animals and deaths after 72 hours post-administration. Oral administration of 500 mg kg−1 hydro ethanolic extract of T. aegyptiaca, significantly inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes and increases in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Furthermore, pretreatment of rats with T. aegyptiaca extract reduced the ulcer index and produced protection in ethanol induced ulceration model. The extract induced all pharmacological effects in a dose dependent manner. These findings suggested that T. aegyptiaca can be used as a promising source of new antinociceptive anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic agent.

2.Oral Toxicity Study of X42 Fraction of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. (Combretaceae) in Rats
Zaza Henri Venance, Tra Bi Irié Otis, Gnahoué Goueh, Kouangbé Mani Adrien, Kra Koffi Adou Mathieu, N’Guessan Jean David
This study investigated the acute and sub acute toxicity effects of X42 fraction of Terminalia ivorensis in rat. In the acute test, the limit test dose of 5000mg/kg was administered to Wistar rats and then observed for the first 24h and daily for 14 days. Sub-acute toxicity was evalued after administering daily oral doses of 250; 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Adverse effects and mortality were observed throughout the experimental period. Body weight, organ weight, Hematological and biochemical assessments were evaluated. The dose of 5000 mg/kg did not cause any mortality. In the sub-acute tests, the results did not show any treatment related abnormalities in terms of hematological and biochemical parameters. There were no significant differences in body and organs weight between control and treated groups. The X42 fraction of T. ivorensis could not cause any mortality and signs of toxicity, it would be well tolerated.

3. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis of Bastard Oleaster (Elaeagnus latifolia Linn): An Edible Plant Used by the Tribal Community of Northeast India
Antara Choudhury, Nikunjana A Patel
The present study is aimed to investigate the phytochemistry along with TLC and develop High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profile for the first time of the three different extracts viz. acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the flower of Elaeagnus latifolia, the wild edible plant used by the tribal people of Meghalaya, India. Camag HPTLC system equipped with TLC Linomat V applicator, Camag TLC scanner III and winCATS software were used. Acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the flower of Elaeagnus latifolia were developed in suitable mobile phase using standard procedures and scanned under UV at 254nm and 366nm. Phytochemical screening showed presence of phytosterols, glycoside and saponins. The HPTLC fingerprint scanned at 366nm revealed 7 peaks with Rf value in the range of 0.14 to 0.79 for acetone extract, 6 peaks with Rf value 0.13 to 0.80 for methanol extract and 10 peaks with Rf value 0.16 to 0.80 for aqueous extract with mobile system I, similarly 8 peaks with Rf value in the range of 0.27 to 0.91 for acetone extract, 9 peaks with Rf value 0.02 to 0.89 for methanol extract and 4 peaks with Rf value 0.07 to 0.41 for aqueous extract with mobile system II. Phytochemical screening, TLC and HPTLC analysis of the flower of Elaeagnus latifolia can provide standard reference for the proper identification, authentication and quality control of the drug and will be helpful in differentiating the species.

4. Traditional Indian Herb Cathranthus roseus Used as Cancer Treatment: A Review
Sharma Vipasha, Kaur Hardeep, Kumar Tarun, Mishra Tullika
Cancer is one of the main challenges in human health care which has been recorded as world’s second largest cause of death. Though there are number of therapies available to address the issue but prolonged use of these therapies generally produces severe adversities for example chemotherapy. Therefore, into the realization of finding other alternatives to reduce such adversities and side effects has revealed new horizon in the field of cancer therapy. More interestingly, the use of naturally driven products has been observed as significant alternative with new arrays of hopes to treat cancer. However, the studies on plant possessing anti-cancerous activities have been made but yet have to be evaluated in human. Furthermore, advancement in new technologies to characterize the active biomolecule is another aspect. Presently, we are focusing on the importance of Canthranthus roseus for anti-cancerous activity. More interestingly, the identified potential anti-cancerous compounds from this very plant are vincristine and vinblastine. In addition, C. roseus is the only plant which produces more than 100 monoterpenoids and indole alkaloids, which possess two major cytotoxic diametric alkaloids and are commercially available to cure cancer.

5. Development of RP-HPLC Conditions for Separation of Oligostilbenes in 12 Dipterocarpaceae Crude Extracts
Fatin Nur Afiqah M R, Rohaity Ramli, Nurhuda Manshoor
Plants from the Dipterocarpaceae family have proven to be a rich source of oligostilbene. To date, about 100 out of more than 400 stilbene derivatives reported were isolated from Dipterocarpacae plants. A HPLC method was developed for separation of oligostilbenes in 12 extracts from 3 species of Dipterocarpaceae, Shorea leprosula, Shorea parviflora and Shorea ovalis from different plant parts and localities. For all samples, the wavelengths were set at 215, 254 and 283 nm, the column temperature was 35°C, the flow-rate was 1 ml/min and the injection volume was 5 l. The chromatographic run was standardized for 20 minutes. The mobile phase were acetonitrile:water (ACN:H2O) at different compositions. The suitable chromatographic condition for S. leprosula is a gradient elution of ACN: H2O (15:85 to 55:45), S. parviflora (20:80 to 55:45) and S. ovalis (10:90 to 75:25).

6. Pharmacognostical and Physico-Chemical Studies of the Bark of Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.
A Choudhury, N A Patel
Baccaurea ramiflora Lour., belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae, native to Southeast Asian countries. The present study has been attempted to evaluate the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, physico-chemical parameters as well as phytochemical analysis of the bark of Baccaurea ramiflora. The transverse section of the bark showed presence of pitted stone cells, cork, phelloderm, phloem parenchyma, funnel shaped medullary rays and calcium oxalate crystals. The powder microscopy of the bark showed broken fibers, parenchyma cells, both rosette and prism type of calcium oxalate crystals and stone cells. Physico-chemical constants such as moisture content, ash values and extractive values were established. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phytosterols, carbohydrate, gums and mucilage in the bark. These studies will be helpful in identification and authentication of the plant material. Such information can act as reference information for correct identification of particular plant and may be useful in making a monograph of the plant.

7. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Zingiber Officinale on Sprague Dawley Rats
Ndanusa Abdullahi Hassan, Rohini Karunakaran, Uma Sankar A, Khin Mar Aye
Objective: To investigate the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale against Streptozotocin induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: SD rats were divide into six of five groups and allowed to acclimatize for one week. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). Group 1 served as the normal control rats which received normal saline. Group 2 served as the diabetic control which was allowed free food and water. Group 3 received 200mg/kg aqueous extract of ginger. Group 4 received 400mg/kg aqueous extract of ginger. Group 5 received 0.5mg/kg glibenclamide which was used as reference drug for hyperglycaemia. Fasting blood glucose level were measured on every 7th day for the period of 7 weeks. Results: The STZ-treated rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss, indicating their diabetic condition. Aqueous extracts of ginger at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, were significantly effective in lowering blood glucose levels (P <0.05). Conclusion: The present study indicates that aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale possesses hypoglycaemic properties.

8. The Antioxidative Capacity of Iranian Citrus sinensis VarValencia Peels from Iran
Amir Siahpoosh, Fatemeh Javedani
Orange peel, as a widely consumed fruit, is inedible and considered as a countless source of leftover. It contains several effective compounds such as flavonoids. Nowadays, as both the effectiveness of antioxidants and deadliness of free radicals are proved, many focus on plants and natural resources as an important source of antioxidants. This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidative and anti-radical effect of orange peel using different tests. A methanolic extract was taken from peel and the amount of polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds was determined using spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with FRAP and DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity assays. IC50 for DPPH, ABTS (at the 6 minute), FRAP, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, and superoxide radical scavenging assay was reported to be 491.52, 52.89, 125.23, 99.36 mg/ml, and 167.59 mg/ml, respectively. Polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds were obtained to be 58.62 and 3.25 mg/ml, respectively. Results indicate that orange peel has appropriate antioxidative, anti-hydroxyl radical, and anti-superoxide effect

9. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and High Performance Liquid Chromatography fingerprint of Adansonia digitata Stem Bark Extracts
Adeoye Akinwunmi O, Boligon Aline A, Athayde Margareth L, Bewaji Clement O
Background: Medicinal plants have been utilized to treat acute and chronic disorders for many years. The basis for such utilization however is based on the potential use of phytochemicals to manage a plethora of chronic diseases including cancer, inflammatory diseases and cardiovascular abnormalities. This study investigated the flavonoid, total phenolic content, and antioxidant potentials of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Adansonia digitata stem bark. Methods: High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) was used to quantify the phenolic acids and flavonoids present in Adansonia digitata stem bark extracts. Phytochemical composition of the extract was evaluated and standard protocols were used to estimate the total phenols and total flavonoid content of the extract. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazyl), hydroxyl radical (OH) radicals scavenging activity, and the ability of the extracts to chelate ferrous ions as well its reductive potential was also evaluated. Results: The presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides were confirmed in the extracts. The methanolic extract showed highest phenolics and flavonoids content with 2.15 ± 0.01µg/ml of tannic acid equivalent and 4.68 ± 0.00 µg/ml of quercetin equivalent respectively. Aqueous extract had the lowest IC50 value 20.45, for hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activity and the highest FRAP value. The IC50 values of DPPH radical scavenging activities are 18.22 and 14.62 and ferrous-ion chelating activities are 38.75 and 28.95 for aqueous and methanolic extract respectively. The difference in DPPH, ferrous-ion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of aqueous and methanolic extract were significant. Methanolic extract had the highest antioxidant activities. The HPLC-DAD analysis showed significant levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Conclusion: The free radical scavenging potentials of this plant probably contribute to the effectiveness of the plant as a medicinal plant. The secondary metabolites in the plant have been found to be of medicinal importance both in preventive and curative medicine.

10. Analysis of Antimicrobial Potential of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Fucoidan Isolated from Turbinaria conoides
Kala K J, Prashob Peter K J, Chandramohanakumar N
The present study investigates the antibacterial potential of fucoidan synthesized silver nanoparticles (FAgNps) against the chosen human and fish pathogens. The fucoidan used for the synthesis of FAgNps was isolated from a brown sea weed Turbinaria conoides. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) method were performed to analyze the antimicrobial efficacy. ATR-FTIR analysis revealed the presence of polar functional groups in the fucoidan molecule capable of synthesizing and stabilizing silver nanoparticles. The fucoidan synthesized nanoparticles were mostly spherical, ranging in size from 5 to 20 nm and with antibacterial activity against gram negative being more distinct and pronounced than gram positive. This study highlighted the prospect of using fucoidan for the synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles against human and fish microbial pathogens, making them relevant in various medicinal units and antimicrobial control system. Further study is required to get the better understanding of mode of action of fucoidan synthesized silver nanoparticles (FAgNps) against the pathogens

11. Antibacterial Activity of Asphodelin lutea and Asphodelus microcarpus Against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates
Rawaa Al-Kayali, Adawia  Kitaz, Mohammad Haroun
Objective: the present study aimed at evaluation of antibacterial activity of wild local Asphodelus microcarpus and Asphodeline lutea against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates.. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was evaluated against MRSA clinical isolates using agar wells diffusion. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration( MIC)of  methanolic extract of  two studied plants was also performed using  tetrazolium  microplate  assay.  Results: Our results showed that different extracts (20 mg/ml) of aerial parts and bulbs of the studied plants were exhibited good growth inhibitory effect against methicilline resistant S. aureus isolates and reference strain. The inhibition zone diameters of A. microcarpus and A. lutea  ranged from 9.3 to 18.6 mm and  from 6.6 to 15.3mm respectively. All extracts have better antibacterial effect than tested antibiotics against MRSA isolate. The MIC of the methanolic extracts of A. lutea   and A. microcarpus for MRSA fell in the range of 0.625 to 2.5 mg/ml and of 1.25-5 mg/ml, respectively. conclusion:The extracts of  A. lutea and A. microcarpus could be a possible source to obtain new antibacterial to treat infections caused by MRSA isolates. Further studies on isolation of phyto-constituents and both in vitro and in vivo evaluation of pharmacological activities of isolated bioactive constituents of the crude extracts are recommended as future works.

12. Pharmacognostic Profiling and Total Phenol Quantification of Leaves of Spatholobus parviflorus (Roxb. Ex DC.)  Kuntze, A Woody Climber
Manju Madhavan
Spatholobus parviflorus   is a woody climber which is less evaluated for its medicinal properties. In Kerala, Kani tribes uses the leaves paste to treat conjunctivitis.  In this study, micro-macro morphological features, physicochemical constants, phytochemical screening, fluorescence characteristics and element analysis of Spatholobus parviflorus (Roxb. ex DC.) Kuntze leaves were studied. Total phenolic content   was quantified in fresh leaf sample, dried leaf powder, ethanol, methanol and distilled water extracts by using Bray and Thorpe method. Total phenolic content was maximum in the ethanol extracts (3.78±0.2mg/g). Physicochemical parameters, phytochemical analysis, fluorescent behavior, element analysis of leaf powder and leaf morphology helps in   pharmacognostic profiling of the leaves.

13. GC-MS Analysis and Biological Activities of Medicinally Important Lichen: Parmelia perlata
Payal Pratibha, Sharma Mahesh C
Parmelia perlata colloquially known as Chadeela or Shilapushp belongs to the family Parmeliaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used to treat wounds, infections, inflammation, skin diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, fever, seminal weakness, amenorrhoea and renal calculi. In view of its medicinal importance we have analyzed this plant using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and screened it for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. GC-MS analysis of the petether, chloroform and acetone extracts revealed the presence of 49 compounds in each. D:B-Friedo-B’:A’-neogammacer-5-en-3-ol, (3.beta.)-,D-Friedoolean-14-en-3-one, (+)-Usnic acid, D:A-Friedooleanan-3-one, 5-methyl-1,3-benzendiol,5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol, atranorin, methoxyolivetol and Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol were identified as major compounds. The results of antibacterial study suggested that pet-ether extract is more active against S. grieveces, whereas CHCl3 extract is found to be more active against B. subtilis and E. coli. Acetone extract of this plant showed moderate activity against B. subtilis and E. coli. The results of antifungal activities showed that pet ether and acetone extracts possesses potential activity against P. funiculosam. We have also examined the extracts for their antioxidant potential by DPPH and FRAP total reduction capability methods. Bioactivity assays showed that the acetone extract possess strong free radical scavenging activity (IC50=28 µg) followed by pet ether (IC50=31 µg) and chloroform (IC50=48 µg) extracts. Pet ether extract of this plant also showed strong ferric reducing ability of plasma (O.D. =.340).

14. Chemical Composition in Different Tissues of Polygonum minus by Using GC X GC-TOF MS and Direct Discrimination by Multivariate Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Data
Ahmad R, Bunawan H, Normah M N, Baharum S N
Volatile compounds in different tissues of Polygonum minus (leaves, stems and roots) were isolated using the Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) technique, and analysed by two-dimensional gas chromatography, GC x GC- TOF MS in the hope of identifying more minor components in the tissues. In total, 55 compounds were identified in the samples, of which 32 were terpene compounds. The overall content of each compound was different in the leaves, stems and roots. The aerial parts (leaves and stems) were relatively rich in terpenoids, whereas the roots were relatively rich in organic acids. The spectral studies of the tissues were done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to further correlate with its chemical constituents of the samples. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used for the discrimination of the different tissues by using their marker bands. With this technique, the different tissues could be well distinguished by this rapid method with the exception of the chromatographic technique and could be further developed as a routine test in food industry.

15. Phytochemical Study, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Extracts of Capparis spinosa L.
Imane Tagnaout , Hannou Zerkani, Malika Mahjoubi, Mohamed Bourakhouadar, Fathia Alistiqsa, Amal Bouzoubaa, Touriya Zair
The Capparis spinosa L. is a species which has a great importance in the field of traditional medicine in both arid and semi-arid regions whose nutritional and medicinal value remains ambiguous in Morocco. It is in this context that our work is aiming at the recovery of this species through a phytochemical study and an evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of flower buds of Capparis spinosa L. spontaneous collected and sold by Nour cooperative within the region of Zerhoun, Morocco. We achieved the solid-liquid extraction by two different methods in order to optimize the extraction yields of polyphenols; maceration and soxhlet by using two mixtures of solvents: methanol / water and acetone/water at 70%. The best yields are obtained with methanol / water mixture; 46% for soxhlet against 31% for maceration. The quantitative analysis of phenolic is being performed by colorimetry, extracts showed that the soxhlet method is more effective than the maceration. The qualitative analysis performed by HPLC / UV-ESI-MS also reported the existence of the same flavonoid glycosides in both hydromethanolic extracts in which the most important are the derivatives of kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. The antioxidant activity is determined by the DPPH test, showed that the aqueous-methanolic extracts obtained by soxhlet and maceration expressed some approximate antioxidant powers with IC50 of respectively 0.73 and 0.85 mg / ml. However, the antibacterial activity evaluated against pathogenic strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsilla pneumoniae, revealed the ineffectiveness of various extracts against the most tested strains.

Erratum: Few lines of Table 2 remained hidden behind figure 8 in earlier version of manuscript, which are resolved in the present copy. No, other data changed.: Erratum Performed on 5th February, 2017

16. Evaluation of Antiulcer Potential of Polyherbal Preparation Against Experimentally Induced Ulcers in Rats
Naveen Kumari K, Venkateswarulu M, Suresh Babu M, Divya Sree M S, Pravallika P
Ulcer, the gastrointestinal disorder characterized by presence of painful sores in the stomach and intestine. Ayurvedic formulations are in lead for their use by the people because of side effects of allopathic drugs. In the present study a formulation was prepared and it was evaluated for its antiulcer activity. It has showed an excellent antiulcer activity with effective antioxidant activities. It reduced the formation of ulcers in the stomach both in pylorus ligation and NSAID induced ulcers significantly when compared to that in control group animals. So, from this we can conclude that the polyherbal formulation has good antiulcer activity.

17. Phytochemical Screening of Sphagneticola calendulacea Leaf Extracts Using Polar and Non-Polar Solvent
John Wyson W, Deventhiran M, Sheik Noor Mohamed M, Jai Kumar K, Saravanan P, Anand D
Plant products possess therapeutic potential and are duly utilized for the production of traditional as well as contemporary medicines worldwide. It is apparent that the chemical composition of a plant and promising synergy of its constituents have been components of phytomedicine Sphagneticola calendulacea are known for its medicinal values in alternative systems of holistic health and herbal medicine. Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the qualitative presence of phytochemicals using polar and non-polar solvent in S. calendulacea. Leaves were pulverized into fine powder and extracted sequentially by methanol and chloroform later subjected to GC-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum) analysis for the identification of bioactive compounds. Results revealed that the presence of eight bio active compounds in both the solvents. Among the polar and non-polar solvent presence of biologically effective compounds are higher in methanol with maximum peak identified as Tridecanol, 2-ethyl-2- methyl (28.12%). Extracts and metabolites from this plant have been known to possess pharmacological properties. In India, scrutiny on phytochemicals of ethno medicinal origin is extremely needed for the development of affordable antibiotics and hence the present study finds the necessity.

18. Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Swertia chirata and Colocasia esculenta
Yadav Manjulika, Kushawaha Devesh Kumar, Chatterji Sanjukta, Watal Geeta
The worldwide increase of multidrug resistance has impaired the current antimicrobial therapy and warranting the search for other alternatives. The present study was aimed to find out the antibacterial potential of Swertia chirata and Colocasia esculenta against five bacterial strains, viz. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Both the plants S. chirata and C. esculenta exhibit considerable antibacterial activity against all the tested microorganisms at a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.075 to 0.600 mg/ml. The results obtained from the present study reveal that S. chirata showed maximum inhibition against the following four bacterial strains, P. aeroginosa, K. pneumonia, S. aureus and E.  faecalis at the lowest MIC value of 0.075 mg/ml. Whereas, C. esculenta showed inhibition only against the following two bacterial strains, P. aeroginosa and K. pneumonia at the same MIC value of 0.075 mg/ml. The results were also compared with a reference drug, ampicillin. The results clearly indicate that the antibacterial efficacy recorded for S. chirata was for a wider range of microbes than C. esculenta. Hence, it could be developed as a admirable broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. Conclusively, the results obtained seem to be promising showing the potentiality of S. chirata and C. esculenta in the treatment of various bacterial infections and hence both the plants could be explored for commercialisation.

19. Phytochemical Screening, FT-IR and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers
Papitha R, Lokesh R, Kaviyarasi R, Selvaraj C I
The purpose of the current study is to monitor the phytochemical constituents in Tinospora cordifolia stem extract. Phytochemical screening of the sequential extracts were used for analysis which showed the presence of bioactive compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and carbohydrates. Ultra violet visible spectroscopy was used to recognize quantitative determination of different analytes by using wavelength and absorbance values. FT-IR analysis was used to identify the functional groups of the compounds. Four functional groups were identified such as aromatics (C-H), secondary amines and amides (N-H), α, β- unsaturated aldehydes and ketones (C=O) and alkyl halides (C-H). GC-MS analysis for methanolic stem extract was done. The compound 3, 7, 11, 15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexadecen-1-ol reported to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities, 9- Eicosene, (e) has anticancer activity, Hexamethyl-Cyclotrisiloxane, has antibacterial activity.

20. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Wild Plants in Liliaceae Family Growing Syria
Kitaz Adawia, Al-Kayali Rawaa, Sabbagh Ghalia
There is currently an upsurge of interest in phytochemicals as a new source of natural antioxidants to be used in foods and pharmaceutical preparations to replace synthetic antioxidants, which are being restricted due to their potential health risks and toxicity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical constitution and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of dried bulbs and aerial parts of selected wild plants in Liliaceae family growing in Syria Allium ampeloprasum., Allium stamineum, Asparagus acutifolius and Ornithogalum umbellatum . phytochemical screening was performed by the well-known tests protocol available in the literature using standard. The antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of bulbs and aerial of selected plants were evaluated, through determination of total phenolics and flavonoids content, as well as DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids and terpenoids in bulbs and aerial parts of studied plant, but none contain coumarins, while cardiac glycosides only parsent in bulbs of Allium stamineum, Allium ampeloprasum and Ornithogalum umbellatum. Aerial parts extracts of Asparagus acutifolius showed greater DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.15), as well as total phenolic (36.10 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight) and flavonoid content (114.28 mg rutin equivalent/g of dry weight. Consequently, the members of Liliaceae plants would be considered as promising sources of antioxidant phytochemicals.

21. Chemical Constituents of Hoya cumingiana Decne.
Consolacion Y Ragasa, Nelson M Panajon, Fernando B Aurigue, Robert Brkljača, Sylvia Urban
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Hoya cumingiana Decne. yielded a mixture of α-amyrin (1), β-amyrin (2), bauerenol (3) and lupeol (4) in about 9:3:1:1 ratio and another mixture of β-sitosterol (5) and stigmasterol (6) in a 5:1 ratio from the leaves; and taraxerol (7) from the stems.   The structures of 17 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with literature data.

22. In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Essential Oil of Allium sativum Against Staphylococcus aureus
Fariba Najafi, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Reza Tahvilian, Akram Zangeneh, Hossein Amiri, Nassim Amiri, Rohallah Moradi
Increasing bacterial resistance to chemical antibiotics and their probabilistic side effects cause popularity of medicinal plants, so there is an instantaneous and steady need for novel antibacterial compounds from plants. As we know, there is no documented proof on antibacterial activities of Allium sativum (A. sativum) essential oil in west of Iran. The aim of the current study was assessment antibacterial effects of A. sativum against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in west of Iran (in Kermanshah). The antibacterial effects of A. sativum essential oil was evaluated by macro-dilution method in Mueller-Hinton broth medium, agar disk and well diffusion methods. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. sativum have inhibited the growth of S. aureus and destroyed it. Also, by increasing the concentration of the A. sativum essential oil, the inhibition zones increased. We believe that the article provide support to the antibacterial effects of the essential oil. Our finding shows the fact that the essential oil of A. sativum can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition.

23. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies on Newly-Suggested Herbal Formulations for Potential Protection Against Inflammatory Conditions
Bassant M M Ibrahim, Nemat A Z Yassin, Mona H Hetta, Kamilia F Ta, Walid I Mohammed, Marwa E S Hassan
Inflammation is the body’s basic response to injury. Since current anti-inflammatory medications have side effects, therefore development of newer safe, natural anti-inflammatory agents is necessary. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of new mixtures of herbal extracts on acute inflammation in rats. Comparison between different methods of analysis (Gas chromatography, High performance liquid chromatographic and High performance thin layer chromatography) for the active constituents included in the new preparations named: NP1, NP2 and NP3 was done. Also evaluation and validation for a new method for estimation of piperine alkaloids in piper extract using HPLC method and comparing it with the HPTLC method was done. According to the acute toxicity study done for detection of safe doses of each mixture, animals were classified into: Negative control: received saline, positive control: paw oedema was induced by 0.2 ml of formaldehyde injected into the rat hind paw, reference group for mixtures NP1and NP3: given Indomethacin® (25 mg/kg) orally, Reference group for mixture NP2: given Prednisolone® (2.8 μmol kg−1) orally and treated groups given the mixture NP1 orally in doses  40 and  80mg/kg, mixture NP2 intranasally in doses 30 and 60 mg/kg and mixture NP3 orally in doses  50 and  100mg/kg. The paw volume for each rat was measured before and at 2, 4 and 6 hrs after formaldehyde injection for monitoring the rate of paw oedema. The three mixtures produced significant inhibition of inflammation when compared to positive control group which is promising for treatment of inflammation after further clinical trial assessment.

24. Medicinal Plants of Sandy Shores: A Short Review on Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea
Mami Kainuma, Shigeyuki Baba, Hung Tuck Chan, Tomomi Inoue, Joseph Tangah, Eric Wei Chiang Chan
The phytochemistry and pharmacology of two common tree species of sandy shores, namely, Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea have been selected for review. There was global interest in C. inophyllum after its leaves were reported to possess anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) properties. Since then, extensive research has been conducted on Calophyllum species. Endowed with prenylated xanthones, pyranocoumarins and friedelane triterpenoids, C. inophyllum possesses anti-HIV and anticancer properties. Other pharmacological properties include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-dyslipidemic and wound healing activities. Phytochemical constituents of T. populnea include sesquiterpene quinones, sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids. Many studies have been conducted on the pharmacological properties of T. populnea with major activities of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-hyperglycaemic reported in the bark, leaf, fruit and seed. Anticancer properties are reported in the wood. Representing the flora of sandy shores, both C. inophyllum and T. populnea have promising and exciting medicinal potentials.

25. Amelioration of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Rats Through Plant Foods
Mohamed D A, Rashed M M, Shallan M, Fouda K, Hanna L M
The present study was carried out to evaluate the beneficial effects of ethanolic extract of flaxseed, sesame seed, safflower seed and soybean in rat model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The whole powders of these plants were also evaluated. BPH was induced in castrated adult rats by subcutaneous injections of testosterone propioneate (3 mg/kg rat body weight) for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch), malondialdehyde (MDA), testosterone (TS), prostate specific antigen (PSA) and acid phosphatase were determined. Plasma creatinine and urea levels were determined as indicator of kidneys function. Aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase activities were determined as indicator of liver function. All BPH rats administrated with different treatment showed significant reduction in plasma levels of T-Ch, TS, MDA, PSA as well as total prostatic and non-prostatic acid phosphatase activity compared with BPH rats. Flaxseeds powder was the most promising treatment in the reduction of total cholesterol and MDA levels, while flaxseeds ethanol extract showed the highest reduction of TS level compared with BPH control followed by sesame seeds ethanol extract. The plants’ under investigation showed complete safety toward liver and kidney functions. In conclusion, the ethanolic extracts and whole powders of the studied plants’ showed promising effect towards BPH in animal model.

26. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Activity of Seven Compounds from the Aerial Parts of Conyza triloba
Ahmad A Mahmoud, Mohamed A AlFredan, Wael M El-Sayed
The increase in cancer incidence and development of chemotherapy resistant tumors demands the incessant search for novel anticancer agents. Two benzofurans; (1) and (7), two diterpenes; (2) and (3), one sesquiterepene acid; (4), one pyranone derivative; (5), and a coumarin glucoside; (6) were isolated for the first time from the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of Conyza triloba. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic techniques; IR, UV, GC-MS, and NMR analyses. Most of these compounds had peroxide and superoxide scavenging activities equal to or higher than those of trolox. Compounds 4 and 5 showed a distinguished total free radical scavenging activity higher than that of tocopherol. The antiproliferative activity of these compounds was tested in 5 cell lines. Breast cells were resilient and responded only to compound 2 which had a GI50 at 6 nM. Compounds 5 and 6 were the most effective against the rest of cell lines investigated (liver, colon, prostate, and lung) and had GI50 values at 5-26 nM. Compounds 4 and 7 had similar signatures affecting only colon and prostate at comparable concentrations. Most compounds had antiproliferative activity superior to that of actinomycin D. All compounds were safe; had LC50 at high concentrations. The efficacy of these phytochemicals could be attributed to their ability to induce apoptosis since most of these compounds significantly elevated the activities of caspases 3 and 9.

27. Cytotoxic Activity of Bioactive Compound from Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Fabaceae
Sahar A M Hussein, Amani M D El-Mesallamy, Ahmed M A Souleman, Mona A Mousa
The aim of the present study is to evaluate Cytotoxic Activity of aqueous ethanol extract  and pure isolated bioactive compounds from Caesalpinia  Ferrea Martius, Fabaceae (Caesalpiniaceae) Leaves against five human cancer cell lines (liver HepG2, breast MCF-7, colon HCT-116, larynx Hep2 and prostate PC3) using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay method .Aqueous ethanol extract gave cytotoxic activity against liver HepG2 With IC50 19.3μg/ml, In addition isolation of twelve pure polyphenols 1 – 12 from the extract. The structure of compounds were elucidated by conventional methods, spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR. The most potent cytotoxic activity of pure bioactive compound is 2”-O-galloyl vitexin (6) against liver HepG2 with IC50 18.5μg/ml exhibited. conclusion, the results suggested that ethanolic extract and pure phenolic compound can be used as good candidate for novel therapeutic strategies for cancer possessed significant anticancer activity.

28. Chemical Constituents of Corchorus olitorius L.
Consolacion Y Ragasa, Julius Leonard A Vivar, Maria Carmen S Tan, Chien-Chang Shen
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of the stems of Corchorus olitorius L. led to the isolation of oleanolic acid (1), 2-hydroxyethyl benzoate (2), chlorophyll a (3), mixtures of phytyl fatty acid esters (4a) and β-sitosteryl fatty acid esters (4b) and β-sitosterol (5a) and stigmasterol (5b).  The structures of 15b were identified by comparison of their NMR data with literature data.

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research