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1. Acute Toxicity Study of the Total Alkaloids of Ruta montana in Male Mice
R Allouni, H Guergour, N Mahdeb, M Omrane, A Bouzidi
Ruta montana commonly called Fidjel is known as medicinal plant which has been used as emmenagogue, antispasmodic, rubefiant and powder echarrotic in traditional Algeria medicine. Aim of the study: For the first time, this study evaluated the lethal dose 50 and the potential toxicity of alkaloid extract from aerial parts of Ruta montana after acute administration in male mice. Materials and methods: Lethal dose 50 of total alkaloid extract of Ruta montana was determined using Litchfield and Wilcoxon method, mice were received the alkaloid extract at doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mg/kg (n=8/group) by intra-peritoneal route. Abnormal behavior, toxic symptom, and death were observed for 14 consecutive days. In acute toxicity a single intra-peritoneal administration of total alkaloid extracted from aerial parts of Ruta montana  at 129.68 mg/kg (1/3 LD50). Body weight, biochemical and hematological parameters were recorded. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney were assessed.

2. Effect of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Boswellia serrata and Terminalia bellerica Against Cyclo-Oxygenase and Lipoxygenase Enzymes- An In Vitro Approach
Rajesh S Mony, Sreenath Kunnathupura Baskaran, Muneeswari Perumalsamy, Poornima Kannappan
Introduction: Inflammation is a key mediator in plenty of important physiological abnormalities like cancer, myocardial infarction and arthritis.  Natural anti-inflammatory agents are of great demand owing to its decreased side effects and increased curative properties. Aim: To investigate the in vitro inhibitory effect of three different concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of Boswellia serrata (BS) and Terminalia bellerica (TB) on COX-2 and LOX-2 enzymes. Materials and Methods: Three different concentrations of hydroalcoholic menstruum of BS and TB were prepared using the standard procedures. The in vitro inhibitory activities of COX-2 and LOX-2 were performed using previously mentioned methods with minor modifications. Results: Among the different concentrations used the 90:10 menstruum of BS at 12 mg/ml displayed maximum inhibitory potential against COX-2 enzyme when compared to the same concentration of TB extract. This is suggestive that the majority of bioactive compounds present in BS was alcohol soluble and hence elicited maximum inhibition potential at 90 % ethanol ratio. A similar pattern of results were observed against LOX-2 enzyme as well. Conclusion: From the results it is concluded that the 90:10 hydroalcoholic extract of Boswellia serrata and Terminalia bellerica exhibit appreciable percentage of COX-2 and LOX-2 inhibition, which could be attributed to the ethanol soluble bioactive components present in the extract.

3. Pharmacognostic and Physico-Chemical Investigation of Hemionitis Arifolia (Burm.) Moore.
Jeethu Joy, Bindu A R
Hemionitis arifolia (Family-Adiantaceae)is an attractive and unusual dwarf fern.It is used folkloric to treat ear ache, migraine, haemorrhoids, arthritis, intestinal worms and wounds.It has been medically evaluated for its hypoglycaemic and anti-diabeticproperties in rats.The present investigation deals with macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the leaf material and establishment of its quality parameters, including physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation.Macroscopy revealed lamina as dimorphous, simple; sterile fronds deeply cordate, margin entire, apex rounded; lower surface light green with scattered, appressed scales and hairs, densely along the midrib sparsely on surface. In the microscopic studies, the lamina is isobilateral and has no distinction of adaxial and abaxial sides.The vascular strand consists of a wide, bow shaped row of xylem elements; the two margins of the xylem strand are thin; the middle part being thick. Phloem occurs in thin band both on the lower and upper portions of the xylem arc. Chief characters of powder include epidermal cells, elliptical stomata, multicellular, uniseriate trichomes, xylem elements. Physicochemical parameters such as moisture content, chlorophyll estimation, fluorescence analysis, ash values and extractive values were done. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of many therapeutically important classes of phytoconstituents such as glycosides, phenolics, flavonoids, carbohydrate, terpenoids, sterols and saponins. Thus this study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

4. Phyllanthin: A Potential Lead Molecule for the Future Needs
Mohammed Azam, Makula Ajitha
Phyllanthin is an active lignan present in various Phyllanthus species and number of studies revealed that it exhibits various biological activities that include antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunosuppressant and anti-inflammatory activities. After thorough examination of existing literature it was discovered that there is currently no comprehensive review available on this significant phytocompound. Hence, an attempt was made to present the physicochemical properties, enhancement techniques of yield and bioavailability, synthesis, pharmacological applications and toxicity studies of phyllanthin. This report also highlights semisynthetic derivatives and mechanisms of action of phyllanthin for various biological activities.

5. Phytochemical Profiling, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Leaf Extracts From Rhus leptodictya
Fanyana M Mtunzi, Ikechukwu P Ejidike, Tshifhiwa Matamela, Ezekiel Dikio, Michael J Klink
An integral part of nature is herbal plants which contain natural substance essential to promote health. The focal point of this research resides on the phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial investigations of Rhus leptoditya leaves. Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol solvent extracts were tested for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical analysis of R. leptodictya extracts revealed the presence of phenols, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids. Acetone extract with total flavonoid contents of 18.22 ± 2.1 mg/g while methanol extract with phenol contents (0.38 ± 0.002 mg/g) exhibited the highest amount amongst the studied extracts in the preliminary phytochemicals screening. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts was evaluated using TLC based standard qualitative 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The methanol and acetone extracts showed maximum antioxidant bands compared to other selected solvents and promising radical scavenging activity at par with the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (IC50 = 0.125 ± 0.013 mg/ml). The bioautography assay also demonstrated the bacterial growth inhibition of active compounds present in leave extracts. Acetone and ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest number of antibacterial active compounds against S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts examined using microplates of 96 wells containing Muller-Hinton methods against some bacterial strains, revealed methanol and acetone fractions with the lowest MIC value of 0.04 mg/ml against S. pneumoniae, while methanol extract possesses 0.008 mg/ml against S. aureus and B. subtilis. Results from this study project the R. leptodictya leave extracts constituents as health supplements that could be useful in food industries and in the treatment of various infectious diseases.

6. Comparison of Purified Anthocyanin Isolated From In Vitro Cell Suspension Culture of Begonia malabarica, Begonia rex-cultorum ‘Baby Rainbow’ and its Antioxidant Activity
Aswathy J M, Murugan K
Anthocyanins are the most common flavonoid molecules of vegetables and fruits, especially berries. Human consumption of anthocyanins represents the highest among the flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of life style disorders like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis and cancer. Begonia malabarica Lam. of Begoniaceae, is used traditionally as anti-hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, wound healing and in the treatment of anemia. Begonia rex-cultorum ‘Baby rainbow’ an ornamental species was also substituted. Experimentation of in vitro cell suspension culture, isolation, purification of anthocyanin and its antioxidant potential are targeted in the present study. Explants such as leaves and nodes were cultured on MS medium with various phytohormones for callus induction. Leaf explants of Begonia cultured on MS medium fortified with 2, 4-D and BAP showed significant callus induction and also in terms of fresh and dry weights. Significant reddish coloured callus was achieved in cultures initiated from nodal explants in MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D. Cell suspension cultures were also established in liquid MS medium. After 14 days of culture, cell suspension was obtained with optimal biomass accumulation. Subsequently, bioactive anthocyanin was isolated, purified and fractionated from B. malabarica  and B. rex-cultorum‘Baby rainbow’ using amberlite column chromatography and LC-MS/MS analysis. The major anthocyanins eluted from Begonia species at 4.7-5.4 min. Tandem MS of the m/z 655.3 peak was identified as anthocyanidin Malvidin-3 –diglucoside as the major compound. The other peaks identified were (584.3) Malvidin or Peonidin, (459.2) Delphinidin + Glucose, (403.2) may be Cynanidin, (287.1) Cyanindin Aglycone and other m/z 242.3, 195.1 & 144.1 were sugar derivatives or fragments. Purified anthocyanin exhibited remarkable inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and also a concentration dependent free-radical scavenging activities were noticed against DPPH·, hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions. The degradation of deoxyribose by hydroxyl radicals was also inhibited via iron ion chelators, rather than by directly scavenging the radicals. The results are comparable with reducing power activity of ascorbate and catechin.

7. Phytochemical Analysis and Evaluation of In Vitro Anti Oxidant Activity of Punica Granatum Leaves
Narender Boggula, Himabindu Peddapalli
Pomegranate is a large compound of the eastern diets, yet no research has been performed on this product. The pomegranate, Punica granatum belongs to family Lythraceae is an ancient, mystical, unique fruit borne on a small long-living tree cultivated throughout the mediterranean region, as far north as the Himalayas, in Southeast Asia, and in California and Arizona in the United States. Punica granatum is a fruit bearing deciduous herb or small tree growing between 5-8m tall. Punica granatum leaves are used as bitter tonic in fever and used in pneumonia, flu, mouth and lip infections. In recent studies plant has shown anti fungal, immunosuppressant and anti diabetic activity. It is also used in treatment of heart problems, stomach disorders, dental care, cancer, anaemia, osteoarthritis. Punica including Punica protopunica are known to exhibit strong anti oxidant activity. The extraction was subjected to assay by Reducing power, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, DPPH methods for evaluation of anti oxidant activity. Results revealed that the pomegranate can be categorized as a leave with extremely high anti oxidant potential. 

8. Review on Camellia sinensis –Nature’s Gift
Agarwal U, Pathak D P, Bhutani R, Kapoor G, Kant R
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) always influenced human health benefits associated with this herbal drink. Green tea has possible benefits include promotion of cardio-vascular health, cancer prevention, skin protection, and antioxidant activity, to fight high cholesterol levels, infection, impaired immune system, diarrhoea, fatigue and much more. The credit for their useful antioxidant property exists with their huge collection of chemical substances called polyphenols and catechins make the major contribution to them. In addition, its content of certain minerals and vitamins increases the antioxidant potential of this type of tea The present paper reviews the geographical distribution, history, cultivation, uses, side effects, synonyms, botanical description, taxonomical classification, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities.

9. Antimycobacterial Potential of Indian Spices: A Review
Neha Chaudhary, Varsha Mehra, Payal Mago, Manisha Khatri
Natural products and their plant-derived analogs are often a source of drugs or drug templates with limited toxicity, which has the potential to mitigate compliance issues during protracted administration. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) infection, represents a major health problem globally. Despite the introduction of inexpensive and effective four-drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) treatment regimen 40 years ago, TB continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Global efforts are underway to eradicate TB using new drugs with new modes of action, higher activity, and fewer side effects in combination with vaccines. Since ancient times, different plant part extracts have been used as traditional medicines against diseases including tuberculosis. This knowledge may be useful in developing future powerful drugs. In this regard this review article is an attempt to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of the spices as an alternative and highlight them for further investigation as leads for drug development. The choice of spice as an alternative is based on two basic reasons: firstly, plants have been the model source of medicine since ancient times and secondly, the increasing acceptance of herbal medicines by general population. 

10. Investigation of Invitro Anthelmenthic Activity of Diospyros malabarica (Kostel Bark)
Maddi Ramaiah, Nutakki Tulasi Uma Rani, Nannepaga Hasya Harshitha, Parchuri Sasi Priya, Tummala Sruthi
Herbal medicines are free from possible side effects and they are economical and easily available will be beneficial for the mankind over the years. Helminthic infections are the common infections affecting the large portion of the world’s population and can be easily treated by using natural medicine. Pharmacological screening for Anthelmintic activity of the Indian medicinal plant, Diospyros malabarica (Ebenaceae) claimed to be used traditionally in the treatment of various ailments including helmenthiasis. Literature survey indicated that no published reports on the above said plant for anthelmintic activity. In view of this, the author aimed to carry out the extract of Diospyros malabarica using solvent ethanol and then plan to study the Invitro anthelmintic activity of the ethanolic extract. Time taken for paralysis, death of the worms was recorded. It was found to be statistically significant.

11. Evaluation of Anti Anorectic Activity of Zingiber officinale R. (Zingiberaceae)
Kulkarni V S, V Alagarsamy
A rhizome of Zingiber officinale R. commonly known as Ginger is one of the most popular anti-inflammatory drug in Indian traditional medicine. 6-gingerol is one of the constituent contributing in anti-inflammatory activity of Ginger. Ginger extract and 6-gingerol act as an anti inflammatory via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines.  Increase in proinflammatory cytokines is also responsible for the reduction in food intake resulting anorexia. The aim of the present study was thus to determine antianorectic activity of standardized hydroalcoholic extract of ginger and similarly the biomarker 6- gingerol was also studied to evaluate its contribution in antianorectic activity. Anorexia was induced by intraperitoneal administration of E.coli lipopolysaccharide (100µg/kg) and Fluoxetine (FLU 8mg/kg) in rats. The effect of same doses of the extract was also tested in freely feeding rats. Effect of  ginger and 6- gingerol both were studied  The results showed that at 200 and 400 mg/kg, ginger reversed the anorectic effect while 6- gingerol at 5mg/ kg require for the effect. Moreover the same doses did not modify the food intake in freely feeding rats. These findings provide strong evidence that ginger is able to attenuate anorexia induced by proinflammatory cytokines mediators.

12. Evaluation of Incisional Diabetic Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Leave Extract of Mimosa pudica L. in Rats
R Santosh Kumar, K Rajkiran, Sunil Kumar Patnaik
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a fast growing epidemic throughout the world. India is going to become the capital of DM. DM patients are at greater risk of serious infective foot ulcer or wound. The diabetic wound may be associated with late healing and septic manifestation and finally reach to limb amputation which is an overpriced incident. The herbal products are more precious in both prophylaxis as well as curative in delayed diabetic wound healing activity when compare to synthetic drugs.  The present study was carried out to evaluate the diabetic incisional wound healing activity of ethanolic leave extract of Mimosa pudica L. (EMP) in Streptozotocin   (55 mg/kg, i.p.) induced diabetic rats. A wound of 1cm incision was made on ventral side of diabetic male albino wistar rats. The two different doses (2.5% & 5%) of EMP are applied on wound b.i.d for 11 days. The initial and final fasting serum glucose levels were estimated to confirm the disease state. The breaking strength and histopathological studies of incisional healed skin was estimated.  The EMP 2.5 % and EMP 5% have shown significant (p<0.01) increase in wound breaking strength as well as well epithelialization compared to diabetic control group.

13. Study of the Efficiency of Trachyspermum ammi L. Essential Oil for its Application in Active Food Packaging Technology
Rency Elizabeth, Akshay Shah
The interest in essential oils and their application in food packaging and preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives Close to one third of the world’s food supply is wasted annually. As a major contributor, food spoilage represents an environmental problem as well as an ethical issue. Besides physical damage, browning and staling, molds and yeasts cause significant food waste. Protecting foods from spoilage is essential in order to reduce food waste and ensure safety for consumers. However the current methods employed for preservation carry serious drawbacks which have implications on the health and well being of the consumer. There is a strong need to replace synthetic methods with the use of botanicals. The food industries are developing new packaging systems (active packaging) through the incorporation of essential oils. Essential oils are naturally occurring, degradable, and cheaper than chemical preservatives. Ajwain is a commonly used spice and has been used as a traditional medicine in Indian culture. The current study identifies the fungi toxic potential of essential oil of Ajwain (T. ammi) against common food spoilage fungi and its application as a natural preservative and a prospective component of active packaging and micro atmosphere preservation systems. Using bread, a commodity commonly susceptible to fungal contamination in a modelling system aids in understanding the large scale and realistic application of the system developed. Further studies need to be carried out on the synergistic action of essential oil of T. ammi with other essential oils and other hurdle techniques. The organoleptic and sensory changes caused due to its strong aroma need to be tested further.

14. Morpho-Anatomy, Physiochemical and Phytochemical Standardization with HPTLC Fingerprinting of Aerial Parts of Trichosanthes lobata Roxb.
Patil Kalpana, Wadekar Raju
To study the morpho-anatomy of the aerial parts of Trichosanthes lobata (Cucurbitaceae) to increase the knowledge and standardization parameters of these plants. Morpho-anatomical studies of leaves have been carried out by free hand. The different types of histochemical test were performed by using staining reagents. Phytochemical and quantitative estimation has been determined along with HPTLC fingerprinting. Leaves simple, reniform, or ovate, 5 lobbed and glabrous.  Anomocytic stomata are present on lower epidermis. A single layer of elongated palisade cells are present below upper epidermis. Leaf bears covering trichomes unicellular to 3-4 celled long. The central region is occupied by arc shaped vascular bundles comprising of xylem vessels surrounded with phloem cells. Physicochemical paradigms such as; ash value, inorganic elements, moisture content and extractive values were determined to develop stringent Pharmacognostic standards. Qualitative, and Quantitative standardization and, HPTLC fingerprint study of alcoholic and aqueous extracts confirmed the presence of quercitin as biomarker polyphenolic compound. These studies provides referential information for correct identification, as well as assessment of purity, quality of this plant, which definitely gaining the relevance in plant drug research and establishment of plant monograph.


15. The Study of Antioxidant, Membrane Stabilization, Anti Protein-Denaturation Property and Analysis of Phytochemicals in Three Species of Tagetes Leaf and Flower Extract
Puspal De, Monidipa Dey, Madhumita J Mukhophadhyay
Since the ancient time nature provides several herbal phyto-chemicals for the beneficial of human. Tagetes sp is one of the common and valuable herbs with multiple uses. In the current study, qualitative screening of different phytoconstituents, anti protein denaturation and membrane stabilization property was checked in ethanolic extract of three different species of Tagetes sp namely Tagetes petula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Tagetes erecta.  Three different concentration 50, 75, 100 microlitre were taken for membrane stabilization and anti protein denaturation method using 50 microgram/ml sodium diclofenec as a reference drug. The study revealed that flower and leaf extract from each sample have several bioactive compounds and significant membrane stabilization and anti protein denaturation property. Presence of several phyto-chemicals may help to scavenge the reactive oxygen, potent membrane destabilizing and anti protein denaturation agent in human. So, in future it could be possible to develop a new phyto derived drug for an inflammatory disease in human as literature review shows that the membrane destabilization and protein denaturation are the principal cause of inflammation related disease.

16. Evaluation of In Vitro Anti-Oxidant  Activity  of  Mentha  arvensis   Linn  in Memory  Enhancing  Study
Nazima  Ameen,  Sabeeha  Shafi
The main objective  of the  study  was to evaluate  the in vitro  anti-oxidant  parameters  for the  study  of memory  enhancing  activity  of Mentha  arvensis  Linn  closely  related  to  Alzheimers disease. Mentha arvensis  Linn is a  plant    commonly  known  as  Pudina. It is  used in our daily  cuisines  in India. The study  included  the aerial parts  of Mentha  arvensis belonging  to family  Lamiaceae. Two extracts  were  taken  the aqueous and ethanolic extract. The phytochemical   analysis  of   plant  of Mentha  arvensis Linn   showed  the    presence of  alkaloids, tannins,saponins, glycosides, terpenes, flavonoids, fats, carbohydrates, steroids  and  proteins.Oxidative  compounds  are responsible   for causing  many diseases  like  ischemic  heart  disease, Parkinson disease, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis  and Alzhemers disease. In order to cure  these  diseases  anti-oxidants   are  used. Keeping  these  facts  in view, the  anti-oxidant  activity of   Mentha arvensis Linn  was evaluated in  memory  enhancing  activity.

17. Volatiles and Lipoidal Composition: Antimicrobial Activity of Flowering Aerial Parts of Lavandula pubescens Decne
Gouda B, Mousa O, Salama M, Kassem H
The hydro-distilled volatile oil of the flowering aerial parts of Lavandula pubescens Decne. was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty eight components were identified representing 87.39% of the total oil. Carvacrol (22.39 %), cis-β-Farnesene (13.25 %) and β-Bisabolene (12.9 %) were the major constituents. Lipoids were detected in the n-hexane extract. Unsaponifiable lipoids (USL) and fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) of the n-hexane extract were analyzed by GC/MS. The percentage of the total identified unsaponifiable matter was 83.51%, while that of fatty acids was 40.83%. 5-Hydroxy1,3,4-trimethoxy-7-methyl-6-propar-naphthalene was the major identified component in the unsaponifiable matter representing 36.64 %, followed by Hentriacontane (8.09 %). Octadecenoic acid was the major fatty acid identified representing 12.72 %.The antimicrobial potential of the methanol extract and its fractions (n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) as well as the hydrodistilled volatile oil were assessed. All the tested samples except the n-butanol fraction exhibited broad spectrum activity against the tested Gram-positive bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalisas well as Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria gonorrhea. The n-butanol fraction showed antimicrobial activity against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria except Staphylococcus aureus. The growth of Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus was not affected by any of the tested samples.


International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research