International Journal of

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 4873

p-ISSN: 2961-6069

Peer Review Journal

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1. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activity of Phyllanthus acidus
Tahira Foyzun, Koly Aktar, Mohammad Ashraf Uddin
The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of pulp and seed of Phyllanthus acidus. The antioxidant potential were evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging potential by specific standard procedures. Maximum phenolic (25.672± 0.645 mg gallic acid equivalents/mg of plant extract) and flavonoid (13.893 ± 0.320 mg catechin equivalents/mg of plant extract) contents were found in pulp extract than seed extract. Both the pulp and seed extracts showed the potent antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 5.96 µg and 6.79 µg/mL respectively which are very close to the IC50 value of standard ascorbic acid having 2.16 µg/mL). The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and compared with vincristine sulfate as standard. The cytotoxicity exhibited by both extract was promising with LC50 value of pulp and seed were 6.25 µg/mL and 6.7925 µg/mL respectively comparing with the LC50 value 0.4687525 µg/mL of standard vincristine sulphate as a positive control. Furthermore, the extracts were examined for antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms where both the extracts CMEP and CMES showed mild to moderate antimicrobial activity. Moreover, CMEP have exhibited highest zone of inhibition which was 12mm against Pseudomonous aeruginosa. The results suggest into the plant extracts could be used as a potential therapeutics in many pathological conditions.

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2. Evaluation of Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity of Alkaloids from Datura stramonium Sp. in Mice
Z Benouadah, N Mahdeb, A Bouzidi
Datura stramonium L. or jimson weed is a wild shrub which belongs to Solanaceae family. It contains a number of toxic alkaloids such as atropine, hyoscamine and scopolamine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of alkaloids extracted from the seed of Datura stramonium sp. In mice. Biochemical, hemodynamic, histological parameters were investigated. Experiments on acute toxicity on alkaloids, injected intraperitoneally, showed that these substances are moderately toxic (lethal dose 50 %: 303.4 mg/kg). The resulting intoxication triggered tachycardia, difficulty in breathing, convulsions and a decrease in locomotor activity in mice. The acute treatment for 24 hours and 5 days at a dose of 1/5 LD50, i.e., 60 mg/kg of alkaloids, did not show any difference in body weight. There was an increase in heart beat and respiratory cycle on day 1 in injected mice compared to control animals. These parameters became normal after 5 days of treatment. The hematological observations show that alkaloids at a dose of 60mg/kg induced a significant decline in the number of red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin and hematocrit. The plasma AST, ALT, LDH, K+, urea and creatinine levels were significantly affected after alkaloid administration. The sub-acute dose (16 mg/kg) after 28 days resulted in a significant increase in AST, ALT, GGT, PLA, Na+ and K+ concentrations accompanied by a significant decrease in RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets levels. Heart beat and respiratory cycle also increased in treated-animals compared to the controls. Histopathological examination revealed high degree of vacuolization and inflammation in liver and the same up to lesser extent in kidney. In conclusion, the Datura stramonium. sp alkaloids modulate biochemical, hematological and histological parameters in mice.

3. Inhibitory Effect of Eugenia jombolina and Momordica charantia on Uptake of L-Tyrosine and D-Glucose Across the Rat Intestinal Sac – In Vitro
Yele S U, Veeranjaneyulu A

In recent years there has been a renewed interest to screen plant extracts, juices, combinations of two or more plant drugs for a possible beneficial uses in diabetes. Momordica charantia (MC) commonly known as karela and Eugenia jombolina (EJ), have been reported to have antiviral, antidiabetic, antitumor activities etc. The inhibitory effects of aqueous fruit extract of MC and aqueous stem bark extract of EJ on the transport of d-glucose, l-tyrosine was studied across rat-everted intestine in vitro. Krebs–Henseleit bicarbonate buffer was used as mucosal medium to incubate the gut sacs. Increasing concentrations (1.5–12 mg/ml) of MC and EJ extract were incubated in the mucosal solution. The serosal appearance and mucosal disappearance of d-glucose and l-tyrosine were significantly inhibited with increasing concentrations of MC, EJ bark extracts and their combination (50:50). The aqueous extracts of the selected plants were found to inhibit primarily the uptake of glucose in a dose-dependent manner and uptake of tyrosine was affected only at higher concentration of extract especially in case of MC. Most importantly, the study has shown inhibition of the active transport of d-glucose, l tyrosine across rat intestine which may be effect of saponins and tannins in MC extract and EJ stem bark extract respectively. Results demonstrate tolerability and efficacy of herbal combinations of two plants that seem to act differently but synergistically to regulate glucose-homeostasis.

4. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity and Chromosome Number of Senecio giganteus Desf. from Algeria
Kenoufi M, Lograda T, Chalard P, Figueredo G, Ramdani M
The species Senecio giganteus is endemic to North Africa, especially in streams of mound. The essential oil isolated from aerial parts of S. giganteus from Ain Roua (Setif) region was submitted to the hydrodistillation; the yield obtained is very low 0.02% (v/w). The oil was analysed by GC and GC/MS. The chemical analysis has allowed identifying 40 compounds corresponding to 92.38 %. The oxygenated sesquiterpenes are dominant in the essential oil of S. giganteus with 21.22% and the hexadecanoic acid is the major component (17.80%), followed by isophytol (12.43%), pentanol 3 methyl (7.28%) and phytol (6.66%). The Essential oil of S. giganteus was tested for antimicrobial activity; it showed a modest effect against the strains tested. The karyological investigation of the population of S. giganteus has revealed a tetraploid chromosome number 2n = 4x = (20 + 2B), this number is reported for the first time in Algeria.

5. Development and Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Activity of Phytosome Formulated from the Root Extract of Clerodendron Paniculatum Linn
Sundaraganapathy, Leena P N
Formulation and Evaluation of anti-cancer activity of Clerodendron paniculatum Linn formulated phytosome from the extract by DAL cells.The root portions of the Clerodendron paniculatum Linn root extracted with ethanol by cold maceration process .The extracts were vaccum dried and subjected to phytochemical screening for the detection of various phyto constituents .The formulated phytosome from the extract exhibited potent activity against cancer cells .The study reveals that Clerodendron paniculatum phytosome possess better anti-cancer activitythan the extract.

6. A Study of Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Coriander Seeds Oil, Extraction Methods and Long-Term Stability
Anas Rajab
Several methods of extraction of volatile oils from the Coriadrum Satinium L. seeds were experimented, and the best method was determined when the seeds were soaked with organic solvents at room temperature. The hexane is considered a good solvent to extract total and volatile coriander seeds oil. The following physical and chemical properties of extracted coriander seeds oil were studied: refractive index, density, acidity, acid value, moisture, volatile substances, saponification value and absorptivity in ultraviolet UV. It was found that coriander seeds oil is cannot be used as cooking or food oil. The long-term stability was studied for coriander seeds oil. It was found that the main total quantity of coriander seeds oil and its components was decreased interval of time.

7. Pharmacological Evaluation of Roscea procera (Kakoli) and Lilium polyphyllum (Kshirkakoli) Extracts for Immunomodulatory Activity
Sahu R A, Itankar P R, Mishra R R, Maliye A N
Astavarga group have a long history of use in traditional system of indigenous medicine. It is used in chyawanprash as a rejuvenator and health motivator. However, no systematic & scientific data is available to validate the claim. Hence, immunomodulatory activities of Roscea procera (kakoli) and Lilium polyphyllum (kshirkakoli) plants were studied on mice for haematological parameters, delayed type hypersensitive reaction and lymphoid organ weighing. There was significant modulation of immune reactivity in all the three animal models. Treatment with ethanol extract of kakoli and ethyl acetate extract of kshirkakoli (200 mg/kg of b.w.) was found to enhance WBC count (p<0.001 & p<0.01 respectively) and weight of thymus and spleen. Ethanolic extract of kakoli was accompanied by significant increase in delayed type hypersensitive reaction. In conclusion increase in immunomodulaory potential of EEK and EAEKS over the other extracts could be due to partial purification and separation achieved by successive extraction procedure which might result in increase in degree of polymerization and segregation of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids etc. in extracts showing highest activity.

8. Antimicrobial Potential and Phytochemical Analysis of Dacryodes edulis Against Selected Clinical Bacterial Isolates
Amise A F, Lennox J A, Agbo B E
The antimicrobial potential and phytochemical analysis of Dacryodes edulis (African pear) was investigated using standard microbiological procedures. Phytochemical screening of the raw and boiled African pear seed and mesocarp showed the presence of glycosides, tanins, flavonoids, saponins, reducing compounds, alkaloids and polyphenol in their ethanol extracts while the absence of saponins, tanins and alkaloids was observed in aqueous extracts of both the raw and boiled African pear seed and mesocarp. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both the African pear seed and pulp at varying concentrations of 1g/10ml, 2g/10ml, 4g/10ml, 5g/10ml was tested against some selected human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The results of the ethanol extracts of the African pear seed showed marginally higher zones of inhibition against the clinical bacterial isolates tested. The organisms were resistant to the aqueous extracts of both the African pear pulp and seed. The African pear seed ethanol extracts showed a higher zone of inhibition of 21mm against Klebsiella pneumoniae and 18mm against Proteus vulgaris as compared to 18mm against Klebsiella pneumoniae and 17mm against Proteus vulgaris by Gentamycin used as standard antibiotic control. However, African pear (Dacryodes edulis) can be of immense benefit to pharmaceutical industries for the development of new antimicrobial drugs.

9. Physico-Chemical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Dendrobium macraei Lindl. (Whole Plant)
Vatsa Esha, Chandel Shilpa, Parashar Bharat, Neeru
In the present study, an attempt has been made to highlight the importance of the plant Dendrobium macraei Lindl. (family- Orchidaceae) in the field of traditional medicines. It is commonly known as Swarna Jivanti. The plant is one of the important Rasayana drugs in Ayurveda. It is mainly found in Sikkim Himalayas, Bengal and Khasia mountains at an altitude of 7000-8000 ft. The plant has been reported to be useful as cooling, alterative, astringent to the bowels, stimulant, nervine tonic, aphrodisiac, expectorant, in asthma, bronchitis, ‘tridosha’, throat troubles, fevers, burning sensations, biliousness, diseases of the eye and blood. Plant is stimulant and tonic. The plant is reported to contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and phenolic compounds. Jibantine, resinous principles α and β jibantic acid and diosgenin derivatives like denfigenin and defuscin as steroids are reported as chief constituents in Dendrobium macraei. The present study was undertaken for the development of physico- chemical parameters and phytochemical evaluation including development of chromatographic fingerprinting profile of various extracts prepared by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and fluorescence analysis of various parts of plant used. This study will help in authentication of plant material and will acts as standardization parameter for future study purpose.

10. Nephroprotective Effects of Cynodon dactylon Aqueous Extract in STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats – Histological Study
Madhan kumar S J, Malarvani T, Sathiyanarayamurthy S
Diabetes mellitus is the world’s most common endocrine disorder, characterized by hyper glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon on renal function in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. STZ induced diabetic male rats showed significant decrease in the levels of serum total protein, which lead to the reduction in their body weight, and significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and serum creatinine were observed, when compared to normal rats. These levels were reverted in the STZ induced diabetic rats, treated with Cynodon dactylon extract and in those treated with glibenclamide, which was also demonstrated and correlated with the histopathological findings of the kidney tissue. According to the results of our study, Cynodon dactylon aqueous extract effectively prevented the nephropathic changes induced by diabetes and this is the first study to report on nephroprotective effect of Cynodon dactylon with histological correlations.

11. Physico-Phyto and Chromato Graphic Analysis of Aviccinia alba and Laguncularia racemosa Leaves
P Hari Brahma Reddy, Amrutha V Audipudi
To investigate the physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemicals screening, along with TLC analysis and anti-bacterial activities of mangrove plants leaves of Aviccinia alba and Laguncularia racemosa. A. alba crude drug were showed the Physicochemical characteristic such as; extractive value (5.00%), water soluble extractive value (7.20%), loss on drying weight (12.43%), total ash value (14.00%), acid insoluble ash value (3.10%) and water soluble extractive value (3.90%). Similarly, physicochemical values in L. racemosa 8.50% extractive value, 6.45 % water soluble extractive value, 8.45 % of loss on drying weight, 16.22% total ash value, 3.40 % acid insoluble ash value and 3.40 % water soluble extractive values. Phytochemical analysis of methanol extracts of A. alba (AME) and L. racemosa (LME) revealed the presence high amount of tannins and phenolic compounds. TLC analysis revealed five clear distinct bands or spots by AME showed with their Rf values range from 0.2 to 0.75. Whereas LME showed seven unclear compound spots with varying Rf values range from 0.2 to 0.80. Methanol extracts of both plants were strongly inhibited against with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes as gram negative bacteria and a much broader spectrum of action than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli as gram positive bacteria. These studies will help in setting down Pharmacopoeia standardisation and determining the quality and purity of bioactive compounds. Further investigation is being advocated for the identification of lead molecule with pharmacological significance.

12. Comparative GC-MS Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Methanolic Extract of Calotropis gigantea (L) W.T. Aiton Leaf and Latex
Shalini Sharma, Amita Kumari, Mamta Sharma
Calotropis gigantea (family Asclepiadaceae) commonly known as ‘Sweta Arka’ is a highly medicinal drought resistant and relatively high degree salt tolerant wild plant species of the Indian Himalayan region. Plant contain milky latex in the stem which is used as an antidote for snake poison in dried form. Whereas, dried leaves of the Calotropis plant are used as an expectorant and anti- inflammatory for the cure of paralysis and rheumatic pains. The plant has been reported to be effective in more than hundred human diseases. Various bioactive compounds have been extracted from C. gigantea leaf, flowers and stem. Present investigation deals with the determination of bioactive constituents from the leaf and latex of C. gigantea using GC-MS and their comparative analysis. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of total 46 bioactive compounds (24 from leaves and 22 from latex) with valuable activity. Most of the compounds were found to be similar in both leaf and latex, but small variation was also observed in their chemical profile. The chemical compounds observed in only latex were 1-[(T-butyl) dimethyl silyl thin] butane, 1-Hexadecyne, Hexadecane, L-Glutamic acid, Phenol-3-isoproxy-5-methyl, Trocosane and Z-1,6-Tridecadiene. Compounds identified only from the leaves were Azulene, Benalaxyl, Cis-vaccenic acid, Levomenol, Profenofos, β- Tocopherol and β-Sitosterol, whereas the rest of the compounds were similar in both leaf and latex.

13. A Profiling of Anti-Tumour Potential of Sterols in the Mangrove Fern Acrostichum aureum.
Anitta Thomas, Prashob Peter K J, N Chandramohanakumar
This study designates on the anti-tumour potential of phytosterol compositions present in the leaves of mangrove fern Acrostichum aureum of Cochin estuary. Very little work has been reported so far about mangrove fern species Acrostichum aureum worldwide. In the present study five phytosterols have been identified in the leaves of mangrove fern Acrostichum aureum, and are reported here for the first time. Stigmasterol, γ-sitosterol, campesterol, cycloartanol and 24-methylene cycloartanol are the components detected and these compounds were identified and confirmed by comparison of the obtained mass spectra with the published data. Further, in silico prediction of cytotoxicity for tumour cell lines using Cell Line Cytotoxicity Predictor (CLC-Pred) highlighted their potential to suppress adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, and mesothelioma. This study highlights the relevance of processing Acrostichum aureum for biological active sterols to suppress the proliferation of cancer cells in stomach, lungs, and pleura.

14. Identification of Bioactive Constituents in Peel, Pulp of Prickly Custard Apple (Annona muricata) and its Antimicrobial Activity
K Karthikeyan, S Abitha, V G Saravanan Kumar
The present intend of the study to identify the bioactive components and its antimicrobial activity in the prickly custard apple (Annona muricata), it is a common fruit in tropical Asia of annona species, is occasionally met under cultivation in Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andharapradesh, Maharashtra, Assam and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The fruit pulp, peel was used to extract by methanol and ethyl acetate and the methanolic extract was observed better effect compared to ethyl acetate extract, the peels and pulp were good source of bioactive components compare than seed samples. Hence the twenty-seven bio active compounds were identified in the peel, pulp and seed samples and the nine compound in peel nine in pulp and eleven compound found in seed specifically. Hence, single compound namely Dasycarpidan-1-methanol, acetate (ester) present in both peel and pulp were identified. These specific compounds mainly responsible for the antimicrobial activity and it is also observed the greatest antimicrobial effect against these particular microbes E. coli, S. aureus, Bacillus, Proteus, and Klebsiella species.

15. Flavonoids from Leucanthemopsis trifurcatum Leaves and their Cytotoxic Activity
Wael M Abdel-Mageed, Ahmed A Attia, Muneera S M Al-Saleem, Maged S Abdel-Kader, Krishna Bolla, Samir A Ross
A radical scavenging guided phytochemical study on the leaf of Leucanthemopsis trifurcatum afforded twelve flavonoids (1-12). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against human Hela and MCF-7 cell lines. Compound 1 displays the strongest cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 10.3 (Hela) and 12.2 µM (MCF-7).

16. Proteus species: Characterization and Herbal Antibacterial: A Review
Ghaidaa Jihadi Mohammed, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Imad Hadi Hameed
Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources with an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Proteus spp. are part of the human intestinal flora and can cause infection upon leaving this location. They may also be transmitted through contaminated catheters (particularly urinary catheters) or by accidental parenteral inoculation. The specific mode of transmission, however, has not been identified. Antimicrobials of plant origin have enormous therapeutic potential and have been used since time immemorial. They have been proved effective in the treatment of infectious diseases simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects which are often associated with synthetic antibiotics. Many infectious diseases have been known to be treated with herbal remedies based on ethno-botanical knowledge. Natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Therefore, researchers are increasingly turning their attention to folk medicine, looking for new leads to develop better drugs against microbial infections. Thus, it is anticipated that phytochemicals with adequate antibacterial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infections. The present antibacterial review of the plant extracts demonstrates that folk medicine can be as effective as modern medicine to combat pathogenic microorganisms. The millenarian use of these plants in folk medicine suggests that they represent an economic and safe alternative to treat infectious diseases.
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17. In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenol Contents of Some Extracts from Ripe Fruits of Phoenix dactylifera Var Berhi
Amir Siahpoosh, Amir-Mehdi Taleb, Hanieh Almasi
This study was aimed at evaluating polyphenolic compounds and antioxidative capacity of Berhi variety of Date as well as comparing the methanolic extract and methanol-chloroform and methanol-aqueous fractions. The methanolic extract was prepared by maceration method. Concentratrd methanolic extract was suspended in water and extracted by chlorophorm. Water and chlorophorm fractions were dried with freeze drier. In this paper, the antioxidant activity of extracts has been analyzed using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free-radical scavenging, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), Iron chelation and erythrocyte hemolysis assays. In addition total phenolic, flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins compounds were also analyzed. Quantitative phytochemical studies showed the presence abundant amount of phenolic, flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins compounds in extracts. The IC50 values of, Met-Aqu, methanolic and Met-Chl extracts for scavenging the DPPH and ABTS radical ranged from 161.64 to 238.95 and 52.3 to 152.40, respectively while that of Iron chelation, erythrocyte hemolysis and EC1 of FRAP assay ranged from 695.38 to 925.94, 147.40 to 418.87 and 0.748 to 2.32 µg/ml. Results indicate that the amount of total phenol, flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins compounds in the extracts is rated as Met-Aqu> Methanol>Met-Chl. Results of antioxdative, iron chelation, and hemolysis tests indicate an order of Met-Aqu> Methanol>Met-Chl. Better results of Met-Aqu can be because of its more polyphenolic compound. Results above show that this method of preparing fractions from methanolic extract can cause more polyphenolic compound extraction and improvement of the antioxidative effect.

18. Quantitative Pre-Eliminary Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extracts of Leaves of Oroxylum indicum from Five Different Places in Sumatra Island, Indonesia
Aslamiyah, Etik Ernawati Hadi, Imam Muslimin, Maman Turjaman, Iskandar Thalib
In this present study, we investigate quantitatively some phytochemical compound from the aqueous extracts of leaves of Kapung (Oroxylum indicum). The phytochemical compound that we investigated in this study is flavonoid, steroid, tannin, alkaloid, and saponin. The leaves of Oroxylum indicum were obtained from five different places in Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The results revealed that the leaves extracts contained all phytochemical that we investigated in this present study. The phytochemical compound content varies, depending on the leaves sampling places. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaves of Oroxylum indicum contain some phytochemical constituents which can be beneficial for further investigation.

19. Anti-Microbial, Anti-Inflammatory and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Activity of Selected South African Plants used to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Mamba P, Adebayo S A, Tshikalange T E
The purpose of the study was to investigate the bioactivity of extracts of selected plant species used to treat sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) in southern Africa. As the emergence of drug resistance pathogens in STD’s treatment and potential side effects of synthetic drugs demands the discovery of newer and safer drugs, the exploration of newer anti-microbial substances from natural sources may serve as promising alternatives. Ethanol extracts of twelve medicinal plants used traditionally to treat sexually transmitted diseases and 3 flavonoids (F1, F2 and F3) isolated from Elaeodendron transvaalense were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against one fungus and three bacteria. To determined anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts and compounds, the inhibitory effect was measured on the pro-inflammatory enzyme, 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX). The extracts and compounds were also investigated for their anti-HIV activity against recombinant HIV-1 enzyme using non-radioactive HIV-RT colorimetric assay. Acacia karoo and Rhoicissus tridentata extracts indicated good anti-microbial activity with MIC values ranging between 0.4 and 3.1 mg/mL. Extracts of Jasminum fluminense, Solanum tomentosum, F2 and F3 had good anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 less than positive control quercetin (IC50 = 48.86 µg/mL). Acacia karoo and F3 exhibited moderate HIV RT inhibition activity of 66.8 and 63.7% respectively. Rhoicissus tridentata and Terminalia sericea had the best RT inhibition activity (75.7 and 100%) compared to that of the positive control doxorubicin (96.5%) at 100 µg/mL. The observed activities may lead to new multi-target drug against sexually transmitted diseases.

20. Pharmacognostical Studies on the Leaves of Dodonaea viscosa (L) Jacq
Shanthi S, Seethalakshmi S, Chamundeeswari D, Manna P K
Dodonaea viscosa Linn. (Sapindaceae) is an evergreen shrub distributed throughout in India. It has been used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases such as malaria, ulcers, dysmenorrhoea, rheumatism, sprains, bruises, burns and wounds. The present study deals with the pharmacognostical evaluation of leaves of Dodonaea viscosa Linn. Macromorphology and microscopy (transverse section, powder microscopy and quantitative microscopy) were studied to establish the salient diagnostic features. Physico-chemical characters like ash and moisture content, extractive values and crude fibre content of the leaf samples were determined and reported. Various pharmacognostical and physico-chemical parameters studied have pivotal roles in identification, authentication and establishment of quality parameters of this plant material.

21. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Chenopodium botrys L. Essential Oil
Azadeh Foroughi, Pouya Pournaghi, Fariba Najafi, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Akram Zangeneh, Rohallah Moradi
Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. As we know, there is no documented proof on antibacterial effects of Chenopodium botrys L. essential oil in west of Iran. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was done to determine chemical composion. As a screen test to discover antibacterial properties of the essential oil, agar disk and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to specify MIC. The findings show that the most substance found in C. botrys essential oil was α-eudesmol. Also, the results indicated that C. botrys essential oil prevented Escherchia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus from the growing in concentrations 0.007 g/ml. Thus, the present research demonstrates the antibacterial effects of the medical plant on Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, suggesting to use as antibacterial supplements in the developing countries towards the development of new therapeutic agent.

22. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Pimpinella anisem’s Essential Oil
Azadeh Foroughi, Pouya Pournaghi, Fariba Najafi, Akram Zangeneh, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Rohallah Moradi
Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antibacterial effect of essential oil of Pimpinella anisum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was done to specify chemical composion. As a screen test to detect antibacterial properties of the essential oil, agar disk and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to determinate MIC. The results indicated that the most substance found in P. anisum essential oil was Trans-anethole (89.7 %), also the essential oil of P. anisum in 0.003 and 0.007 g/ml concentrations has prevented from the growth of the P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis, respectively. Thus, the research represents the antibacterial effects of the ethnomedical herb against both of bacteria. The results indicate the fact that the essential oil from the plant can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition. Additional in vivo studies and clinical trials would be needed to justify. Also, further evaluation is necessary on potential of it as an antibacterial agent in topical or oral applications. Fractionation and characterization of active molecules will be the future work to investigate.

23. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Studies of Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Tshikalange T E, Mamba P, Adebayo SA
Context: The World Health Organization reported that more than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired daily, with an estimated 357 million new infections caused by either chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis or trichomoniasis. Aim: The present study was aimed to evaluate antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities of ethanol extracts of ten ethnobotanical selected plant species used to treat STD’s and related symptoms. Methods: The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of plant extracts was done using the broth micro-dilution assay against five microorganisms. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyly-1-picrylhydrazyl). Cytotoxicity activity of the plant extracts was done on Vero African monkey cells lines with 2, 3-bis [2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reagents. Results: Our results suggest that extracts of Acacia karroo and Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. cuneifolia are potential candidates with a good antimicrobial, antioxidant and low cytotoxicity activities. This results may support the anecdotal claims for the use of the selected plant species to treat venereal diseases.

24. Pharmacological and Medicinal Potential from Flowers of Perfume Tree M. champaca – A Review
Pradeepa Panneerselvam, Vedha Hari B Narayanan, Ramya Devi Durai
Michelia champaca L. belonging to the family Magnoliaceae is also called as Champak and has high medicinal applications. In general, plants are the rich source for providing potent drugs. Traditionally, the joy perfume tree was used in several treatments including fever, leprosy, cough, ulcer, abdominal cohlic, rheumatism, constipation, dysmenorrhoea, bronchitis, wounds, skin diseases and various other disorders. Also, this plant possesses numerous pharmacological properties such as anti-microbial, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, insecticidal, anti-uretic, anti-dinic, carminative, anti-diabetic etc., Compounds namely flavanoids, alkaloids, sterols, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins were identified and characterized. Keeping in view of the above information, this comprehensive review focuses on to render the different activities, applications, and uses of M. champaca.

25. Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil of Five Plant Species from Morocco Against Some Microbial Strains
Boukhira Smahane, Balouiri Mounyr, Bousta Faisl, Moularat Stephane, Taleb Mohammed Sghir, Bousta Dalila
The objective of this study is to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of five selected species of medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family, namely Satureja hochreutineri Briq, Teucrium polium, Thymus satureioides, Thymus broussonetti Boiss. and Thymus zygis from wild and in vitro cultivated plants in Morocco with a view of searching a novel essential oil as a preservative in cosmetic products. The tests were carried out using disk-diffusion method, agar well diffusion method. The MICs of the essential oils were determined by broth microdilution method against five standardized microorganisms recommended by the The European Pharmacopoeia, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Our results show that essential oils of genus Thymus, Satureja hochreutineri and Teucrium polium exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against all five tested bacterial and fungal strains except P. aeruginosa which resist to T. polium and S. hochreutineri essential oils with inhibition zone between 7.00–46.33 and MIC values ranged from 0.2 to 20 µl/ml. The results of this study revealed that these essential oils possesses antimicrobial properties as antibiotics, therefore, they can be used as a potential source of active ingredients for cosmetic preservatives.

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