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1. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of the Red Alga Halopitys incurvus Harvested from El Jadida Coast (Morocco)
Chibi F, Rchid H, Arsalane W, Nmila R
This work aims to research and to highlight the antioxidant activity in the alga Halopitys incurvus (Rhodomelaceae) harvested from El Jadida coast (Morocco). After having set up an adapted protocol of extraction by different solvent polarities (Chloroform/Methanol (2:1, V:V), Chloroform, and Isopropanol/water (7:3, V: V), the antioxidant activity was evaluated by two complementary techniques: on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate and spectrophotometry using the free radical DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrayl). The tests were validated by comparison with reference antioxidant substances (ascorbic acid and δ-tocopherol).The preliminary screening of the extracts on TLC plate allowed to target the scavenger activity of the DPPH radical in the various prepared extracts. The evaluation of the scavenging power of the extracts against DPPH by spectrophotometry confirmed the results of the first screening and shows that the extracts resulting from H. incurvus have a real antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 0.154, 0.150 and 1.320 respectively in the crude extract (Chloroform/Methanol), and in the Chloroformic extract and in the Isopropanolic extract compared to the EC50 value of δ-tocopherol (0.260). Moreover, H. incurvus proved rich in total phenolics and the content of these products varies according to the nature of the studied extract. The results of this work show that the used method allowed to highlight the presence of antioxidant properties of interest in the alga Halopitys incurvus.

2. Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Ozonated Linseed and Sunflower Oils
Aljanzeer Roshan, Nayal Ream, Abajy Mohammad Yaser, Alhaj Sakur Amir
This study evaluated the effect of ozonation on chemical properties of linseed and sunflower oils as well as the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated oils on cutaneous wound healing in rats. The ozone gas was pumped into both oils till the peroxide value reached 600  mmol/kg. The acidity value and the IR spectroscopy were determined for both oils before and after ozonation. Longitudinal wounds were made in the skin of rats and treatment with oils was applied once a day till cure for each group, the length of the wound was measured daily, and healing time was determined. Results showed an increase in acidity value and peroxide value, as well as a decrease of the bands corresponding to both C=C and =C–H stretching and increase in the band corresponding to ozonide C-O stretching. The two ozonated oils promoted wound healing and their therapeutic efficacy was better than the positive control. Further study is needed to evaluate the safety of long using of ozonated oils.

3. Indole Alkaloids with Antifungal Potential from the Stem Bark of Tabernaemontana stapfiana
Baraza D L, Hummel J, Mutiso P C, Franke K, Schmidt J, Wessjohann L A

Fungal infections are a very common health problem that is often treated by traditional medicine. Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten (Apocynaceae) is used in the traditional medicine of Kenya against several ailments including fungal infections. The monoterpenoid indole alkaloids coronaridine (1) and pericyclivine (2), together with lup-20(29)en-3β-yl-acetate (3) and curcuphenol (4) were isolated from the stem bark of this species. In addition, a series of indole alkaloids including trimeric compounds were characterized by ESI-MS investigations. The alkaloid containing methanol and ethyl acetate crude extracts exhibited cytotoxic activity against HT29 and PC3 cancer cell lines as well as antifungal activity against the phytopathogens Septoria tritici and Botrytis cinerea. 

4. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of: Origanum elongatum and Cupressus atlantica Two Endemic Plants of Morocco.
Oualili Hanane, Rchid Halima et Nmila Rachid
Medicinal plants are often used for their therapeutic properties (antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, etc.). The objective of this work is to demonstrate the antioxidant potential and the phytochemical screening of the two endemic plants of Morocco: Origanum elongatum Emb and Maire and Cupressus atlantica Guaussen. Measures of antioxidant activity of the essential oils and the organic extracts of plants is obtained by trapping the free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) in two steps: first on a silica plate and then by spectrophotometry. The results show that the essential oil and the organic extract of the two plants exhibit an antioxidant activity with an important degradation of DPPH in the organic extract of Origanum elongatum and Cupressus atlantica with a percentage of 92.3% and 90.9% respectively. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of quinones, flavonoids, sterols and gallic tannins in Origanum elongatum, the presence of catechic tannis and sterols in Cupressus atlantica and the absence of alkaloids and saponins in both plants.

5. Antioxidant Capacity and GC-MS Analysis of Hexane, Ethylacetate and Methanol Extracts of Ficus bhotanica – A Potential Folklore Medicinal Plant
Dipankoj Gogoi, Gyanashree Bora, Romesh Borgohain, Jyotirekha G Handique
Ficus bhotanica is used as one of the important folklore medicine for various ailments by the people of Assam, India and the Ahom community people of this region also used for the preparation of fermentation cake of ‘Haanj’, the traditional rice based alcoholic beverage. So investigation of this plant was carried out to determine the possible phytochemical components present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of Ficus bhotanica and analyse the effective bioactive compounds using GC-MS. Antioxidant capacity of these three extracts of F. bhotanica was determined by Deoxyribose assay, Xanthine oxidase inhibitory assay and electrochemical measurements of antioxidant capacity by cyclic voltammetry. Phytochemical screening of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoidsand phenolic compounds. Ethyl acetate extract also shows the presence of tannins. All extracts showed significant antioxidant capacity. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of twenty five, eleven and eight major compounds in hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract respectively. The presence of the bioactive compounds justifies the use of the plant as medicinal plant.

6. Diuretic Activity of Water Melon Rind Extract (Citrullus vulgaris) and Its Influence on Sodium and Potassium Levels
Ika Purwidyaningrum, Iswandi, Joseph Billi
The purpose of this study was to determine diuretic activity of water melon rind extract (Citrullus vulgaris) and its influence on potassium and sodium levels. crude drug was extracted by maceration method followed by evaporation using rotary evaporator.  Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups i.e. control group CMC 0.5%, Hydrochlorothiazide (2,25mg/kg bw) and water melon rind extracts with doses of 350 mg/kg bw, 700 mg/kg bw, 1400 mg/kg bw. Rats were placed in metabolic cages. Urine volume was measured for 1 until 5 and to 24 hours. Potassium and sodium levels in urine were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The effective dose of ethanolic water melon rind extract for diuretic activity was 1400 mg/kg bw which could increase the excretion of sodium and potassium in the urine of the male Wistar rats.

7. Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Studies of Gardenia latifolia Aiton: An Ethnomedicinal Tree Plant
Ray Anindya Sundar, Rahaman Chowdhury Habibur
Present study deals with the pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, antioxidant activity of crude drugs obtained from leaf, stem bark and fruit of Gardenia latifolia Aiton (Family- Rubiaceae), an ethnomedicinal tree species. Different parts of this plant are used in curing skin diseases, wounds, and in snake bite. Pharmacognostic study revealed that epidermal cells of abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces are irregular in shape and anticlinal walls of the cells are slightly wavy. Stomata are strictly paracytic type and observed only in the abaxial leaf surface, i.e., hypostomatic type of leaf. Stomatal index is 29.85. Palisade ratio is 3.02. Only non-glandular type of trichomes is observed in both the leaf surfaces. Trichome index is 1.42 and 1.98 in upper and lower surfaces of the leaf, respectively. Vessel elements are of moderate in size, perforation plate simple and obliquely placed. Histochemical localization tests revealed the presence of tannins, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, lignin, etc. in various tissue zones of the leaf petiole and stem part. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthaquinones, glycosides, etc. in the methanolic extracts of leaf, bark and fruit of this plant. Physical constants like moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash value have been determined for all those three parts of the plant. Total ash value was high in fruit (10.0%) that was followed by bark (5.6%) and leaf (2.65%). Contents of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were found higher in bark than that of leaf and fruit parts of this plant. IC50 values of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem bark and fruit in DPPH scavenging activity study were 145.83 µg/ml, 79.74 µg/ml and 117.93 µg/ml respectively. In ABTS scavenging study bark showed minimum IC50 value (73.87 µg/ml) followed by fruit (109.26 µg/ml) and leaf (186.27 µg/ml). Similar trend was also found in Total Antioxidant Activity assay, where maximum antioxidant potential is measured in case of bark (41.20 mg AAE/g) followed by fruit (31.23 mg AAE/g) and leaf (13.45 mg AAE/g).  Present study highlighted that bark part of this medicinal plant is more potent than the leaf and fruit parts in respect of its phytochemical content and antioxidant activity. The study also provides some diagnostic pharmacognostic features by which the crude drugs of it can properly be identified.

8. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Root of Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth
Rekha B Nirawane, Shyam B Prasad, Suresh Kumar, Arun M Gurav, Gajendra Rao , Goli P Prasad, Anupam K Mangal
Aim: To develop the Pharmacognostic quality standard of root of Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth. Materials and Methods: Detailed macroscopy , microscopy, histochemical tests, fluorescense analysis, behaviour of powdered drug with different chemical reagents were performed for pharmacognostic evaluation of root of Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth. Results: Root  showed presence of cork, cortex, cambium, xylem, phloem, starch grains and stone cells. Histochemical tests, behaviour of drug with different chemical reagents and fluorescense analysis showed the presence of lignin, starch, crystals which would proved to be a unique parameters for identification of the drug.  Conclusion: Findings of this study will be helpful for identification and authentication of root of Albizia lebbeck (Linn) Benth.

9. Phytochemical Investigation of Essential Oils from Petroleum Ether Extract of Annona Squamosa Seeds By Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy
Patil A S, Doshi G M
Objective: Annona squamosa (AS) commonly named as custard apple, is an edible tropical fruit belonging to the family Annonaceae. It has been known for numerous medicinal effects with a deep history of traditional use. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the existence of significant to reasonable amounts of phytoconstituents viz; steroids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, phenols, fixed oils and fats. Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) studies were carried out on AS seeds petroleum ether extract to explicate phytoconstituents which may prove its effectiveness in near future in the treatment of various diseases. Methods: Present research studies encompasses identification of plant related constituents in AS seeds petroleum ether extract by using hyphenated techniques like GC-MS which when coupled gives a clear insight of such constituents. The compounds were identified by matching mass spectra with mass spectrum libraries. Results: There were five different compounds analyzed from AS seeds. The components present were oleic acid; hexadecanoic acid-2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester; 9-Octadecenoic acid(Z), 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxyl-methyl)ethyl ester; 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid-, 2-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-1-[[(trimethyl-silyl)oxy]methyl]ethyl ester (Z,Z,Z) and n-hexadecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2-ethanediyl ester. Conclusion: In future, AS seeds may be subjected to different extraction and chromatographic techniques in order to check the presence of some additional phytoconstituents present in maximum proportion and their corresponding pharmacotherapeutic potential may be proven.

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research