International Journal of

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 4873

p-ISSN: 2961-6069

Peer Review Journal

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1. Immunomodulatory Activity of Ethanolic Extract of  Artemisia abrotanum
Suresh Joghee,   Nagamani

Natural  products  of  plant  and  animal  origin  offer  a  vast  resource  of  newer medicinal  agents  with  potential  in  clinical  use.  Some  of  these  are  believed  to  promote  positive  health  and  maintain  organic  resistance  against  infection  by  re-establishing  the  body’s  equilibrium  and  conditioning  the  body  tissues.  Artemisia abrotanum  commonly  known  as  “Southern  wood”  traditionally  considered  as  antiseptic,  astringent,  emmenagogue,  expectorant,  febrifuge,  stimulant,  tonic,  anti inflammatory,  vermifuge,  spasmolytic  and  used  for  treating  upper  respiratory  tract  disease.  An  infusion  makes  a  bitter  tonic,  used  against  cancer,  cough  fever  and  tumors. Ethanolic  extract  of  Artemisia  abrotanum  was  administered  orally  at  doses  of  100  and  200  mg/kg/day  to  healthy  mice  (Albino)  divided  into  three  groups  consisting  of  six  animals  each.  The  assessment  of  immunomodulatory  activity  was  carried  out  by  testing  humoral  (antibody  titer)  and  cellular  (foot  pad  swelling)  immune  responses  to  the  antigenic  challenge  by  sheep  RBCs.  Oral  administration  of  extract  showed  a  significant  decrease  in  delayed  type  hypersensitivity  (DTH)  response  and  the  humoral  response  to  sheep  RBCs.  Ethanolic  extract  of  AA  shows  non-significant  reduction  in  primary  antibody  titer and  at  the  doses  of  200mg/kg/day  shows  significant  reduction  in  secondary  antibody  titer  and  foot  pad  thickness
Abstract Online: 07-April-2015

2. Structural and Cytochemical Study of Salivary Glands after Fenugreek Seed Extract Administration in Oxidatively Stressed Mice.
Walvekar M. V., Deshmukh V. M., Pol S. B.
The study was undertaken to evaluate protective effect of fenugreek seed extract (FSE) on the salivary glands of aging induced mice. For that we have studied the histology as well as histochemistry of the salivary glands. So to evaluate protective effect of fenugreek against accelerated aging, male albino mice (Mus musculus L.) were divided into four groups viz, a) Control group- received subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml sterile water for 20 days. b) Aging accelerated group- received injection of 0.5 ml of 5% of D-galactose/ day for 20 days. c) Protective group- received injection of D-galactose + FSE (50 mg/kg body weight of animal) for 20 day. d) Curative group- received D- galactose for 20 days then after FSE (50 mg/kg body weight) for 20 days. The histological study by HE showed loss of their normal architecture and cellular integrity .Histochemical study by PAS, AB-1, AB-2.5 showed decreased staining intensity of salivary glands in D-galactose injected aged mice as compared to control. While protective and curative groups showed recovery in architecture of salivary acini and increase in acini number. Increased staining intensity indicates increase in glycoprotein content. Better results are seen in curative group as compared to protective group. Thus above results elucidate the protective action of fenugreek seeds against aging in salivary glands of mice.
Abstract Online: 07-April-2015

3. Role of Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds from Selected Plants in Inhibiting Pro-Oxidants Elicited Strand Breaks in Plasmid pBR322 DNA
Kumar A, Arora S
Free radical scavenging properties of methanolic extract from  Pongamia  glabra and Pterospermum acerifolium leaves were  assessed dy DPPH and pBR322 plasmid DNA nicking assay and were correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid content. The extracts from P. acerifolium exhibited good  DPPH radical scavenging  potential (59.02±0.30 %)  with  IC 50 value of  163.50  then P. glabra which showed poor activity (8.28±0.10 %)  with IC50 values of 1243.45 at highest test concentration of 200µg/ml. The high antioxidant potential of P. acerifolium extract could be attributed to its High phenolic (mg GAE/g dry wt) and flavonoid (mg RE/g dry wt) content 296.66±1.76 and 430.23±1.18 respectively
Abstract Online: 07-April-2015

4. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen Root
Rupesh Pingale, Gouri Kumar Dash
Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (Family: Sapotaceae), commonly known as Sapodilla’ is very popular in India with a long history of traditional and folklore medicinal uses. Traditionally, different parts of the plant are used in treating cough, cold, diarrhoea, hemorrhage ulcer and gonorrhoea. A variety of phytoconstituents like lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, terpenes, fatty acids, anthraquinone glycosides and aliphatic long-chain compounds have been isolated from the plant. The plant is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities. The present study was carried out to investigate macroscopical, microscopical and physiochemical parameters of M. zapota. roots. Some of the diagnostic features of the roots were studied. All the parameters were studied according to WHO guidelines. The determination of these characters will help future researchers in phytochemical as well as pharmacological analysis of this species
Abstract Online: 07-April-2015

5. TLC, HPTLC and Quantitative Estimation of Acetone, Methanolic and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Stem Bark of Bauhinia purpurea Linn.
S.S.Meshram, P.R.Itankar, A.T.Patil
To  present  study was deals with the TLC,HPTLC and Quantitative analysis of successive extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpuria Linn, during the study firstly successive extraction with acetone, methanol and maceration of hydro-alcoholic extract and phytochemical study of these extract was done and  secondary metabolite were observed like protein, carbohydrate, flavanoids and phenolics. the extracts were subjected to TLC and HPTLC studies to estimate number and type of phytoconstituents present in it. Number of solvent systems were tried, however good resolution was obtained in the optimized solvent system. and Quantitative estimation of acetone, methanol and hydro-alcoholic extracts were carried out, The method described by Bradford uses a different concept that is the capacity of proteins to bind a dye, quantitatively, Estimation of total carbohydrates by Phenol sulfuric acid method, total soluble phenolics in the extracts can be determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and flavanoids was determined by using Quercetin. The constituents of all these extracts were quantified with spectrophotometer methods. The total proteins in acetone, methanol and hydro-alcoholic extracts were found to be 38.97, 11.92 and 11.02 mg/g, The total carbohydrates in these extracts were found to be 72.26, 319.27, and 313.60 mg/g, The total phenolics in these extracts were found to be 462, 775 and 441.11 mg/g ,and The total flavonoids in acetone, methanol and hydro-alcoholic extracts were found to be 239, 328.07and 186.53 mg/g of extracts respectively
Abstract Online: 09-April-2015

6. In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Monstera deliciosa.
Pal Prosanta, Chakraborty Mainak, Karmakar Indrajit, Haldar Sagnik, Das Avratanu, Haldar Pallab Kanti
Objectives: The present study evaluates the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content  of methanol extract of Monstera deliciosa. Methodology: The antioxidant activities of above mentioned extract of Monstera deliciosa were measured by different in vitro standard methods like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical (DPPH), nitric oxide, superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals. On the basis of antioxidant properties total phenol content was estimated for methanol extract of Monstera deliciosa (MEMD). Results: The extracts exhibited antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 values of the Methanol extract of Monstera deliciosa and that of the standard (ascorbic acid) for DPPH are 77.87± 2.21 μg/mL, 20.73± 1.18 μg/ml ; for Nitric oxide are 81.30 ± 1.19 μg/mL, 33.53 ± 1.81 μg/mL; for Superoxide are 85.33 ± 3.18 μg/mL, 25.33 ± 2.33 μg/mL, for Hydroxyl radical are 89.33± 1.76 μg/mL, 39.33± 2.40 μg/mL .Conclusion: The study elucidated that MEMD possesses significant dose dependant antioxidant activity. Further research is going on to find out the active principle(s) of MEMD responsible for its antioxidant activity.
Abstract Online: 10-April-2015

7. Antimicrobial Effect of the Chloroform Phase of Praxelis clematidea R.M. King & Robinson
Oliveira-Filho A.A., Fernandes H.M.B. , Sousa J.P. , Meireles, D.R.P. , Maia G.L.A. , Barbosa Filho J.M. , Pêssoa H.L.F., Lima E.O.
Medicinal plants constitute an arsenal of chemicals that could be exploited by human to prevent microbial invasion. Praxelis clematidea R.M. King & Robinson belongs to the family Asteraceae. Plants from this family have been extensively studied for the development of new drugs and insecticides. Based on this information, the chloroform phase of Praxelis clematidea was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity. Six bacterial strains and six fungal strains were used in the study for activities. Microdilution method was used for antibacterial and antifungal assay of the chloroform phase. The results were also compared with the standard drug, Chloramphenicol (100 µg/mL) and Nistatin (100 UI/mL). The obtained results showed activity of the chloroform phase against Candida species, in particular against Candida albicans, which highlights the immense antifungal potential of this plant species.
Abstract Online: 10-April-2015

8. Development and Evaluation of Polyherbal Tablet Triturate for Oral Hygene
H. Sharma, P. V. Powar, K. N. Choudhary
Herbal remedies as a source of medicine has been a primordial practice and important constituent of health care system in India. The natural phytochemicals have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems which consist of Anti-bacterial, Astringent, Immune strengthens activities. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine, may lead to development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The incidence of multidrug resistance in bacterial population has increased the importance of herbal medicines. In this study we have evaluated antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia, Terminalia chebula, Hemidesmus indicus, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Quercus infectoria, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chembula, Acacia Arabica against mixed dental flora. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine antibacterial activity of the extracts against mixed dental flora. This polyherbal extracts inhibit growth of dental flora and can be used for dental health or oral hygiene. Tablet triturates were prepared from above extracts and it shows good antibacterial activity against mix dental flora. Hence the natural phytochemicals could offer an effective alternative to antibiotics and represent a promising approach in prevention and therapeutic strategies for dental caries and other dental infections.
Abstract Online: 13-April-2015

9.Pharmacological and Toxicological Analysis of Flavonoid 5,7,4’-trimethoxyflavone: An In silico Approach.
Oliveira Filho, A A, Fernandes, H M B, Assis, T J C F, Meireles, D RP , Edeltrudes O Lima, E O, Pêssoa, H L F
Flavonoids are known to exhibit a variety of effects in different biological systems. In the study, the flavonoid 5,7,4’-trimethoxyflavone was evaluated for its pharmacological and toxicological effect. Approximately 50% of the reasons that lead to failure in development of a drug are associated with the pharmacokinetic profile and toxicology. Thus, determination of the pharmacokinetic profile (ADME) together with toxicity (ADMET) are important parameters in the definition of bioavailability and toxic effects of a molecule. The Osiris program and PASS online program were used in the study for activities in silicoIn silico models are being applied for the evaluation of toxicity of compound in metabolic environment of mammals. The obtained results showed the molecule was drug-like with 58 possible activities at Pa>70% and this flavonoid present low toxicity theoretical risk.
Abstract Online: 15-April-2015

10. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic and Toluene extract of Dipteracanthus prostratus Nees.
Kumar U., Sagar R., Bhandari A., Srivastava A K
The present study was conducted with the objective of phytochemical investigation, safe dose determination and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the toluene and methanolic extract of whole plant of Dipteracanthus prostratus Nees.. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was performed after the successive extraction of whole plant of Dipteracanthus prostratus and found to contain a rich amount of important bioactive compounds. The dose determination studies were carried out according to OECD guidelines no. 425 on Wistar albino rats and the safe dose determined was 2000 mg/kg. Hence on the basis of toxicity studies two dose level i.e. 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, body weight were selected for the present anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model. The percentage reduction in paw volume observed against carrageenan induced paw edema for toluene extract was found to be 20.68% and 25.86% at the dose level of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, body weight respectively whereas in methanolic extract it was 17.24 % and 22.41% at the dose level of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, body weight respectively. The data were found statistically significant by using one way ANOVA (P<0.05). Although both the extracts were able to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity as compared with standard drug Diclofenac Sodium but the overall effect of toluene extract of whole plant of Dipteracanthus prostratus at the specified dose level of 200 mg/kg, body weight was found to be more statistically significant compared to methanolic extract
Abstract Online: 15-April-2015

11. Phytochemicals as Antimicrobial Agents Against Opportunistic Candidiasis: A Review
Amit Bhattacharya, Hardeep Kaur
Globally, over 300 million people suffer from a serious fungal infection and about 25 million of them have high risk of dying or loss of sight. The serious fungal diseases can be either severe (such as cryptococcal meningitis and fungal eye infection), periodic (such as Candida vaginitis or oral candidiasis in AIDS patients) or chronic (such as chronic pulmonary aspergillosis or fungal hair infection). Candida albicans is accountable for most fungal infections in humans. The vaginal yeast infection, termed as vulvovaginal candidiasis or vulvovaginitis, and oral candidiasis, a common type of yeast infection that occurs on the tongue or palate as thick white patches, are most common yeast infections found in humans. Invasive mycoses, mainly caused by Candida, are life-threatening opportunistic infection that has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Despite the introduction of new and novel antifungal drugs, growing antifungal resistance is a major health concern for the clinicians and researchers across the globe. Phytochemicals represents the most abundant and extensively distributed substances in the plant kingdom. Several woody plant and herb cells produce and gather these range of medicinal phytochemicals such as phenolic compunds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinamic acids, acetophenone, and flavonoids), oligo-or polymeric compounds (such as tannins and lignins) etc. The developing antifungal drug resistance has forced the attention of researchers towards herbal products, mainly phytochemicals, in search of development of novel, safe and economically viable antifungals
Abstract Online: 15-April-2015

12. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb.
Lata S, Mittal S K
Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. is a climbing annual herb, belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. Its common name is hedgehog cucumber. This herb’s native distribution is in Sudan and Southern Egypt, Africa, widely spread in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanga Region and in northern and western parts of Tanzania and Uganda. It is also sometimes cultivated in other tropical regions but now found in forest of Maruthamalai, foothills (Western Ghats), Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) and Mysore, (Karnataka), India. Traditionally, it shows anti-emetic, gastrointestinal diseases, stomach pain, diarrhoea, constipation, meningitis, gallstone, hepatitis, rabies, and haemorrhoid. C. dipsaceus is a valuable nutraceuticals supplement to the human diet because it contains significant amount of almost all essential amino acids and important minerals. Its fruit possess phytoconstituents like tannin, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, resins, steroids and Leave possess carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phytosterols and fixed oils and fats and showed antioxidant activity. A number of pharmacological activities like antioxidant activity (leave and fruit), antimicrobial activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxic activity were reported on fruit. This review article is an attempt to compile all reported information regarding Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb.
Abstract Online: 15-April-2015

13. Pharmacognostical Studies and Phytochemical Investigation of Barleria noctiflora Linn (Acantheceae).
Suresh Arumugam, Senthil Kumar Natesan
Barleria noctiflora L. (Acantheceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. The aim was to investigate the pharmacognostical and phytochemical of Barleria noctiflora L. (Acantheceae) to find ethnomedicinally important in the current concepts and modern research to provide efficient and inexpensive medicine to the society, confidence in indigenous medicine. The Barleria noctiflora L. (B. noctiflora), were studied macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and HPTLC methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. A bushy, much branched prickly shrub with 2-3 spines in axil of each leaf. An herb up to 0.6 – 1.5 m height with nodal spines, lanceolate leaves and pinky violet flowers. It occurs throughout the hotter parts of India. The physiochemical evaluation of total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive value and water soluble extractive value and loss on drying were 13.5, 9, 2, 7.36, 8.24 and 2.67 percentage respectively. The microscopical character leaves shows upper epidermis and lower epidermis were along the midrib is narrow comprising of small slightly appellate thick walled cells with thick cuticle the cells. It has spongy parenchymatous ground tissue of vascular strand with dark bundle sheath. The stem showed phloem and a wider zone of Meta xylem element. Phloem has dilated rays and parallel lines of phloem elements. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoides, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, glycosides, tannins and phenols. The present study results were served as an important source of information to certain the identification for standards of this medicinal important plant for future applications.
Abstract Online: 16-April-2015

14. Trachyspermum ammi Hydrosol, An Almost Pure Source of Thymol; Analysis of the Recovered Essential Oil from Different Samples
Zarshenas Mohammad M., Sakhteman Amirhossein, Etemadfard Hamed, Moein Mahmoodreza
Essential oil and hydrosol of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Apiaceae) are traditionally applied for chronic pain and neural ailments such as tremor, paralysis, and palsy. Unlike numerous studies on the chemical composition of T. ammi essential oil, no certain report has been performed on the hydrosol chemical compositions. Current study aimed to chemically evaluate different T. ammi hydrosols. Ten hydrosol samples collected from Fars (Iran) markets and as well as a standard hydrosol were subjected to GC and GC/MS following recovering by a liquid extractor. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis methods were performed to determine the similarity of those samples. Out of 14 constituents identified in studied sample, thymol (84.33-95.62%) was found as the main component (97.77% for the standard hydrosol). Cluster Analysis divided the samples into two main groups. As a by-product in the extraction of plants’ essential oil, T. ammi hydrosol can be considered as an almost pure, but cheap and easy producible resource of natural thymol. In accordance with the pharmacological properties of thymol, this preparation can be applied in numerous relevant clinical and phytopharmaceutical approaches.
Abstract Online: 18-April-2015

15. Extraction and Identification of Antidiabetic and Antioxidative Phytochemicals from Pisang awak Leaves
Gan C.Y., Kee S.M., Chiang P.N.
Antioxidative and antidiabetic compounds were successfully extracted from Musa spp. ABB cv. (Pisang Awak) leaves. Effects of extraction time (0.5–4 h), solvent-to-sample ratio (10–80 ml/g), ethanol concentration (50–100 %), extraction temperature (25–60 °C) and pH (2–7) were examined. The selected key variables were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Quadratic models were obtained and 3D-response surfaces were plotted. An optimum condition (i.e. extraction time of 0.5 h, solvent-to-sample ratio of 48.3 ml/g and 88.5% ethanol) was obtained. This condition gave TPC of 21.54 mg GAE/g sample, DPPH scavenging activity of 6.49 mg GAE/g sample, FRAP of 9.35 mM Fe2SO4 and a-amylase inhibition activity of 26.62%. A total of 7 major compounds (i.e. chlorogenic acid, procyanidin, epicatechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol-7-neohesperidoside) were identified using liquid chromatography-quadropole time-of-flight-mass spectrometer.
Abstract Online: 19-April-2015

16. Prismatomeris glabra Increases Forced Swimming Time in Mice
Razali Mohamed Salleh, Mizaton Hazizul Hasan, Aishah Adam
Roots of Prismatomeris glabra (P. glabra), family Rubiaceae, have been traditionally used by rural indigenous people for wellness and stamina purposes. However there is no scientific evidence to support the folkloric use of this plant. Ergogenic effects were studied in weight-bearing mice (load: 10% of body weight) by a modified forced swim test (FST) following treatment with PG. Control groups were given vehicle or L-arginine. Effect was studied on exercised and non exercised groups. Nine exercise bouts were performed with each bout comprising of 3 consecutive days of FST till exhaustion and a rest day between bouts. Body weight, water and food intake were recorded. Mice were killed immediately after the final FST and blood was collected for glucose, lactate and serum assays. Serum corticosteroid was measured using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. Results showed that mice treated with P. glabra exhibited significantly greater exercise performance than control (p=0.000) or L-arginine (p=0.001) groups. Effect of P. glabra on post-exercise blood glucose was greater than control exercised group (p=0.011) but similar to control non-exercised and L-arginine groups. Effect of P. glabra on blood lactate was similar to all other exercised groups. Serum cortisterone of P. glabra-treated group was significantly higher (p<0.001) than that of control non-exercised group, but similar to control exercised and L-arginine groups. In conclusion, findings of this study provide evidence to confirm the traditional use of P. glabra roots for improving stamina and physical performance.
Abstract Online: 19-April-2015

17. Screening of Novel CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Inhibitors from Ethyl Acetate Extract of Alpinia purpurata Using GC-MS Analysis and its Molecular Docking Studies
Anusooriya P., Arul Raj C., Chella Perumal P., Sowmya, S., Vidya B., Pratibha P., Gopalakrishnan V.K.
CXCR4 is the receptor for a chemokine, CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1, SDF-1), it has been proven to be involved in several problematic diseases, including AIDS, cancer cell metastasis, leukemia cell progression and rheumatoid arthritis. Hence it’s thought to be an important therapeutic target to overcome of these diseases. Alpinia purpurata belongs to the family of Zingiberaceae and it possesses many biological activities. Therefore, the aim of present study is to identify the novel CXCR4 inhibitors from the bioactive compounds present in ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia purpurata using GC-MS analysis and its molecular docking studies. Results, GC-MS analysis shown that, ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia purpurata contain 32 bioactive compounds. Molecular docking studies of theses bioactive compounds (Glide 5.5 from Schrödinger suite) revealed that, out of 32 bioactive compounds, 1,2,3-trimethyl-5-propan-2-ylbenzene, Isocamphane, 1,10-Dimethyl-2-methylene-trans-decalin,1-Bromoeicosane,2-(2-Isopropenyl-5- ethylcyclopentylmethoxy) tetrahydropyran, Dihexadecylphosphate, Naphthalene, 1,1′-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis[decahydro- shows the better glide score compared with Cyclophophamide (FDA approved drug). ADME properties (Qikprop 2.3 from Schrödinger suite) of these bioactive compounds were under the acceptable range. Based on the result it can be concluded that, these bioactive compounds may act as novel inhibitors for CXCR4. In future it may focus on current discoveries in CXCR4 inhibition.
Abstract Online: 20-April-2015

18. Anatomical Features of the Transverse Sections of the Leaves of Loranthaceae in Nigeria
Ibrahim J. A, Kunle O. F, Ayodele A. E
The anatomical characteristic of the transverse sections of leaves of the Nigerian parasitic family of Loranthaceae were investigated as a contribution to the taxonomy of the family especially in species identification and delimitation. The study revealed presence of palisade tissues for all the species except Tapinanthus bangwensis and T. globiferus. Second layer of palisade cells of Englerina gabonensis and Phragmanthera capitata with wavy outline. Prismatic crystals were present in most of the species and they were either associated with sclereids only or with sclerieds and xylem fibers. Acicular crystals were diagnostic to only Agelanthus bruneus. The presence of brachysclereids and astrosclereids are diagnostic features in the family. The anatomical features observed from the study could be utilized for taxonomic purposes especially as diagnostic features for easy identification of the species even when leaf material is in fragment. The information could also be used in monograph preparation for these medicinally useful species.
Abstract Online: 20-April-2015

19.Assessment of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Extracts of Boswellia carteri Resin
Amal A. Mohamed, Sami I. Ali, Hanan F. Kabiel, Ahmad K. Hegazy, Mimona A. Kord, Farouk K. EL-Baz
The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of essential oil (EO) and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extract (Me-OH), ethyl acetate extract (ETOAC) and EO of B. carteri resin. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), 40 components were identified in B. carteri resin essential oils, and the most abundant components were, verticiol (14.48 %), isobutylcyclopentane (12.25 %) and n-octyl acetate (9.20 %). The Me-OH extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging, Fe2+ chelating and the reducing power assays compared to ETOAC extract and EO. Also, the Me-OH extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacterial and yeast microorganisms compared to ETOAC extract and EO. The Me-OH and ETOAC extracts exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans with MIC value 25μg/ml. In conclusion, Me-OH and ETOAC extracts as well as EO of B. carteri resin may be considered as a natural source for antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and could be used for application in pharmaceutical and food industries.
Abstract Online: 22-April-2015

20. In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts of Pergularia extensa Chiov
Arasan Elayaraja, Subbaiah Muthupandi, Mageswaran Radhakrishnan, Sheikh Abdul Rahaman
This present study is undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of various crude extracts of whole plant of Pergularia extensa chiov. Methanol and aqueous extract of whole plant of Pergularia extensa chiov. were used for this study. The antioxidant potential was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method.The methanol extract showed significant percentage inhibition in scavenging the DPPH radicals than  aqueous extract and standard, ascorbic acid. Also increase in concentration showed increase in percentage of inhibition. For antibacterial activities test, the extract was subjected to its effectiveness against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in agar diffusion method. The zones of inhibition produced by the methanol extract against various gram +ive and gram –ive are more significant than aqueous extract and standard, pefloxacin. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine and suggest its further advance investigation.
Abstract Online: 22-April-2015

21. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic, Antiradical and Acute Oral Toxicty Activities of Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae) from Benin
Laleye O.A.F., Ahissou H, Olounlade A.P, Azando V.B.E., Dansou C, Laleye A.
The use of medicinal herbs in traditional system of medicine is a common practice in many cultures around the world, especially in African society. Medicinal plants are a great source of bioactive molecules for treatment of different pathology. Khaya senegalensis A. Juss belongs to the family Meliaceae. Khaya species are highly priced in traditional medicine in Bénin. The present study aims to: (i) evaluate the phytochemical, antiradical and antihyperglycemic activities of aqueous extract of stem bark of K. senegalensis; (ii) determine the effect of aqueous extract of K. senegalensis stem bark on liver function parameters wistar rats. The screening was performed for triterpenoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthocyanes, leucoanthocyanes, reductor sugar, mucilage and Cyanogenic compound. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antihyperglycemic capacity was evaluated by using the complex method. Antiradical activity was made by using the DPPH method. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous extract of K. senegalensis stem bark on some liver function parameters of wistar rats (150-200g) were critically examined. Results from phytochemical screening indicated the presence of high level of phenolic compounds and alkaloids in bark-stem of K. senegalensis. With a concentration of 491.11 ± 20.67 mmolEAA /mg, the plant was determined to have a high potential antioxidant activity.  Moreover, an increase of concentration to 2000 mg/kg was non-toxic for the rats. No toxicity activity was observed. Blood biochemical parameters and hematological parameters remain constant after administration of the plant aqueous extract. A dosage of antihyperglycemic activity revealed a reduction of glycemia with a dose of 500 mg/kg. The important results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. However, it will be useful to confirm a non-toxic effect of the plant extract through histological dissection of liver and kidney
Abstract Online: 22-April-2015

22. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L. var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth. and O.tenuiflorum var. CIM-AYU
Venugopal Gaddaguti, Srinivasa Reddy Ch, Narasimha Rao Bhogireddy, Botla Venkat Rao, Venkateswara Rao Talluri, Allu Prasada Rao
Background: The genus Ocimum comprised of vast number of species and many of them have potential to control wide range of health problems. Objective: The study primarily focused to characterize pharmacognostic and preliminary phytochemical evaluation of hitherto unknown wild Ocimum basilicum with Ocimum tenuiflorum CIM-AYU. Materials and Methods: A detailed preliminary Phyto pharmacognostic characteristics in fully expanded healthy leaves of  two Ocimum species (O. basilicum and O. tenuiflorum) were done including, organoleptic, morphological, microscopical, physicochemical and phytochemical properties in solvent extracts using different solvent fractions according to the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Results: Overall, O. tenuiflorum exhibit superior morphological characters than Ocimum basilicum. Whereas, organoleptic evaluation confirms that O. basilicum exhibit a sharp pungent smell. In O. basilicum, the distribution of trichomes found to be relatively more than the plant studied for comparison in the present study. On the other hand, water solubility fraction of O.basilicum is 48.84% which twice higher than O. tenuiflorum (23.53%). Similarly, the alcohol solubility of O. basilicum is significantly higher than O. tenuiflorum. The phytochemical screening results with methanolic fraction found to be positive in almost 12 parameters than other solvent fractions in O. basilicum. Conclusion:  The present studies further validate that, Ocimum basilicum. L. var. pilosum (willd.) Benth. a novel and potential medicinal herb with  sharp pungent aromatic principles. Further the methanolic soluble leaf fraction draw of all phytochemical constituents of the medicinal herb adds additional pharmacognostic characteristics to plant Indian pharmacopoeia.
Abstract Online: 22-April-2015

23. Invitro Antioxidant Activity and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Seeds of Spermacoce hispida Linn.
Dhevi R, Elango V
Spermacoce hispida Linn., has been extensively used in Siddha system of medicine for curing various diseased conditions. The plant has been widely studied for its phytochemical composition and a large number of active ingredients. The present study reveals the invitro antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of Spermacoce hispida by DPPH, ABTS, Hydrogen peroxide and Superoxide dismutase method. The result indicate that the plant possess considerable antioxidant activity.   Fingerprinting profile of Spermacoce hispida was established by using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique. It was carried out with CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software. It can be concluded that HPTLC fingerprint analysis of seed extract of Spermacoce hispida can be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the plant and it is useful as a phytochemical marker.
Abstract Online: 27-April-2015

24. Gnetum gnemon Linn. : A Comprehensive Review on its Biological, Pharmacological and Pharmacognostical Potentials.
Barua C C, Haloi P, Barua I C
In recent era, the researchers and scientists from the developing as well as Western countries move on their research on plant and herbal products due to immense popularity. The Gnetum gnemon is an evergreen and perennial tree, native of the place from Northeast (NE) India to Fiji which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. G. gnemon is cultivated in many parts of the World mostly for its delicious fruits. It has been reported that the derivatives from its seed exerts possessed anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, angiogenesis-inhibitory, anti-aging and tyrosinase-inhibitory activities. In accordance to recent findings, it has been found that the G. gnemon contains bioactive compounds, such as saponins, tannins, and flavonoids, and stilbenoids. To provide a comprehensive overview of the traditional and ethno medicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of G. gnemon with clinical and toxicity data possibly make recommendations for further research.
Abstract Online: 1-May-2015

25. Assessment of Genotoxic Effects of Flavonoid 5,7,4’-Trimethoxyflavone
Abrahão A. O. Filho, Heloísa M. B. Fernandes, Déborah R. P. Meireles , Tatianne M. Batista, Edeltrudes O. Lima, Hilzeth L.F. Pêssoa
The flavonoids are a large class of polyphenolic compounds found in plants that are known to exhibit biological effects. In the study, the flavonoid 5,7,4’-trimethoxyflavone was evaluated for its genotoxic effects. The micronucleus test on peripheral blood cells was used in the study for activities. Groups of three mices males and three females received, by gavage, the flavonoid in dose of 300 mg/kg of animal weight. The negative control group received only the dispersant of the sample (distilled water) and positive control received Cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg of animal weight. Twenty-four hours after treatment, the animals were sacrificed, blood was collected from the caudal vein and made a smear on the slide. The obtained results showed the absence of genotoxic effect of tested flavonoid.
Abstract Online: 3-May-2015

26. Is Berberine Superior to Metformin in Management of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications?
Tatyasaheb Patil1*, Snehal Patil2, Anuprita Patil3, Shreedevi Patil
Diabetes is a fast growing non infectious disease affecting people of both developed and developing countries across the globe. Treatment of diabetes mellitus requires multisystemic approach to control the disease and prevent complications. Existing oral antidiabetics though potent, exhibit multiple adverse drug reactions and side effects. Berberine would prove to be an effective alternative to these drugs as it offers protection from systemic complications and has minor side effects. This review attempts to compare the efficacy of berberine and metformin as antidiabetic and their role in deterrence of diabetic complications. Berberine scores over metformin as a antidiabetic by certain pharmacological mechanism like alpha glucosidase reductase inhibition, release of GLP 1, modification of gut microbiota, inhibition of enzyme dipeptidyl pepetidase 4 and as a insulin mimetic. Lipid lowering action and effect on polycystic ovarian disease is more superior with berberine than metformin. Thus it can be concluded that berberine can be superior to metformin in management of diabetes and in prevention of its complications.
Abstract Online: 5-May-2015

27. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Lagenaria siceraria Seeds Extracts
Essien E. E., Antia, B. S., Udoh, B. I.
The phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of seeds extracts obtained from the mature Nigerian grown short-hybrid bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was examined in this study. The different concentrations of L. siceraria seeds extracts (diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n– butanol, methanol and water) exhibited potent antibacterial and antifungal activity against selected pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Candida sp. and Aspergillus niger) using agar well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) varied between 0.002 and 0.100g/ml. The phytotchemical screening of the different seeds extracts revealed the presence of phlobatannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, deoxy-sugar, carbohydrates and reducing sugars in varying quantities. Lagenaria siceraria seeds exhibit proven potential to contain antimicrobial agents of pharmacological interest.
Abstract Online: 7-May-2015

28. Evaluation of Wound Healing Effect of Dodonaea viscosa Linn. by Cell Proliferation Assay
Shanthi. S, Seethalakshmi. S , Chamundeeswari. D , Manna. P.K
The medicinal plant Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae) has been used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases such as malaria, ulcers, dysmenorrhoea, rheumatism, sprains, bruises, burns and wounds. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of ethanol extract and flavonoid rich fraction of Dodonaea viscosa on a simplified in vitro wound healing study. Cultured Keratinocytes (HACAT) were exposed to ethanol extract and flavonoid rich fraction at different concentrations for 48 hours. The resultant cellular proliferation was determined after 48 hours by MTT assay and calculated relatively to control.   Flavonoid rich fraction of the Dodonaea viscosa induced a significant cell proliferation after 48 hours exposure, when compared to the control group. The flavonoids rich fraction of the Dodonaea viscosa has better efficiency in inducing cell proliferation than ethanol extract.  The cell proliferation assay can be used as a promising scientific approach and platform to evaluate plant extract known for their wound healing property.
Abstract Online: 9-May-2015

29. Phytochemical Screening of Some Medicinal Plants in Côte D’ivoire and Evaluation of their Extraction Efficiency
Koffi A J, Bla K B, Yapi H F, Bidie A P, Djaman A J
Malaria, the most devastating disease in the tropical region, continue to be the subject of research work by many researchers  because of the increasing resistance of the malaria parasite to antimalarial drugs sold in the market . These researches aim at finding effective curative drugs and especially affordable to the population of which majority are very poor mainly in the developing nations. Our objective also is to discover new active natural compounds effective on Plasmodium falciparum. It consisted of screening for the phytochemical composition of eight plants traditionally used to treat malaria in the Region of Toumodi in central Côte d’Ivoire. These are Anthocleista djalonensis (Loganiaceae), Cochlospermum planchonii (Cochlopermaceae), Harungana madagascariensis (Hipperiacaceae), Hoslundia opposita (Lamiaceae), Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), Margaritaria discoidea (Euphorbiaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Fabaceae) and Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae). Samples consisted of leaves and bark of plant, were harvested, dried and then extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (water, ethanol, and methanol). The obtained powders were subjected to quantitative phytochemicals analysis based on reactions of coloration and precipitation. The results showed that the extraction efficiency varies between 6.3% and 12.1% for the aqueous extract, 8.8% to 20.1% ethanolic extract and 5% to 21.2 % for the methanolic extract. This extraction efficiency is not significantly different from each other whatever the solvent and the plant (P> 0.05). The phytochemical analysis showed that polyphenols are present in 23 of the 24 extracts that is a rate of 95.8%, 95.8% for the alkaloids, 79.2% for the flavonoids, 62.5% for sterols and polyterpenes and 25% saponins and tannins in a small proportion of 16.7% for gallic tannins and 8.3% for catechin tannins. The abundance of chemical compounds of which their pharmacological activities have been shown by other authors, make us to conclude that our plants are very good sources of natural molecules for the fight against malaria and other emerging diseases in our country.
Abstract Online: 11-May-2015

30. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Essential Oil of Oroxylum indicum L. Leaves Cultivated in Egypt.
Zaghloul S. S., Azzam S.M., Eid H.H ., Hassan H. A., Sleem A. A.
Hydrodistilled essential oil of fresh leaves of Oroxylum indicum L. family Bignoniaceae cultivated in Egypt was analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC/MS) .The yield of essential oil was (0.2 %) . Thirty nine components were identified representing (89.85%). Ar-tumerone (19.37%), a sesquiterpene ketone,  was the major constituent in the oil followed by methyl hexadecanoate (6.2%), laurenan-2-one (5.59%)  and isopropyl butanoate (5.57%). The oxygenated constituents represents (63.81 % ) while non- oxygenated constituents represents (26.04 % )  .The oil showed significant cytotoxic activity on MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line), HEPG2 (liver carcinoma cell line) and HELA (cervix carcinoma cell line) ,in addition to good in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity. The oil also exhibited both hepatoprotective and heptocurative action, but  showed weak  antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria with no effect against fungi.
Abstract Online: 13-May-2015

31. Alkaloids Isolated in the Roots of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx Growing in Vietnam
Loi Vu Duc, Tung Bui Thanh, Tung Nguyen Huu, Hai Nguyen Thanh, Huong Nguyen Thuc Thu, Vung Nguyen Tien
The roots of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx. is recognized as a medicinal plant by its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Our phytochemical investigation of the roots led to the isolation of three alkaloids including delcosine (1), fuziline (2), and karacoline (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of NMR, MS, IR spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the published NMR data. Compound 1 was isolated for the first time from this plant.
Abstract Online: 15-May-2015

32. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Different Parts of Anthemis odontostephana Boiss. Var. odontostephana
Zahra Zebarjad, Mohammad Hossein Farjam

In this research essential oils isolated from different parts including flowers, leaves, stems and roots of Anthemis odontostephana Boiss. var. odontostephana by hydrodistillation in a clevenger extractor and chemical composition were identified by GC/FID and GC/MS. Anthemis odontostephana Boiss. var. odontostephana belonging to Asteraceae family is one of the Anthemis species that  distributed in central and south of Iran. The aim of this study was chemical composition and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from different parts of Anthemis odontostephana Boiss. var. odontostephana. Borneol was the major chemical compound in flowers, leaves and stems. In roots essential oil Pentadecanoic acid was the major compound. Different essential oils were also tested for antimicrobial activity against 9 microorganism, by using broth microdilution method and results show that, the strong inhibitory activity with MIC values ranging 32-64 µg/ml against the bacteria and fungal strains. Hence, the essential oils obtained from A. odontostephana Boiss. var. odontostephana could be good candidate for used at further investigation.
Abstract Online: 17-May-2015

33. Characterization of Tyrosinase enzyme from the tubers of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, (Araceae)
Gopal Samy Balakrishnan, Jegatheesan Kalirajan
Tyrosinase, a copper-containing metalloprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of tyrosine, in particular L-DOPA to L-Dopaquinone, precursors of brown pigments in the wounded tissues. Tyrosinase, one among the Polyphenol oxidases, is found to possess excellent capacity for oxidizing phenolic compounds. In the present investigation, elephant yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) has been identified as the source and enzyme has been extracted. The extracted enzyme was characterized by SDS PAGE and the isolated tyrosinase protein depicted the molecular weight of around 40 kDa. The protein band obtained was confirmed to be tyrosinase using zymography with L-DOPA as substrate. The enzyme activity was determined to be 0.04 min-1 mM-1. Studies of kinetic parameters were carried out for tyrosinase under standard conditions. The Km value of A. paeoniifolius was found to be 3.6 mM and Vmax value was determined to be 0.1 s-1. Their optimum pH value was found to be 7.2. The optimum temperature value for maximum enzyme activity was found to be at 25°C. Abstract Online: 19-May-2015

34.Invitro Antioxidant Activities from Three Organs of White Ambon Banana (Musa AAA Group) and Flavonoid, Phenolic, Carotenoid Content
Irda Fidrianny, Esther Sefiany, Komar Ruslan
The objectives of this research were to study antioxidant capacity from various organs extracts of white ambon banana using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and correlation of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content in various organs of white ambon banana with IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of ABTS antioxidant activities. Extraction was performed by reflux using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant capacities using DPPH and ABTS assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by spectrophotometry UV-visible and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of ABTS scavenging capacities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. Ethanolic peel extract of white ambon banana (PL3) had the lowest IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity 0.39 mg/ml and the lowest IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity 0.36 mg/ml. Ethanolic peel extract of white ambon banana (PL3) had the highest total phenolic (29.28 g GAE/100 g), ethyl acetate leaves extract of white ambon banana (LE2) gave the highest flavonoid content (13 g QE/100 g) and ethyl acetate peel extract of white ambon banana (PL2) showed the highest total carotenoid 22.88 g BE/100 g. There were negatively and high correlation between total phenolic content in leaves and peduncle extracts with their IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities and IC50 of ABTS scavenging activities. All of leaves, peduncle and peel extracts of white ambon banana had linear result in DPPH and ABTS assays.
Abstract Online: 21-May-2015

35. Evaluation Antidiabetic Activity of Various Leaf Extracts of Pluchea Indica Less
Paini Sri Widyawati, Tarsisius Dwi Wibawa Budianta, Dian Ivan Gunawan, Ribka Stefanie Wongso
Pluchea indica Less leaf extracts of various solvents (methanol, water, ethyl acetate)  proven have antioxidant ability using DPPH radical scavenging effect, reducing power, total phenolic content and total flavonoid. However anti-diabetic ability and toxicity level of each extract have not even determined. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different polarity of solvent to phytochemical screening that cause reducing of blood glucose and influence toxicity level of laboratory animal. Our results showed that the water extract was the most potential as anti-diabetic agent. Its blood glucose reducing capability of Rattus Norvegicus Rats Winstar strain was 56.37 % that was the higher than glibenclamide (49.59%) and the other extracts (ethyl acetate extract = 19.11% and methanol extract = 24.27%). The water extract was also safe to the body healthy of Mus Musculus Mice (20-30 g), Balb/c strain. The male mice oral administration of water extract at 2.6 mg/20g b.w. increased motoric activity, however female mice at 1.3 and 2.6 mg/20 g b.w., respectively oral administration experienced motoric activity increasing and retablishment capacity decreasing. The potency of Pluchea leaf water extract as anti-diabetic agent was predicted that there was cardiac glycoside compounds contribution to reduce blood glucose.
Abstract Online: 23-May-2015

36. In-vitro Efficacy of Various Extracts of Murraya koenigii  Leaf Against Gastrothylax crumenifer
Sujith S, Deepa C K, Priya M N, Darsana U, Sreedevi R, Lucy K M

The anthelmintic effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaf and flowers of  Murraya   koenigii was evaluated invitro against rumen amphistomes, Gastrothylax crumenifer. The phytochemical analysis as well as acute oral toxicity of the extracts were also assessed in rats. The methanolic extract produced mortality against amphisotmes at dose rates of 3.125 mg/ml at 60 minutes, but the fractions were not as potent as the parent extract. No toxicity symptoms were noticed in the case of any of the extracts tested. There was gross and histopathological changes in the tegument and cuticle of the amphistomes tested indicating the effect on the cuticle. From the study it could be concluded that the leaf and flowers of Murraya   koenigii contains phytochemicals that have a potential to become a broad spectrum anthelmintic.
Abstract Online: 23-May-2015

37. Study of physicochemical parameters of different cultivars of Mangifera indica L. leaves for their use as a source of Mangiferin.
Jacqueline A. Romero, Roberto Vandama, Marilin López, Maricela Capote, Carlos Ferradá, Caridad Carballo, René Delgado, Wim  Vanden Berghe, Sandra Apers
The leaves of M. indica are used as a source of mangiferin for the pharmaceutical industry. The present study deals with the phytochemical and physicochemical evaluation of different varieties in order to identify the most suitable one. The parameters included in this comparative study are extractable matter, mangiferin content, water content and total ash. ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the physicochemical parameters of the different cultivars. The Hierarchical Ascendant Classification divided the 29 cultivars into 4 clusters. Eventhough the Filipino and Biscochuelo cultivars showed a higher content of Mangiferin, the cluster of cultivars including the cultivar Corazón is the most suitable one taking the results of the extractable matter into account. In addition, the seasonal variation was investigated for the latter cluster, which revealed that optimal collection period includes the flowering and green fruit stages. Furthermore, based on the investigation of the influence of the drying and storage conditions, plant material for industrial isolation of mangiferin, can be dried using a sun dryer and stored in glass or polypropylene containers for one year.
Abstract Online: 25-May-2015

38. Hypoglycemic and Analgesic effects of methanolic extracts of Sonchus arvensis from Nepal
Sah Jagnnath Prasad, Poudel Bhupendra Kumar, Subedi Shyam Raj, Amatya Sadhana, Shrestha Tirtha Maiya, Amatya Mohan Prasad
Sonchus arvensis, a perennial sowthistle, has been least explored in Nepal. Although, several uses like anti inflammatory, sedative, antioxidant and kidney stone eradicating properties has been identified till date, study on hypoglycaemic and analgesic activity is not done till date. Therefore, the plant was collected from Kathmandu; aerial parts of the plant were dried, crushed, and extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus. The methanolic extract was concentrated for studying hypoglycemic and analgesic effects. Hypoglycemic effect in rats showed significant reduction in both normal and glucose loaded rats in a dose-dependent fashion. Similarly, the analgesic effect study using hot plate and chemical writhing method showed significant analgesic effect in dose-dependent manner. Thus, it is concluded that the plant possess strong phyto-chemicals having hypoglycemic and analgesic properties.
Abstract Online: 30-May-2015

39. Chemical Constituents of Cycas lacrimans
Vincent Antonio S. Ng1, Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo2, Chien-Chang Shen3, Consolacion Y. Ragasa
Chemical investigation of Cycas lacrimans, a plant endemic to the Philippines, led to the isolation of isopimaran-19-ol (1) from the megasporophyll lamina; 9αH-isopimara-7,15-diene (2) and triacylglycerols (3) from the bark; 3, oleic acid (4), and 1,2-dioleylglycerol (5) from the leaflets; 3, β-sitosterol (6a), and stigmasterol (6b) from the petiole and rachis; 6a from the roots; and 3 and 6a from the endotesta and sclerotesta.  The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, while those of 2-6b were identified by comparison of their 1H and/or 13C NMR data with literature data
Abstract Online: 31-May-2015

40. Carbohydrate Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Certain Morus Species
Maria P. Dimitrova, Nadezhda Tr. Petkova, Panteley P. Denev, Iordanka N. Aleksieva
The aim of the current study was to investigate the carbohydrate composition, total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activities of 70 % (v/v) ethanol extracts obtained from fruits and leaves of three Morus species: white mulberry (Morus alba), black mulberry (Morus nigra) and red mulberry (Morus rubra) grown in Bulgaria. The carbohydrate content was determinated by spectrophotomeric, TLC and HPLC-RID methods. The total phenolic content was analyzed by Folin–Ciocalteau method. The antioxidant activities of above mentioned extracts were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays. From the obtained results, monosaccharides fructose and glucose were found to be the main sugars in all investigated extracts, as their content reached to 3.0 g/100 g fw in fruits and 0.6 g/100g fw in leaves. M. alba and M. rubra fruits were evaluated as a natural source of prebiotic, due to the presence of 1-kestose, nystose and inulin. The absence of sucrose in all mulberry fruit extracts was also established. The total phenolic content was reported to be the highest in black and red mulberry leaves, as their values reached up to 2 mg GAE/g fw. The extracts from M. nigra leaves demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity for both assays: for DPPH were 10.9 mM TE/g fw and for FRAP – 6.0 mM TE/g fw, respectively. The current research was the first comprehensive study for detailed analysis of carbohydrate composition and antioxidant properties of three mulberry species grown in Bulgaria. Therefore, mulberry fruits and leaves could be assumed as a rich source of biologically active substances with great importance for human nutrition
Abstract Online: 31-May-2015

41. Antioxidant Capacities of Various Leaves Extracts from Three Species of Legumes and Correlation with Total Flavonoid, Phenolic, Carotenoid Content
Irda Fidrianny, Tiara Aristya, Rika Hartati
The objectives of this research were to study antioxidant capacity from various leaves extracts of legumes using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and correlation of total flavonoid, phenolic and carotenoid content in various leaves extracts of legumes with IC50 of DPPH and EC50 of FRAP antioxidant capacities. Extraction was performed by reflux using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant capacities using DPPH and FRAP assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by spectrophotometry UV-visible and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH scavenging capacities and EC50 of FRAP capacities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. Ethanolic leaves extract of green bean (GB3) had the lowest IC50 of DPPH scavenging capacity with IC50 1.9 mg/ml and the lowest EC50 of FRAP capacity with EC50 46.9 mg/ml. Ethyl acetate leaves extract of green bean (GB2) contained the highest total flavonoid (6.7 g QE/100 g), ethanolic leaves extract of green bean (GB3) the highest phenolic content (26.2 g GAE/100 g) and n-hexane leaves extract of soybean (SB1) had the highest total carotenoid 18.42 g BE/100 g. There were negatively and high correlation between total phenolic content in soy bean and peanut leaves extracts with their IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities and EC50 of FRAP capacities. All of leaves extracts from three species of legumes had linear result in DPPH and FRAP assays.
Abstract Online: 31-May-2015
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