International Journal of

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 4873

p-ISSN: 2961-6069

Peer Review Journal

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1. Phenolic Compounds from Centaurea horrida L Growing in Lebanon
Rima Boukhary, Maha Aboul-ElA, Othman Al-Hanbali, Abdalla El-Lakany
Centaurea horrida has been used in folk medicine for many purposes as diuretic, antiinflammatory, hypotensive, antidiarrhetic, mild astringent, bitter tonic, stomachic, digestive, and emmenagogue and in cosmetics. An infusion of this plant is used to treat diabetes and digestive problems Also it is used as a wash for tired eyes and in conjunctivitis. C.horrida grown in Lebanon is widely used in the treatment of diarrhea, as antihypertensive and as hypoglycemic. Phytochemical investigation of the species grown in Lebanon led to the isolation and identification of five phenolic compounds isolated from methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of Centaurea extracts. Their structures were determined by NMR, MS, UV and IR methods. It is important to mention that the isolated flavonoids fisetin, hispidulin, quercetin, quercetin -3-D- galactoside and caffeic acid were isolated for the first time from Centaurea horrida. L growing in the Middle East.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8030

2. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of Taraxacum Hispanicum Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts on Hepg2 Cells
Laranjeira C, Nogueira A, Almeida R, Oliveira A I, Oliveira R F, Pinho C, Cruz A
Introduction: Plants belonging to the genus Taraxacum have been used in traditional medicine. Nowadays, extracts of these plants have been reported for the treatment of diseases, including liver disorders. Increasing interest and research on these plants also revealed its potential for treating cancer. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity and cytotoxic properties of crude extracts from aerial parts of Taraxacum hispanicum H.Lindb, against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2). Material and methods: Evaluation of the antioxidant properties was performed using DPPH in vitro test, superoxide scavenging assay and Fe2+ chelating activity. MTT assay was used to determine metabolic activity, for 24 and 48 hours. Results: For antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extract (overall the one with the best results), IC50 values were 62.4 ± 6.7 μg/ml (DPPH radical scavenging activity) 53.9 ± 10.3 μg/ml (Fe2+ chelating activity) and 2.0 ± 0.3 μg/ml (superoxide scavenging assay). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts had different effects on HepG2 cell viability. Aqueous extract induced cell cytotoxicity in a time and dose-dependent manner, leaving only 52.6% viable cells at a concentration of 200 μg/ml, after 48 h. An increase in the cell viability was seen in the ethanolic extract, from 24 h to 48 h at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of T. hispanicum was the most promising, presenting anti-oxidative capacity and only the aqueous extract of the plant presented more relevant cytotoxicity over HepG2 cell line. These activities may be related with the extract phenolic content. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for these potential effects.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8031

3. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis of Naregamia alata W&A- A Medicinal Plant
Vinny K V, Prameela T S, Oommen P Saj
Aim of this study was to develop a HPTLC fingerprint profiles for various secondary metabolites of methanol extract of the root of the traditional medicinal plant, Naregamia alata. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. HPTLC finger printing of methanol extract of root carried out in three different mobile phases, which showed different Rf values. HPTLC finger printing of methanol extract of root in Mobile phase1 revealed 10 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.13 to 0.92, Mobile phase 2 showed 7 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.27 to 0.93 and Mobile phase 3 revealed 4 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.25 to 0.78. It can be concluded that different Rf values of various phytochemicals provide valuable idea regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. This study will help in future for identifying this plant for further research.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8032

4. Effect of Harvest Period on Yield, Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus Satureioides
Mekkaoui Salma, Farah Abdellah, Elkhanchoufi Abdesalam, Elkhetabi Assia, Moutaouafiq Salma, Mimouni Sihame
This study was performed to examine the yield, the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of essential oils of thymus satureioides, grown in two different periods (flowering and after flowering) in the south of Morocco. These two essential oils are obtained by hydrodistillation along with using Clevenger and then they are tested on pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Bacillus subtilis, responsible of food borne disease in the region of Fez. The extraction of the essential oil of Thymus satuerioides in the Laboratory of National Institute of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (NIAMP), Taounate, Morocco for extraction has provided a yield important enough to 0.75 % in Period of flowering compared to gasoline extract of the aerial part after flowering season which is 0.62 %. The chromatographic analyzes and spectrometric have helped to determine the chemical composition of essential oils of approximately 23 constituents of these plants that are different by the harvest period for each one.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8033

5. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Gymnema sylvestre and Andrographis paniculata in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Prem Kumar, Sudha Rani, B Arunjyothi, P Chakrapani, A Rojarani
Diabetes mellitus is a difficult metabolic disorder that has seriously impact the human health and quality of life. Medicinal plants are being used to control diabetes However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Many plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. Streptozotocin was induced to all groups of rats at dosage of 35 -55mg/kg except for the normal. Streptozotocin induced diabetes in sprague dawly rats were used to study antidiabetic activity of methonolic  extract of  two medicinal plants Gymnema sylvestre,Andrographis paniculata methanolic leaf extract was administered orally in graded doses of 30 mg/kg,50mg /kg sprague dawly rats Gymnema sylvestre at a dose of 30mg/kg and Andrographis paniculata at a dose of 50mg/kg showed significant anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect which was evident from the 1st week of treatment.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8034

6. Pharmacognostic, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Investigation of Root Bark of Caesalpinia Bonducella
Ganesh H Wadkar, Fahim J Sayyad
Objective:  To evaluate pharmacognostic, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical of investigation of root bark  of Caesalpinia bonducella. Methods: The present work embodies the investigations of pharmacognostic standards including macroscopic study, powder analysis and histochemical test along with physico chemical parameter study, fluorescence analysis, qualitative and quantitative chemical assay   carried out as per methods recommended by the World Health Organization and standard laboratory procedures. The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude-drug. Result: The detailed microscopy revealed the presence of cork, cortex, stone cell medullary ray’s calcium oxalate crystal, starch grains, presence of tannins and alkaloids. Preliminary phytochemical screening of these plant materials revealed that presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, phytosterols and carbohydrates in aqueous and ethanol extracts. Conclusion: Thus, it was thought worthwhile to explore this plant on the basis of its standardization parameters. The study will provide referential information for the correct Identification of the crude-drug.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8035

7. Aldose Reductase Inhibitiory Effect of Gymnemic Acid, Trigonelline And Ferulic Acid- An In Silico Approach
Roshana Devi Vellai, Subramanian Sorimuthu Pillai
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the earliest complications of chronic hyperglycemia and is a major cause of vision loss. Nearly all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and more than 60 % with chronic type 2 diabetes develop some degree of retinopathy after 10 years. Aldose reductase, the first enzyme in polyol pathway chiefly contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy and other secondary complications. None of the currently available drugs used to inhibit the activity of aldose reductase is found to be ideal due to their adverse effects. Hence, the screening and identification of more effective and safer aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products have been critical requirement in the management and treatment of T2DM. Recently, we have reported the antidiabetic properties of phytochemicals such as Gymnemic acid, Trigonelline and Ferulic acid in high fat diet fed- low dose STZ induced experimental type 2 diabetes in rats. In the present study, the structure based computational method was employed to identify the in silico inhibitory effect of the above phytoingredients on aldose reductase activity. Auto Dock 4.2 is used to study the molecular interactions between the ligands and the receptor. The data obtained evidenced that the docking efficacy of the antidiabetic ligands which are comparable with fidarestat, the standard used in the present study. Thus, the antidiabetic properties of the above lead molecules may attribute to its aldose reductase inhibitory effect.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8036

8. Assessment of In Vitro Antibacterial Properties of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Scrophularia striata Against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC No. 25923)
Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Fariba Najafi, Reza Tahvilian, Akram Zangeneh, Rohallah Moradi
Scrophularia striata (S. striata) is a native plant in Iran, which the plant has been used as an antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, and antiflammatory agent in Iran. Based on knowledge of authors, as we know, there is low documented proof on antibacterial properties of S. striata hydroalcoholic extract against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC No. 25923) in west of Iran. As a screen test to discover antibacterial properties of the extract, agar disk and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to specify MIC. The results of agar disk and agar well diffusion tests showed S. striata have prevented the growth of S. aureus and destroyed it. Also, by increasing the concentration of S. striata, the inhibition zone in many of samples increased. The MIC and MBC value was 0.031 g/ml for S. striata. This study confirmed the antibacterial effects of the S. striata on S. aureus. Additional in vivo studies and clinical trials would be needed to justify and further evaluate the potential of the plant as an antibacterial agent in topical or oral applications.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8037

9. Derivatives of Phytoestrogen Genistein: An approach to Cancer Treatment
Archana Sharma, Jyoti
Phytoestrogens, phenolic non-steroidal compounds, extracted from plants are structurally or functionally similar of mammalian estrogens. They possess hormonal activity and can bind to estrogen receptors. Phytoestrogens consist of isoflavones, lignans and coumestans, in which Isoflavones are abundantly found in legumes mainly in soybeans. Out of all soy isoflavones, genistein have most potent estrogenic activity. Menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, urogenital atrophy, incontinence, insomnia, heart problems and osteoporosis are dominates in the end of menstrual cycle as estrogen level begin to decline. Genistein can act like weak estrogens by binding to the estrogen receptor on cell membranes and as estrogen antagonists by preventing estrogens from binding to the receptors, depending on their concentration and other factors. In prevention of hormone dependent cancer, cardiovascular diseases by improving plasma lipid concentrations, osteoporosis and cognitive decline, Genistein shows positive effects.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8038

10. Neuronal and Oxidative Damage in the Catfish Brain Alleviated After Mucuna Seed Extract Treatment
Mukherjee Mainak, Moniruzzaman Mahammed, Kumar Saheli, Das Debjit, Chakraborty Suman Bhusan
The neurodegenerative activity of a synthetic detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on brain physiology in Indian native catfish Heteropneustes fossilis and the efficacy of methanol extract of Mucuna pruriens seeds for alleviating such effects were demonstrated. Fish (n=36, 2 replicates) were exposed to SDS (2.75 mg/l) for 0 (control), 15 and 30 days. After 30-days treatment, methanol extract of Mucuna seed was injected for continuous seven days and sampling was done on each alternate odd days (1, 3, 5 and 7 days). Levels of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na+-K+-ATPase, acetylcholine esterase; monoamine oxidase; nitric oxide were measured in H. fossilis brain tissue. 30-days treatment with SDS caused significant decrease in reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, while glutathione reductase, malondialdehyde level increased significantly (P<0.05). Administration of Mucuna seed extract (15.5 mg/kg body weight) was found to restore the neurological activity and reduce stress in a time-dependent manner as the biochemical and neurological parameters in fish after 7-day extract administration showed no significant difference (P>0.05) compared to those in control without SDS treatment, except for GST and GPx which were unable to return to the basal level.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8039

11. Macroscopic and Microscopic Evaluation of Galanthus woronowii Losinsk. And Galanthus nivalis L. Homeopathic Crude Herbal Drugs
Bokov D O, Samylina I A, Nikolov S D
Galanthus woronowii Losinsk. and Galanthus nivalis L. are two snowdrop species that are used in traditional medicine and homeopathy for nervous system disorders treatment. During pharmacognostic research linear dimensions of G. woronowii and G. nivalis homeopathic crude herbal drugs (HomCHD) were determined. The following microscopic anatomical and diagnostic features of snowdrop species were investigated: the structure of the adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis, peduncle epidermis, the corolla epidermis, external and internal epidermis of outer scale, external and internal epidermis of storage scale, cell size and cellular inclusions (calcium oxalate raphides, starch grains). There are differences in the linear dimensions both in the macro and in the micro level. Overall dimensions of G. woronowii organs are significantly greater than G. nivalis organs, this fact is also reflected in the linear dimensions of the cell structures. The complex of diagnostic features allows the identification of the snowdrop species.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8040

12. Chemical Constituents of Rheum ribes L.
Consolacion Y Ragasa, Jariel Naomi B Bacar, Maria Margarita R Querido, Maria Carmen S Tan,  Glenn G Oyong, Robert Brkljača, Sylvia Urban
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of Rheum ribes has led to the isolation of β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6′-O-fatty acid esters (1), β-sitosterol (2), phytyl fatty acid esters (3), triacylglycerols (4) and chlorophyllide a (5). The structures of 15 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with literature data.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8041

13. In vitro Platelet Aggregation Inhibition Activity of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (l.) Dc Pod Extract
Gerard Lee L See, Juleos Adam A Lopez, Elijah Nicole C Alterado, Florencio Jr V Arce
The study aimed to investigate antiplatelet activity of the pods of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus in vitro in search for a new botanical source of a platelet aggregation inhibitor for the prevention of stroke, the second leading cause of mortality in the Philippines. This study utilized maceration with hexane as the extraction method. Four concentrations (4mg/mL, 2mg/mL & 0.5mg/mL) of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus pods were used in the study. Aspirin (2mg/mL) and NSS were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The methods employed in the study were Giemsa Microplate Assay for qualitative analysis and UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis for quantitative analysis. Giemsa microplate assay findings revealed that the 4.0mg/mL test solution had the least violet gels present to no violet gels visible at all. Furthermore, the UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Analysis corresponded with the results and found that the 4mg/mL concentration contained the least mean absorbance reading (among the pod extracts) of 0.409, the highest average percent platelet aggregation inhibition of 69.58% (± 2.93) and the greatest average percent antiplatelet activity of 75.49% (± 3.07), among the pod extracts. In conclusion, the pod extract, at 4.0mg/mL concentration, was able to inhibit platelet aggregation.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8042

14. Screening the Bioactive Compound and Analyze the Membrane Stabilization Property of Vitex Negundo Aqueous and Alcoholic Extract
Puspal De, Subhradeep Sarkar, Madhumita J Mukhophadhyay
Since the ancient time nature is providing us with several beneficial herbal phyto-chemicals. Vitex negundo is one of the common and valuable herbs in traditional medicine. In the current study, qualitative screening of different bioactive compounds and membrane stabilization property was checked in aqueous and alcoholic extract of Vitex negundo.  Three different concentration 50, 75, 100 microgram/ml was taken for membrane stabilization method using 62.5 microgram/ml sodium diclofenec as a reference drug. The study revealed that V. negungo have several bioactive compounds and significant membrane stabilization property. Presence of several bioactive phytochemicals may help in scavenging the reactive oxygen and potent membrane destabilizing in human. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the phytoscience and scope for adopting novel phytomedicine for membrane destabilization related disease in human.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8043

15. Essential Oil Composition of Centaurea sempervirens L. (Asteraceae)
Belbache Hanene, Mechehoud Youcef, Chalchat Jean-Claude, Figueredo Gilles, Chalard Pierre, Benayache Samir, Benayache Fadila
The essential oil of the aerial parts of Centaurea sempervirens L. (Asteraceae), synonym :  Cheirolophus sempervirens (L.) Pomel, was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.  30 components were identified corresponding to 78.5% of the total oil. Among the identified constituents, oxygenated compounds represented 33.4%, from which 21.2% were hydrocarbons, 10.7% were sesquiterpenes. The non oxygenated compounds were hydrocarbons (9.8%). Phthalates represented 35.3% of the total oil. The major components were 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one (12.4%) and epi-torilenol (5.1%). This is the first report on the chemical composition of the essential oil of this species.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8044

16. Efficacy of Saponins From Helianthus Annuus Roots on Antihyperglycemic, Antiperoxidative And Antihyperlipidemic Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Adebola Busola Ojo, Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo
The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic, antiperoxidative and antihyperlipidemic activities of saponins from Helianthus annuus roots in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty rat’s weights between 100-150 g was used for the study and divided into six groups of five rats each. Group A was non-diabetic rats; the remaining five groups was induced intraperitoneal with 150 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate. Group B was diabetic control, while group C, D, E and F was treated with saponin (100, 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg) for 21 days. Administration of saponins significantly reduced the elevated levels of glucose, decreased total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the serum towards normalcy compared to the diabetic control (p ˂ 0.05). In addition, saponins exhibited strong inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the liver, kidney and pancreas compared to the diabetic control (p ˂ 0.05). Results suggest that saponins from Helianthus annuus root can enhance the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, and may have the potential to be used in the prevention or in the management of diabetes.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8045

17. Correlation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoid and Carotenoid Content of Sesbania sesban (L. Merr) Leaves Extract with DPPH Scavenging Activties
Sani N Fitriansyah, Irda Fidrianny, Komar Ruslan
Antioxidants are found in many plants and can neutralize free radicals. Sesbania sesban (L.)Merr is a plant that has been used empirically by  Indonesian people and its proven have many pharmacologycal activity. The objectives of this research were to study antioxidant activity Sesbania sesban leaves extract using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method and correlation with its total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content. Extraction was performed by reflux using different polarity solvent. The extracts were vaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant activity was tested using DPPH assay. Determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by UV-visible spectrophotometry  and its correlation with inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) DPPH scavenging activity were analyzed by Pearson’s method. N-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Sesbania sesban leaves had IC50 DPPH < 50 mg/ml and it can be classified as very strong antioxidant. Ethanol extract of Sesbania sesban had the highest of total phenolic content (5.18 g GAE/100 g) and highest total flavonoid content (4.56 g QE/100 g), while the highest total carotenoid content (4.56 g BE/100 g) was given by n-hexane extract. Total phenolic content in Sesbania sesban leaves extracts had significant and negative correlation with their IC50 DPPH scavenging activities. Phenolic compounds in Sesbania sesban leaves extracts were contributor major in its antioxidant activities by DPPH method.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8046

18. Biosynthesis, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Vigna unguiculata Seeds
Ankita Chatterjee, M Ajantha, Aishwarya Talekar, N Revathy, Jayanthi Abraham
Background: Physical and chemical methods of synthesizing metal nanoparticles have been on the focus for the last decade as it has been broadly exploited by researchers. Biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles was found to be easy and economical. The wide applications of titanium dioxide in various fields have drawn attention for biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Cowpea seeds are easily available and rich in protein as well as high in antioxidant which enhances the good characteristics of the nanoparticles synthesized using it. Methods: In the present investigation the nanoparticles are synthesized using Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) seeds extract. 0.1 mM titanium dioxide was mixed with cowpea seeds extract for the preparation of the nanoparticles. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Antibacterial activity of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles was checked against clinical pathogens followed by antioxidant study and cytotoxicity assay by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay and [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] (MTT) assay respectively. Results: The oval shaped biologically synthesized nanoparticles were effective against most of the clinical pathogens. The observance of peak at 418 cm-1 confirms the synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The titanium nanoparticles were highly antioxidant in nature and cytotoxic on MG63 osteosarcoma cell lines. Conclusion: The biological method of preparation of nanoparticles proved to be easy and cost effective. The nanoparticles synthesized can be further used in research for anticancer treatments.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8047

19. Potential Investigation of Invitro Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Haemolytic Activities from Polar Solvent Extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium
Ramesh L Londonkar, Aruna L H, Amarvani P Kanjikar
Pterocarpus marsupium is a well known plant in ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of biological activities and is thus commercially exploited. In the present study, methanol and aqueous extracts of P.marsupium bark were used to evaluate in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-haemolytic activities. In vitro antioxidant activity was carried out by DPPH, ABTS, phosphomolybdenum, reducing power assays, anti- inflammatory activity by inhibition of protein denaturation and anti-haemolytic by hyposaline induced haemolysis. Total phenolic and flavonoid content was also estimated. Methanol extract showed an effective pharmacological activity in all assays when compared with their respective standards. The maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents were found to be (280 ±0.47mg/g) and (620±0.81mg/g) respectively in methanol extract of Pterocarpus marsupium. This study indicates the presence of active constituents which can be exploited for the treatment of various diseases and also could be used in pharmaceutical industry.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8048

20. Isolation and Identification of some Primary Metabolites, Micro- and Macroelements of Aesculus hippocastanum L. Seeds
Karpiuk U V, Abudayeh Z H M , Kyslychenko V S , Yemelianova O І
The qualitative composition and quantitative content of amino acids were studied by PC and HPLC methods. 15 free amino acids were identified in the endosperm and skin of A. hippocastanum. 16 bound amino acids were identified in the endosperm; 17 bound amino acids were identified in the skin. The GC/MS method shows that A. hippocastanum skin and endosperm contain 2 free sugars and 5 after hydrolysis. We can also distinguish specific sugars for seed endosperm which are not present in the skin of the seed: Rha, Fuc, and Sucrose. Specific sugars in the skin of the seed are Xyl and Man. The endosperm of seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum accumulates starch, WSPS, and lipophilic compounds. PS and HC are concentrated in the skin. The qualitative composition and quantitative content of 19 macro and microelements in skin and endosperm of seeds of A. hippocastanum was studied by atomic emission spectrophotometry. The skin of seeds of A. hippocastanum accumulates macro and microelements. The seeds do not accumulate toxic metals, and this enables their use as medicinal plant material. The results show big differences between endosperm and skin in their contents of primary metabolites and elements. Those differences depend on functions that the skin and endosperm are playing in plants, and they influence how medicines and food supplements might be created.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8049

21. GC-MS Analysis of Bioactive Compounds on Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Phyllodium pulchellum L. Desv.
Velmurugan G, Anand S P
The present investigation was carried out to characterize the bioactive compounds present in leaf extract of Phyllodium pulchellum using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrum (GC-MS).  The results of the GC-MS analysis provide different peaks determining the presence of 10 phytochemical compounds with different therapeutic activities. The major phytocompounds 9-Octadecenamide, (Z) (18.89), 9-Cyclohexylnonadecane (15.93), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 2-methyltetrahydro-5-oxo-3-furancarboxylate (10.47) and minor compounds were also present. From the results, it could be concluded that P.pulchellum contains various bioactive compounds have various biological activities. Therefore, it is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8050

22. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Evaluation of Calendula officinalis Linn. For Anti-Anxiety Activity
Rani Anita, Mohan Chander
The Plant Calendula officinalis Linn. (Asteraceae), traditionally was found to be used in the treatment of anxiety. Despite a long tradition of use, no systematic pharmacological and phytochemical work has been carried out on this plant. Thus, C. officinalis was subjected to preliminary anti-anxiety screening studies, with a view to ascertain the truth on evidence of its traditional use as anti-anxiety. In the present study, aerial parts of the plant were extracted using solvents in the order of increasing polarity, viz., petroleum ether (60–80°C), chloroform, methanol and distilled water. Elevated plus maze (EPM) was used to evaluate the anti anxiety activity on all the crude extracts on mice. Methanolic extract of C. officinalis at the dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o. was found significant when compared to diazepam, (2mg/kg). Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids and polyphenols therefore specific methods are used to extract the total alkaloids and polyphenols fractions from the plant material and methanol extract. Polyphenol fraction at the dose of 50 mg/kg, p.o. showed significant anti-anxiety activity.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8051

23. Chemical Variability and Antifungal Activity of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters Woods and Leaves Essential Oils Against Wood Decaying Fungi
Fidah A, Salhi N, Rahouti M, Kabouchi B, Ismaili MR, Ziani M, Aberchane M, Famiri A
The coniferous tree, Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters, commonly known as Barbary thuya is endemic to the western Mediterranean areas. Its woods, mainly root burl, were very appreciated by artisans for their natural beauty, homogeneity and good quality destined for marquetry and furniture. Use of essential oils (EOs) of this species opens a second way for valorization in many fields as bioactive agents. EOs were extracted, by hydrodistillation from sawdust and leaves samples originated from two thuya populations, and analyzed by GC-MS. Yields of EOs varied greatly depending on biomass type and samples origin. EOs of leaves are dominated by monoterpens, and contain α-pinene, camphor, and bornyl acetate as major compounds. Those of woods are however rich in sesquiterpens, and contain 3-tera-butyl-4-methoxyphenol, thymol, cedrol, and α-cedrene as major compounds. Antifungal bioassay, by direct contact in malt-agar medium, of these EOs conducted on four wood decaying fungi, showed that root burl wood EOs possess the best antifungal inhibitory power related to their richness in phenols (above 64%), followed by those of trunk wood; while leaves EOs showed, however a less antifungal activity. Such antifungal potency of wood thuya EOs allows us to recommend the use of these oils extracted from sawdust as preservative agents for less durable woods.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8052

24. Comparison on the Cancer Specific Cytotoxicity of Three Gingers (Zingiber officinale Rosc) Leaves Varieties from Indonesia
Susanti S, Kumoro C A, Santoso I S, Murwanti R, Suzery M, Oku H
This study was performed to get more insight the cancer specific cytotoxicity of ginger leaf (GL). Three GL varieties (Gajah, Emprit, and Red) were extracted and fractionated. Each etyl acetate fraction in concentration of 200 µg/ml was tested about specific cytotoxicity toward cancer dan normal cells. Cancer cell lines used in this study were human colorectal (HCT116) and human breast (MCF-7 and T47D) cancer while normal cell line was human fibroblast (KMST-6). Based MTS assay method, the results showed Gajah and Emprit GL more significantly reduce cell viability of HCT116 and T47D than Red GL although there was no difference on the efficacy of both varieties.  All varieties of GL also significantly reduce cell viability of MCF-7 compare to PBS control. However, there were not significant differences between those GL varieties on their effectiveness against MCF-7. In contrast, there were no effects on the KMST-6 due to all GL varieties treatment compare with PBS control. All data suggested that GL treatment only inhibited in the cancer cells without detrimental effect in the normal cells. Effectiveness of GL against cancer cell varies depend on the varieties. Gajah and Emprit GL are better varieties possess the cancer specific cytotoxicity that merits to be developed as promising chemo preventive agent in the future.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8053

25. Investigation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Leaf, Root, Fruit and Stem Extracts of Trichopus zeylanicus From South India
Sindhu C, Beena Jose
Objective: To investigate the total phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids content, antioxidant and antibacterial potential profile of leaf, root, fruit and stem extracts of the Trichopus zeylanicus with five major solvents, that is, water, methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether. Results: The total phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids contents of fruit methanol extract of T.zeylanicus was found to be 85.15±0.223 mg catechol equivalent per gram, 165.5622±1.236 mg quercetin equivalent per gram and 84.47273 ±0.531 mg  β-Carotein equivalent per gram respectively which are higher than the activity of other extracts. The methanol extracts showed more reducing power, metal chelating activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and phosphomolybdenum assays than other extracts and their activity increased with increasing concentration of extracts. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of fruit methanol extract is quite comparable to the standard mannitol of the assay and its antibacterial potential is the best way to cope with infectious action of bacteria. Conclusion: The remarkable activity showed by the plant extracts could be attributed to the synergic effect of the active compounds present in it. Among the extracts, methanol was found to be the better solvent to extract natural products to get maximum medicinal benefits.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8054

26. Chemical Characterization and Pharmacological Evaluation of Essential Oil from Leaves of Casearia tomentosa
Ritu Tyagi, Abha Shukla, Rishi Kumar Shukla, Swati Vats, Chakit Tyagi, Anchal Choudhary
The present work deals with the isolation of essential oil from the leaves of Casearia tomentosa as well as its chemical characterization by GC-MS and evaluation of in vitro pharmacological activities. The crude essential oil was obtained using Clevenger apparatus. Thirteen compounds were identified representing 77.62% of the total oil composition. The oil was mainly composed of 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester (31.45%) followed of the 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, ethyl ester (20.11%), Phytol (10.70%), Di-epi-alpha-cedrene (3.74%), β-bisabolene (1.87%), β-Caryophyllene (0.83%) and some other trace components. Antidiabetic activity estimated by α- amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory assay and antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) method while antibacterial activity was performed by disk diffusion method. The results demonstrated prominent α- amylase (IC50 = 184.47 ± 1.06 μg/mL), α- glucosidase (IC50 = 91.10 ± 0.80 μg/mL) inhibition, DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=75.50 ± 0.60μg/mL) and FRAP activity (37.55 ± 0.66 μM/mL, FRAP value 1.636). Antimicrobial activity performed towards the selected five human pathogenic bacterial cultures like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. Highest inhibitory activity was seen against Staphylococcus aureus (zone of inhibition 12.2 mm) while the weakest activity was demonstrated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 8.9 mm). Overall results revealed that C. tomentosa leaves (CTL) essential oil exhibits potent antidiabetic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. This is the first study regarding the isolation of essential oil from the leaves of Casearia tomentosa and its pharmacological activities.
DOI number =10.25258/ijpapr.v9i1.8055


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