International Journal of

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

ISSN: 0975 4873

Peer Review Journal

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Volume14,Issue2

1. A Review on Reversal of Type -2 Diabetes: Myth or Fact
Anjum N. Hasnain, Milind K. Velhal
Abstract
Background: Recent clinical and pathophysiological studies have shown type 2 diabetes to be generally a condition caused by surplus, yet reversible, fat accumulation in liver and pancreas. Within the liver, surplus fat worsens hepatic responsiveness to insulin leading to increased glucose yield. Within the pancreas, the beta cell appears to enter a survival mode and fails in its specialized function due to the fat- prevailed metabolic stress. Scrapping of surplus fat from these organs via substantial weight loss can normalize hepatic insulin responsiveness and, in the early vintages post-diagnosis, is associated with beta cell recovery of acute insulin stashing in numerous, perhaps byre-differentiation. Inclusively, these changes can normalize blood glucose strata. The Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial demonstrated in Primary Care that 46 of people with type 2 diabetes could achieve remittal at 12 months intervened by weight loss. This major change in our understanding of the upholding mechanisms of trouble permits a reassessment of advice for people with type 2 diabetes.

2. A Review on Murraya koenigii: The Miracle Plant
Kaur Manbir, Singh Ayush, Kaur Japneet
Abstract
Curry plant, botanically known as Murraya koenigii is an aromatic and deciduous shrub with approximately 6m of height. Since traditional times it has been used in treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. It is a well-known Ayurvedic herb and used in various multiple formulations. Numerous researchers have been focused at validating traditional uses as well as magnifying the different compounds which are responsible for their activities and mechanism of action. Till date, many phytoconstituents of murraya including Bicyclomahanimbicine, Girinimbine, Isomahanine, Koenimbine, Koenoline, Lutein and many more have been found. The various preclinical studies revealed that Murraya have different therapeutical properties like wound healing capacity, anti-carcinogenic potential, Hepato-protective, anti-fungal as well as anti-bacterial activity.The most interesting part of this plant is that every part of it including stem, leaves, roots and flowers have its own therapeutic potential in preventing the various harmful diseases. The objective of current review is to understand the concept of pharmacological (in vitro as well as in vivo) parameters, morphological characterstics, safety/toxiciy studies, phytochemical investigation, pharmacognostic studies along with the current trends in research on Murraya koenigii.

3. A Review on Murraya koenigii: The Miracle Plant
Kaur Manbir, Singh Ayush, Kaur Japneet
Abstract
Curry plant, botanically known as Murraya koenigii is an aromatic and deciduous shrub with approximately 6m of height. Since traditional times it has been used in treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. It is a well-known Ayurvedic herb and used in various multiple formulations. Numerous researchers have been focused at validating traditional uses as well as magnifying the different compounds which are responsible for their activities and mechanism of action. Till date, many phytoconstituents of murraya including Bicyclomahanimbicine, Girinimbine, Isomahanine, Koenimbine, Koenoline, Lutein and many more have been found. The various preclinical studies revealed that Murraya have different therapeutical properties like wound healing capacity, anti-carcinogenic potential, Hepato-protective, anti-fungal as well as anti-bacterial activity.The most interesting part of this plant is that every part of it including stem, leaves, roots and flowers have its own therapeutic potential in preventing the various harmful diseases. The objective of current review is to understand the concept of pharmacological (in vitro as well as in vivo) parameters, morphological characterstics, safety/toxiciy studies, phytochemical investigation, pharmacognostic studies along with the current trends in research on Murraya koenigii.

4. Identification of Phytoconstituents in the Ethanol Extract of Vetiveria Lawsonii Roots
Ramachandran P, Geetha N and Viji Saral Elezabeth D
Abstract
Plants are playing an important role for the medicinal treatments due to the presence of bioactive compounds. The folk medicinal system is more effective than the modern medicinal systems because of their very low side effects. The selected plant, Vetiveria lawsonii is an Indian plant belongs to the family Poaceae. The plants of Poaceae family are used as analgesic, antibacterial, antiperspirant/ deodorants, astringent, depurative, digestive, emmenagogue, galactagogue, insect repellents and skin tonic. The present work dealt with the identification of phytoconstituents in the ethanol extract of the selected plant. The Soxhlet extraction was used for the preparation of ethanolic extract. The bioactive constituents were screened by the standard method, qualitatively. The GC-MS study was performed which revealed the presence of 6 phytoconstituents in the ethanol extract which can be the cause for the medicinal values of the plant. These results prominence further research on the isolation of the bioactive compounds.

5. Modulation of Steroid Hormone Synthesis by Methanolic Extract of Mallotus Phillippensis
Bimitha Benny, A. Sandesh Krishna, Preethy John, Sujith S, Uma R, Nisha AR
Abstract
The presence of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer cell lines can be exploited to find the modulatory potential of phytochemicals on steroid hormone synthesis in MCF -7 cell lines. The current study was conducted to examine the modulatory potential methanolic extract of Malllotus philippensis leaves on steroid hormone synthesis in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The locally collected leaves of M. phillippensis were shade dried, pulverized and extracted using methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus, which was concentrated and stored.  The phytochemicals were identified qualitatively. MTT assay was carried out to assess the in vitro cytotoxic effects of methanolic extract of M. philippensis in MCF-7 cells at dosage rates of 320, 160, 80, 40, 20, 10 µg/mL. From the results of MTT assay, per cent cell viability, inhibition and IC50 were determined. The cells at concentration 1×105 cells/mL were seeded in 6 well plate and incubated with the extract at doses of IC50, half and twice IC50 for 96 hrs, media was collected after 48 and 96hrs and used to quantify the concentration of oestrogen and progesterone using ELISA. Alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, diterpenes and phenols were identified by qualitative phytochemical analysis of extract of M. philippenisis. The MTT assay revealed a dose dependent cytotoxicity of the extract in MCF-7 cell lines with an IC50 of 190µg/mL. Methanolic extract of M. phillippensis showed a dose and time dependent increase in oestrogen concentration as well as a dose dependent decrease in progesterone concentrations in the culture media. Based on the findings of the present study, M. phillippensis induced a positive modulation of oestrogen production which might be the reason for low progesterone levels.

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