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1. Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa of some Fabaceae Medicinal Plants Growing in Aleppo-Syria
Abdel Aleem Bello, Zaher Samman Tahan, Adawia Kitaz, Byan Tiba
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate phytochemical screening and anti-multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa for different extracts of leaves and fruits of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ceratonia siliqua, and Propsopis farcta (Syrian medicinal plants from fabaceae). Methods: Phytochemical screening of active constituents was carried out for each of the leaves and fruits parts, using a number of color tests and qualitative reagents. The antimicrobial susceptibility to 15 antibiotics from 10 antibiotic groups (aminoglycosides, carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, penicillins/ß-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, Phosphonic acids, polymyxins, Phenicols, and Folate Pathway Inhibitors) were determined by disk diffusion method, according to recommendation of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Characterization of P. aeruginosa isolates as /MDR/ multidrug resistant, /XDR/ extremely drug resistant and /PDR/ pandrug resistant was done according to standardized international terminology presented by European Centre for Disease Prevention (ECDP). Agar well diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of extracts. Results: The results showed that Flavonoids presented in all the used plant extracts. The best antibacterial activity belonged to Chloroform extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra fruit, with zone of inhibition 20.33 mm on both PS64 and PS75 isolates. Whereas the least activity belonged to hexane fruit extracts of all plants which ranged between no zone of inhibition and 11 mm. Conclusion: The majority of plants extracts showed antibacterial activity against Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, therefore Syrian medicinal plants can provide protection against our natural enemies like bacterial pathogens, and can be used as new phyto-medicines against MDR bacterial pathogens.

2. Phytochemical Study from Aqueous Extracts of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against from Diabetes in the Peyrie Market in Gabon
Mengome L E, Mboma Raymonde
Diabetes mellitus management is not well established especially in Gabon. More than 60% of population relies on traditional treatments as primary healthcare in Africa. This paper covers the preliminary investigation of different phytochemicals. A total 130 tests were investigated with 85 (65,38%) positive and 50 (34,62%) negative. The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extracts of the indigenous plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins (catechic or gallic), quinones, triterpenes, carotenoids, carbohydrates, mucilages, reducing sugars and saponosides at varying amount depending on the intensity of the colors observed. Steroids were absent in these extracts. Alkaloids, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, flavonoids, gallic tannins, quinones and triterpenes constitute important group. The presence of variable compounds suggests that this plants has medicinal value and their used from diabetes treatment. Further, chromatographically investigations have necessary for determinate structure and natural compounds responsible for activities.

3. Pharmacological Study of the Methanolic Whole Plant Extract of Eclipta alba Against Ischemic Reperfusion Injury on Kidney of Sprague Dawley Rats
Sri Rekha Vudara, Prasanna Krishna Vedagiri
Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) which affects millions of people worldwide. I/R injury mainly occur after infraction, sepsis, and organ transplantation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of an ancient medicinal plant, Eclipta alba against experimentally induced bilateral renal I/R injury in rats. 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups which include control and two treatment groups which were treated with whole plant methanolic extract of Eclipta alba at graduated doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day through oral intubation for a period of 7 days. All the animals were subjected to ischemia for period of 45-min followed by 6 hours of reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion period, pathological alterations in kidney were evaluated by haematological and biochemical analysis in addition to the microscopical examination of kidney. Renal markers such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly decreased dose dependently in treatment groups when compared to control. Furthermore, there is an up regulation of haematological parameters such as Red blood cell count (RBC), White blood cell count (WBC) and Platelet count. Histopathology examination of I/R control group revealed severe haemorrhages and infract characterized by tubular degeneration, glomerular tuft retraction, thickening of glomerular basement membrane and there is marked endothelial swelling in all parts of cortex and medulla. Whereas, treatment with Eclipta alba at graded doses ameliorated the pathological effects of ischemic insult and there is a marked improvement in the integrity of the anatomical structure of the kidney, thereby, establishing the potential protective effect of the extract against the ischemia – reperfusion injury.

4. A Review on Pharmacognocy of Bioactive Sesquiterpene Lactones
Choudhary Sheetal, Mishra P K
Sesquiterpene lactone is a prominent phytoconstituent.It shows anticancer, antiplasmodial, antibacterial, antifungal,antiinflammatory, insect antifeedant,  mollucicidal, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal,wound healing and hepatoprotective activities etc.In this review we focus on identify new area of plant families,plants body parts to detect presence of sesquiterpene lactones and rest of biological activities,which is not studied or less observed by researcher.The objectives of this work to explore existing information to pin point key findings which would helpful to reveal medicinal importance of sesquiterpene lactones.

5. Morphological Characterization of Homeopathic Medicinal Plants and Evaluation of their Biological Effect Against the “Microsporum canis”
Suneel Prajapati, Shilpi Singh, Mahima Sharma, Arun Kumar, Digvijay Verma, Pankaj Gupta, Renu Arya, Bineet Dwivedi, Bhopal Singh Arya
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the homoeopathic medicinal plants on the basis of their morphology and evaluation of their biological effect against the “Microsporum canis. Materials and Methods: Taxonomic analyses (e.g., documentation of the biological origin and morphological characteristics) are essential for characterizing homoeopathic drugs in a systematic manner to reach authentication, and thus maintaining homoeopathic drug efficacy. The selected homoeopathic medicinal plant drugs  Allium sativum (Bulb), Eucalyptus globulus (Leaves), Ficus religiosa (Leaves), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Bark), Ocimum sanctum (whole plant) and Terminalia chebula (Fruit) were investigated morphologically including microscopical and quantitative micrometric analysis as per standard protocol. The mother tincture and potencies of homoeopathic drugs were prepared as per standard HPI protocol and were evaluated for their biological activity against the Microsporum canis using agar disc diffusion assay as per guidelines of clinical and laboratory standard (M44-A) with slight modification. The diameters of zone (mm) of inhibition were measured, and the results were compared with the vehicle control followed by positive control Ketoconazole as reference standard fungicide. Results: Some peculiar characters in plants were observed like  elongated or polyhedral cells followed by storage parenchymatous cells and poor vasculature in Allium sativum,  secretary canal and curved eye shaped vascular bundle in Eucalyptus globules, eye shaped vascular bundle in Ficus religiosa, hair pattern and quadrangular stem of Ocimum sanctum, rhomboidal prismatic crystals, laticifers and stone cells in Holarrhena antidysenterica. Mother tincture of Terminalia chebula was exhibited maximum zone of inhibition up to 13.6±1.1 mm followed by Ocimum sanctum, Eucalyptus globulus, Allium sativum, Ficus religiosa and Holarrhena antidysenterica.  In case of potencies (3X, 6X and 12X), significant zone of inhibition was observed with many medicines especially Allium sativum at 6X (9.6±2.9 mm), Ficus religiosa at 3X (9.8±0.4) and 12X (9.2±1.1), Ocimum sanctum at 3X (9.8±1.3), 6X (11.6±1.7) and 12X (9.2±0.8), compared to vehicle control against M canis. These plants of medicinal importance were fully described macro- and micro-morphologically for easier and more accurate identification. Conclusion: The present study obtained results was that morpho-anatomical characters and biological activity not only provide characters for their correct taxonomic authentication, but also serve as standard data for the quality assessment of the pharmaceutical preparation of homoeopathic drugs.

6. Antioxidant Activitiy Guided Isolation of Chemical Constituents from Whole Plant of Canscora Perfoliata
Deepak M, Sulaiman C T, Indira Balachandran, Subash Chandran K P
Canscora perfoliata is an important ethno medicine plant belonging to the family Gentianaceae. The plant is reported to have many important pharmacological activities even though the reports on the chemical constituents are few. The present study was designed for the bio assay guided identification of chemical constituents from most active extract of C. perfoliata. Various in vitro antioxidant assays like ABTS assay, NO quenching assay, Ferric reducing assay and DPPH scavenging assay were carried out on different extracts. Column chromatographic isolation for major chemical constituents was conducted on the most active extract. Hydroalchol extract showed predominant results in various antioxidant tests performed among the extracts. Column chromatographic isolation led to the identification of three compounds including a hydroxyl cinnamic acid, an alkaloid and a xanthanoid glycoside from the hydroalcohol extract. The identified compounds are the first report from this plant to the best of our knowledge. The plant extracts and identified compounds were active antioxidants and can be used a potentially as a bioactive source of natural antioxidants for contributing beneficial health effects.

7. Pterospermum acerifolium Linn. : A Comprehensive Review with Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation
Neetu Deshwal, Saurabh Sharma
Pterospermum acerifolium (Sterculiaceae) is an herb distributed throughout the world. Plant is commonly known as Kanakchampa, Karnikara, Muchukunda and Matsakanda. The leaves of the plant are widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as a haemostatic in Indian proprietary medicines. The plant is documented to possess beneficial effects as antioxidant, antiulcer, anti inflammatory, analgesic, hypoglycaemic, immunosuppressive, wound healing, hepatoprotective, antihelmentic, antimitotic and anticancer activity. It is believed to be used in inflammation, abdominal pain, ascites, cures ulcers, leprosy, constipation, urinary discharges and tumours. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethnobotanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on Pterospermum acerifolium.

8. Pharmacognostical Studies on Salmalia Insignis (Wall.) Schott. & Endl. – A Bombacaceae Member
Sharmila S, Mownika S, Ramya E K
The macroscopic, microscopic, histological identification and microscopic constants of Salmalia insignis can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and botanical identification technique which would be of immense value in standardization and authentication of this plant. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of Salmalia insignis. In the present work we investigated the phytochemical screening to find out new sources of natural antioxidant activity source from the leaf of Salmalia insignis with different solvents such as ethanol and petroleum ether. The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard phytochemical tests. Quantitative analysis was performed to confirm and quantify the presence of phenolics content and total flavonoids in the aerial plant extracts of the study plant. The in vitro antioxidant activity was tested on Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of different solvents such as Petroleum ether, Ethanol and Butylated hydroxynisole. These compounds correspond to varied medicinal properties that can be exploited for the treatment of many diseases.

9. Comparative studies on Phytochemical and Antibacterial Analysis of C. sinensis and C. assamica
Surbhi Pradhan, R C Dubey
Medicinal plants are the prominent source of therapeutic agents used to prevent the human pathogenic bacteria. In the present investigation, comparative analysis on antibacterial activity of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica was done against human pathogenic bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. The extraction of plant leaves in different solvents like petroleum ether, chloroform and acetone were done by using soxhlet apparatus and their antibacterial activity were analyzed by well and disc diffusion method against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The acetone soluble extract resulted in the highest zone of inhibition against the test pathogens. The chloroform and acetone soluble extracts of C. assamica possessed the potential antibacterial activity as compared with C. sinensis. The acetone soluble extract posed the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of six bacterial species viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. Tannins, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, reducing sugars, flavonoids and cardiac glycoside were present in different solvent-soluble extracts in two different species. Leaf based herbal preparations are cheaper and has no side-effects on human health.  Therefore, herbal preparation should be used as medicine to cure the diseases caused by pathogenic and multi-drug resistance bacteria.

10. Pharmacognostic, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Screening of Hibiscus hiritus
Rajeswari Pullabhatla, Saripilli Rajeswari, Padmaja Kota
Objective: Aim of the present study was to perform pharmacognostic, phytochemical evaluation and antioxidant screening of ethanol extracts of Hibiscus hiritus. Methods:  The free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus hiritus was measured by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) employing the method described by Blois, 1958. 0.1 mM solution of DPPH in ethanol was prepared and 1 mL of this solution was added to 3 mL of various concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 μg/mL) of methanol extract. After 30 min, absorbance was measured at 517 nm. The percentage of inhibition was calculated by comparing the absorbance values of the control and test samples.  Ascorbic acid was used as a reference compound.

11. Effect of Sowing Date and Seed Pelleting on Plant Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.)
Abhishek Panwar, Ashok Kumar Thakur
The present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of sowing date and seed pelleting and their interaction on plant growth, yield and quality of bulb crop. All the factors in experiment as well as their interactions showed significant influence on plant growth, yield and yield contributing characters in onion. The seeds pelleted with Azadirechta indica leaf powder + clay and Melia azedarach  leaf powder + clay sown directly showed maximum values w.r.t. emergence (91.50 %), plant height at 60 days after sowing (35.35 cm), average leaf length (38.43cm), number of leaves per plant (8.67), number of days to harvesting (233.49).  polar diameter (46.72 mm), equatorial diameter (57.77 mm), bulb size index (2699.74 ), neck thickness (12.12 mm), number of bulb per plot (89.00) average bulb weight (75.24 g), bulb yield (6.67 kg per plot or 400.01 q per ha), plant height before neck fall stage (58.55 cm). From the present studies, it can be concluded that onion seeds pelleted with Azadirechta indica leaf powder + clay and Melia azedarach  leaf powder + clay  showed significant effects for enhancing seed quality, growth, quality and yield of bulb crop raised through direct seeding.

12. Formulation and Evaluation of Topical Antifungal Herbal Gels Containing Hydroalcoholic Extract of Catharanthus Roseus And Aloe Vera
Koka Sweta S, Pancholi Mamta, Sharma Vijay, Gayakwad Devshree, Darwhekar G N
The present study deals with formulation and evaluation of herbal gel for the management of In Vitro Antifungal activity. Antifungal activity of extracts against Candida albicans was evaluated as it causes 90% of skin infection. In this study we had formulated the Antifungal herbal gel by using hydroalocoholic extract of Catharanthus roseus and Aloe vera in different concentration  (0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%, coding them as S1, S2 & S3 respectively) with carbapol 940 and other excipient. Thus formulation formulated was evaluated for its physiochemical parameters, In –Vitro antifungal activity and Stability study of the formulation. All the herbal gel formulation showed positive results for physiochemical parameters with PH .8. The  result of anti fungal activity of the of Catharanthus roseus and Aloe vera gel topical formulations shows dose dependent zone of inhibitions in exponential manner as compared to the standard (FLUCONAZOLE) i.e. S3 formulation shows 189 ± 0.11mm zone of inhibition which greater than the remaining two formulations 2% shows153 ±0.23 mm  and 4% shows 153 ±0.23 mm and the  near about to standard Fluconazole showed the  194 ±0.01 mm zone of inhibition.

13. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Boswellia dalzielii Hutch
Kafuti Y S, Ojerinde O S, Balogun O, Alemika T E, Taba K M, Mpiana P T, Kindombe N M
Boswellia dalzielii, the West African species of the frankincense tree, has several applications in ethnomedicine in the sub-region. The present work aims at evaluating the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark. Antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), which often correlates well with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated through growth inhibitory effects on Sorghum bicolor seeds. The dried, powdered stem bark of B. dalzielii was extracted with 70% methanol, yielding the crude extract that was partitioned successively into hexane and ethyl acetate; thereafter the aqueous mother liquor was also recovered. The ethyl acetate fraction, being most active in the bioassays, was subjected to Accelerated Gradient Chromatography (AGC) to give four sub-fractions (A-D). Phenolic content was found to be highest in sub-fraction C (481.20 ± 10.13 mg GAE/g) while flavonoid content was highest in methanolic extract (142.17 ± 4.82 mg RE/g). High antioxidant activities were recorded in the aqueous (IC50 1.58) and methanol extracts (IC50 1.99) using DPPH. FRAP assay gave high antioxidant capacity for aqueous extract (EC50 1.00) and sub-fraction D (EC50 1.25). In antiproliferative assay, sub-fractions C and D at 125 µg/ml gave the highest percentage inhibition (90%) followed by sub-fraction B (50%) at 250 µg/ml. These results show that the stem bark of Boswellia dalzielii has strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities; justifying its application in ethnomedical practice and as a source of bioactive agents with potential to yield anticancer drug candidates.

14. Ascertainment of Phytochemical Screening, Antidiarrheal, Thrombolytic and Antibacterial effect of Methanol Extract of Leaves of Zingiber rubens Roxb.
Md. Abdul Barek, A F M Shahid Ud-Daula, Md. Shafiullah Bhuiya, Md. Nazmul Huda, Md. Sohel Mia, Mohammad Anwarul Basher
Zingiber rubens Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) has been traditionally used against diarrhea, fever, cold, infection, etc. in human. The present study was aimed to investigate phytochemical screening, antidiarrheal, thrombolytic and antibacterial effect of methanol extract of leaves of Z. rubens. Phytochemical screeing was performed according to common phytochemical tests. Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by castor oil-induced diarrhea method at three different concentrations in mice. Five different concentrations were used for  in vitro clot lysis assay of human blood and antibacterial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion assay at five different concentrations against two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram-positive (Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Phytochemical screening showed presence of reducing sugars, anthraquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. In case of antidiarrheal activity, the extract asserted evacuation indices (EI) of 16.14, 15.57 (p<0.001), 12.71 for 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml of extract respectively where loperamide showed 5.14 (p<0.001). Percentage of clot disruptions were 47.21 (p<0.05), 39.59 (p<0.05), 35.31, 32.24 (P<0.01), 24.88 (p<0.05) and 55.93 (p<0.001) for 10, 8, 6, 4, 2 mg/ml extract and streptokinase respectively. The extract did not possess any activity against bacteria. Based on the phytochemical and results from in vivo and in vitro activities, the leaves of Z. rubens was found to be a potential source of new antidiarrheal and thrombolytic agents but it was found to have no antibacterial activity.

15. Extraction and Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from a Therapeutic Medicinal Plant – Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br.
Hemavathy A, Shanthi P, Sowndharya C, Thiripura Sundari S, Priyadharshni K
Medicinal plants are a source of great economic value all over the world.  Medicinal value of plants lies in some bioactive compounds that produce a definite physiological action on the human body. The most important bioactive (chemical) compounds of plants are alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenol compounds. The present investigation was aimed to analysis the bioactive compounds of a therapeutically effective plant Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. Leaf extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol) of W. tinctoria were used in various analyses of thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy. The findings of thin layer chromatographic study revealed visible spots at varying solvent system with different Rf values and the clear response showed in methanol extracts. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy spectra reveal the presence of 26 bioactive compounds and 8 major compounds. UV-FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of ethers, alcohols, alkanes, alkyls, carboxylic acids, alkynes in methanol extracts.

16. Study of Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Extracts from The Hydrodistillation Residue of Anise (Pimpinella Anisum)
Lemjallad Lamiaa, Sayah Mohamed Yassine, Zaid Yassir, Errachidi Faouzi, El Ghadraoui Lahsen, Chabir Rachida, Ouzzani Chahdi Fouad, Kandri Rodi Youssef
Essential oil, methanol extract from the fresh aniseed and the extracts obtained by serial solvents from the residue recovered from the hydrodistillation of Pimpinella anisum were investigated for their scavenging activity using DPPH method. Results showed that highest radical scavenging effect was found in the essential oil and methanol extracts. The later contained the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Total phenolic contents was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with the values 10.71 – 28.34 – 1.06 and 0.93 (mg Gal eq /g of aniseed) respectively in aqueous, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extract. Total flavonoid content is evaluated using the method AlCl3 with the values 8.89 – 25.92 – 0.74 and 0.77 (mg  Qer eq /g of aniseed) respectively in aqueous extracts,  methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate. As a comparison of the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, we did a methanol extraction of the fresh aniseed. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of methanol extract of fresh aniseed respectively is 36.98 (mg Gal eq/g of aniseed) and 31.80(mg Qer eq /g of aniseed). The antimicrobial activities of aniseed essential oil was tested against Gram negative bacteria, Gram positive bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the green anise had an inhibitory effect against all the strains tested.

17. Development and Efficacy of Potential Anthelmintic Polyherbal Formulation (Emrc-F-7) –An Ethno Pharmacology Approach
Kamei C, Singh A R, Singh T D, Kom L E, Thokchom D S, Chanotiya C S, A K S Rawat
Objectives: The study envisage development of potent anthelminthic drug by combination of herbs with potential anthelminthic properties. The presence of various bioactive phytochemicals in EMRC-F-7 was evaluated for its vermifuge and vermicidal properties. Method: We formulated a seven-ingredient anthelminthic drug consisting of Curcuma amada, Curcuma zedoaria, Zingiber montanum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cinnamomum zeylanica, Cuminum cyminum, and Syzygium aromaticum. that has potemtial anthelminthic activity tested against Indian earthworm. The antioxidant, phenolics and flavonoids contents were evaluated along with GC-MS analysis of oil extract of the formulation. Results: The formulation had better anthelminthic activity than albendazole with death and paralysis time of 77.16 ± 5.9 and 26.86 ± 2.29 minutes respectively for 15 mg/mL. The highest dose of 125 mg/mL of EMRC F-7 took 0.44 ± 0.07 minutes to paralyze and a short duration of 3.63 ± 1.06 minutes to kill the worms. GC-MS analysis showed presence of Eugenol (33.7%), β-Caryophyllene (15.4%), Cumin aldehyde (9.8%), and Camphor (4.3%) which must have contributed to the anthelminthic property of the formulation.  Conclusion: The formulation has the desired property but also has high antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects for overall well-being of the human physiology.

18. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigations of Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk. – A Sapindaceae Member
Sharmila S, Ramya E K, Mownika S, Anusha M
Harpullia arborea is an important tree species with lots of medicinal importance and it belonging to the family Sapindaceae. It is commonly called as Soap Nut family which is found in most of the hilly regions in India. Each and every part of the plant is used traditionally in various ailments. The secondary metabolites present in Harpullia arborea were found to be alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, steroids, tri-terpenoids and resins. Gas chromatography (GC) is recognized as the most suitable technique to find out how many components and in what proportion there are in a complex mixture of volatile compounds. Isolation of individual components would-however,-help-to-find-new-drug.

19. Antimicrobial Potential of Metformin
Patil T R, Patil S T, Patil S, Patil A
Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide fast growing non infectious, metabolic disorder. Hyperglycemia of this disease favors various infections. The choice of non antibiotic, antidiabetic drug metformin to treat diabetes mellitus which has antimicrobial activity was found to decrease the incidence and the severity of infections resulting in to improved outcome. It was found that metformin has antimicrobial activity against many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, parasites, fungi and viruses. The most promising antimicrobial activity was found against mycobacterium tuberculosis. The possible mechanisms for this anti tubercular activity of metformin are activation of  AMPK and mitochondrial ROS production, acceleration of phagosome-lysosome fusion, improved immune response, increased CD 4 and CD 8 cells, rise in mycobacteria specific interferon secretion by CD 8 cells, reduced expression of inflammatory genes. Patients of diabetes mellitus with tuberculosis who received anti tubercular treatment along with metformin as an antidiabetic drug had better prognostic outcome than the similar group of patients who did not receive metformin. Metformin was also observed to increase survival in mice having endotoxemia  as a result  of the inhibition of mediators of the inflammation. Thus metformin was found to have promising antimicrobial activity which needs to be confirmed by meticulously planned human studies.

20. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oils from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Growing in Egypt
Heba A S  El-Nashar, Nada M Mostafa, Mohamed A El-Badry, Omayma A Eldahshan, Abdel Nasser B Singab
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), has been used traditionally for respiratory ailments, wounds, diarrhea, tumors and leprosy. This study is aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaves, fruits and barks of Schinus terebinthifolius grown in Egypt and investigate their antimicrobial effect and cytotoxic activities against human liver (HepG2) and colon cancer cells (Caco-2).Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscpoy (GC-MS) revealed that β-phellandrene was the major component in the fruits and leaves with 32.40% and 19.88%, respectively. The bark contains 53.99% of α-pinene as major component. Monoterpenes hydrocarbons were the most abundant fraction representing 57.09 % of leaves oil, 78.17%, of fruits oil and 70.44% of barks oil. The essential oils of fruits and barks exerted the most potent inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 with MIC of 50 μg/mL compared to ciprofloxacin. All essential oils exerted potent cytotoxic activities against human liver (HepG2) and colon cancer cells (Caco-2) with IC50values ranging from 1.56 to 10.13 μg/mL. The essential oils from fruits and barks of Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed a great importance to be clinically used for various staphylococcal infections. In addition, the tested essential oils have potent abilities to inhibit liver and colon cancer cell viability. Further evaluation is warranted to clarify the mechanism of action.



International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research