1.Assessing the Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Marine Sponges from Mauritius Waters Oogarah P N, Ramanjooloo A, Doorga J R S, Meyepa C, van Soest R W M, Marie D E P
The ocean provides a plethora of structurally-diverse bioactive compounds that are potential candidates for drug development. Marine sponges have been studied over the past decades and have been found to be a rich source of these bioactive chemicals. This study is focused on the antioxidant properties of marine sponges collected from Mauritius waters. A total of 141 extracts derived from 47 marine sponges from Mauritius waters were tested for their antioxidant property using DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP). Additionally, their total phenolic content were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The methanol extract of Axinelladonnani (ADM) displayed the highest DPPH activity (92.15 ± 0.09 %) whilst the ethyl acetate extract of Pseudosuberites sp showed the highest FRAP activity (10.57 ± 0.39 mM Fe2+/g of extract). A significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content for methanol/butanol extracts were found.
2. Morphological Features, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Study of Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae): A Brief Review Suradipa Choudhury, Pranabesh Ghosh, Tanusree Sarkar, Susmita Poddar, Ahana Sarkar, Sirshendu Chatterjee
Medicinal plants are the only source for the treatment of physiological disorders in ancient days. In India, herbs are always acted as the primary source of traditional medicine. Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link (Family – Lamiaceae) an annual herbaceous medicinal weed and it is locally known as ‘Shwetdron’. The plant is distributed throughout India from the Himalayas down to Ceylon. This present review deals with the phytochemical, botanical, ethnomedicinal and other important pharmacological features of Leucas aspera. The major secondary metabolites of these plants are phenolics, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, lignins, flavonoids, terpenoids and galactose. Extensive studies of the different parts of this plant are reported to have various medicinal properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, hepato-protective, larvicidal properties. The plant parts are used against many diseases since long in the world. The plant is also applied in various industries like food, cosmetics, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. It is also used as an anti-pyretic and insecticidal agent from the ancient time. The present review can be helpful for identification and preparation of a clear profile of the Leucas aspera.
3. Assessment of Carrageenan Induced Anti inflammatory Activity of Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. and Byttneria herbaceae Roxb. Collected from Idukki District, Kerala, India on Albino Wistar Rats. Dhannia P Narayanan, M. Johni Rexliene, S Suresh
The tribal people in Idukki use the plants Byttneria herbaceae Robb. and Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. for the treatment of inflammations related to the skin and rheumatoid arthritis respectively. The ethanol extract of B.herbacea and methanol extract of G.fragrantissima was investigated for anti inflammatory effects at the dose (p.o.) of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg in animal models, albino wistar rats. The extracts of G. fragrantissima and B.herbacea reduced the carrageenan induced edema by 55.15% and 57.57% on oral administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. Animals treated with the G.fragrantissima and B.herbacea (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased the volume of pleural exudates to 0.18±0.07 ml and 0.16±0.05 and inhibited the migration of leukocytes to 0.55±0.07×103, 0.51±0.04×103 respectively on carrageenan induced pleurisy in rats. The results suggested that the extracts can be an active source of substances with effective anti inflammative activities.
4. Comparison between Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents and Antidiabetic Activities of Different parts of Capparis spinosa L Growing in Aleppo, Syria Kitaz Adawia, Abajy Mohammad Yaser, Al-Nasser Molham
Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. The present study aimed to comparison of total phenol and total flavonoids, investigate in vivo, in vitro antidiabetic activity of aqueous and methanolic (80%) extract of leaves, flowers, stems, and fruits of C. spinosa growing in Aleppo- Syria. in-vitro, the study was completed by evaluate the inhibitory activity of these extracts on α-amylase enzyme using two methods: the first is DNSa method which depended on chemical reactions between plant extracts, α- amylase enzyme and starch using 3-5 dinitro salicylic acid as color reagent, whereas the second method was done by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) method and we used iodine staining to visualize inhibitory activity where a blue color spot on TLC plate was taken as positive α-amylase inhibitory test for the corresponding compound. As well as, evaluate of antidiabetic activity of aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of C. spinosa on alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results revealed that leaves extracts possessed significant activity of inhibition the α-amylase enzyme in vitro model compared to other extracts. Bioautography revealed that ɑ-amylase was inhibited by most of the flavonoids separated on the TLC plates. Methanolic leaves extract reduced significantly fasting blood glucose and enhanced regeneration of β cells after 14th day in diabetic rats treated with a dose 200 mg/kg body weight comparable to that of the reference drug, glimepiride (1mg/kg). The results presented here provided evidence based on the use of C. spinosa leaves as hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
5. Phytochemical Profiling, Antimicrobial Activity and GC-MS Analysis of Allium odorum L. Collected from Ema market, Manipur Suchitra S, Bhaigyabati Th, Jessia G, Bag G C, Ranjit L, Devi G P
Allium odorum L. which is locally known as Maroi nakupi (Chinese chives) belongs to Alliaceae family and is generally used as condiments/vegetables/spice or as a medicinal herb in Manipur since time immemorial. It can be eaten either as raw/fresh/ or as cooked/ boiled besides consuming as salads and soups. This plant which is similar to normal grass in appearance is an important perennial, draught resistant, fast growing and quickest income generating herb. In view of the various health benefits, we aimed to study the phytochemical screening, its antimicrobial activities and GC-MS analysis of Allium odorum L.collected from Ema market, Manipur. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of most of the phytochemicals in both aqueous and methanolic extracts of A.odorum L.except amino acids, carbohydrates, steroids and terpenoids. Cardiac glycosides were found to be present in aqueous extract but absent in methanolic extract. Both the phenolic and flavonoid content of A. odorum L.were higher in methanolic extract than aqueous extract. Percentage DPPH scavenging activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts was comparable with standard ascorbic acid with methanolic extract showing higher scavenging activity than aqueous extract. Reducing power for both the aqueous and methanolic extracts showed a slight higher in the methanolic extract. Similar trend was noted in total antioxidant activity where methanolic extract showed higher activity than aqueous extract. Antimicrobial Screening for both the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Allium odorum L.showed that both the extracts were found to have antibacterial activity against E.coli and P.aeruginosa but not against B.subtilis and S.aureus. The extracts showed no antifungal activity against any of the test fungi. The methanolic extract exhibited more antibacterial activity when compared with the aqueous extract. It was also observed that both the methanolic and aqueous extract showed antibacterial activity against gram negative bacteria only. GC-MS analysis is the first step towards understanding the nature of the bioactive compounds and this study leads to the identification of a number of compounds. Isolation of individual phytochemical constituent and subjecting it to biological activity will definitely give fruitful results. Furthur studies for identification of the bioactive components responsible for higher antioxidant activity and exploitation for largescale production for used in pharmaceutical industries will be our next target. The present study provides a baseline data for future studies geared towards the therapeutic benefits of A.odorum L.
6. Protection and Bio-Prospection of Bombax ceiba by Revealing their Endophytic Fungi Diversity with Phytochemical and Enzyme Analysis Mane R S, Ashrafi N F, Vedamurthy A B
The objective of the present study was to protect Bombax ceiba by revealing their endophytic fungi diversity with phytochemical and enzyme analysis. In the present study, a total of 64 fungal endophytes were enumerated and were belonging to Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Phomopsis Spp., Nigrospora Spp, and Fusarium Spp. with the colonization frequency of 75%, 30%, 22.5%, 10%, and 17.5% respectively. The endophytic Aspergillusniger showed the highest average linear growth rate (6.2 mm/day) and isolation frequency (80%) on tomato dextrose agar while lowest on water agar. The fungus showed white to dark brown to black or purple-brown to yellowish-green color variations with mycelial growth in between 65 mm to 90 mm on the media and 8 to 31 numbers of spores/ microscopic field. Further, fermentation and extraction of the same fungus revealed 2.86 g/100g of total wet biomass and 0.25 g/100g of the dried biomass of corn bran with 5.30 g/100ml of the aqueous concentrated crude extract while the simultaneously plant showed 2.96 g/100ml of aqueous crude extract. Phytochemical screening of both extracts showed alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols. The total phenolic content of the plant crude extract was 27.0090±0.04129 mg and flavonoids content was 20.3568±0.05064 mg while the fungus showed 29.0060±0.03223 mg of phenolic and 12.2549±0.02345 mg of flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography showed alkaloids [0.29], flavonoids [0.41] terpenoids [0.15] and saponins [0.91]. The fungus produced chitinase, amylase, protease, and cellulases enzymes. It is concluded that the Bombax ceiba has the potential to purify the potent fungal endophytes and their bioactive compounds that may be helpful to evaluate in vitro models against different diseases.