1. GC-MS and HPTLC Fingerprints of Various Secondary Metabolites in the Ethanolic Extract of Coconut Shell oil S Dorathy Selva JebaPritha, S Karpagam
The aim of this study was to analyze the phytochemical constituents present in the Coconut shell oil using GC-MS and HPTLC fingerprints profiles for various bioactive compounds. In GC-MS analysis the presence of many bioactive compounds were determined by different peaks with low and high molecular weight. The separation of the active constituents has been developed by HPTLC method using solvent system; Toluene:ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid (9:1:0.2) and examined under UV-254nm, 366nm and visible light. (Vanillin- Sulphuric acid). The Coconut shell oil extract showed the presence of variety of secondary metabolites and it is expected to exhibit therapeutic properties.
2. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Moringa oleifera Lam. Crude Extracts Against Selected Bacterial and Fungal Strains Patel N, Mohan J S S
The n- Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water Leaf, Stem, Flower and Fruit extracts of Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against six Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive bacteria and antifungal activity against seven fungal strains using Ciprofloxacin, Doxycycline, Fluconazole and Ketacozole as positive control. The activity was analyzed by well diffusion and two-fold serial broth dilution method of different extract. The study revealed that all the extracts irrespective of their types, in different concentrations inhibited growth of the test pathogens to varying degrees. Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum activity against all the bacterial strains followed in descending order by methanol, n-.Hexane and distilled water extracts. Ethyl acetate extract showed high antibacterial activity against Serratia marcescens (22mm) Methanol and n-Hexane extract were effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis (10mm) respectively. Aqueous extract showed maximum number of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (27mm) and Micrococcus luteus (18mm). Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum inhibition against Trichoderma harzianum (16mm) than other extracts were ineffective against selected fungus. MIC values were recorded as 0.125 to 4mg/ml. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols and flavonoids. Expression to these results it may be concluded that M. oleifera may be a potential source for the curing of various infectious diseases caused by the resistant microbes.
3. Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Satureja briquetii L. from Morocco Zineb Benziane Ouaritini, Smahane Boukhira, El houssaine Derwich
Satureja briquetii L. (Labiatae) species are a well-known aromatic plant which is used to produce essential oils and aromatic water in the mountain regions of Sefrou part of Morocco. In our study, it was aimed to determine phytochemical and antioxidant activities of Satureja briquetii L. essential oils in vitro. Antioxidant activities of the oils at differents concentrations were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging. The extraction of essential oils from aerial part of this plant is carried out by hydrodistillation, and yields are 1.75% for dry aerial part and 1.05% for fresh aerial part. The analysis of the essential oils of dry aerial part from Satureja briquetii L. by GC/MS identified 57 principles compounds including Spathulenol (9.81%), Verbenone (4.35%), Camphene (3.56%), Himachalene (3,2%) and Cedrene (2,12%). The chromatographic profile of essential oils from fresh aerial part of Satureja briquetii L. has 49 constituents representing 96.25% of the essential oil, where the Menth-8-ene (14.99%), Cymene (4.97%) and Carene (4.97%) are major compounds. The Menth-1,4(8)-diene, (1,06%), Cubenol and Longifolene (3,44%) are in minority. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the essential art of Satureja briquetii L. was evaluated by the method of DPPH, and showed a significant efficiency in radical DPPH reducing with an IC50 value of of 31.027 ± 0.586 µg/ml from essential oils of dry aerial and 35.034 ± 0.0432 µg/ml in essential oils from fresh aerial part.
4. Chemical Fingerprints of an Indian Traditional Herbal Drug Talisapatra (Abies webbiana) and Comparison with English yew (Taxus baccata) Vellingiri Vadivel, Prakash Anand, Sarkar Monajkumar, Perumal Rajalakshmi and Pemaiah Brindha
Present work was carried out with a view to develop chemical fingerprints to differentiate the herbal drugs Taxus baccata L. and Abies webbiana (Wall ex D. Don) Lindl. Both the plants are commonly called as Talisapatra in India and having different medicinal applications. T. baccata is native to Europe and A. webbiana is found in India and also used in traditional medicine. Dried leaves of both the plant are morphologically similar and in powdered form it is very difficult to differentiate them and hence there are chances for adulteration and also misuse of the herbs. In this project phytochemical, spectroscopic (UV-Visible, FT-IR and NMR) and chromatographic techniques (HPTLC and HPLC) were applied to obtain the chemical fingerprints of selected herbs. A. webbiana contained higher level of total phenolic compounds (6301.27 mg GAE / 100 g) when compared to T. baccata (977.45 mg GAE / 100 g). UV-Visible absorbance at 577 and 663 nm are unique for T. baccata. FT-IR peaks at 3403, 1030 and 577 cm-1 were unique for T. baccata while A. webbiana exhibited unique peak at 3371, 1059 and 613 cm-1. NMR signals revealed remarkable difference between chloroform extracts of T. baccata from A. webbiana. HPTLC profile exhibited unique bands with Rf value of 0.11, 0.25, 0.62, 0.68, 0.91 and 097 for T. baccata and A. webbiana exhibited unique spots with Rf value of 0.05, 0.27, 0.38, 0.44, 0.65, 0.72 and 0.93. Unique HPLC peaks for T. baccata were 2.07, 2.28, 4.86, 5.08, 5.97 and 6.86 min whereas A. webbiana revealed unique peaks at 1.90, 2.00 & 4.52 min. Chemical fingerprint results obtained from the present work would be useful in differentiating T. baccata from A. webbiana.