International Journal of

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 4873

p-ISSN: 2961-6069

Peer Review Journal

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1. Pharmacognostic Standardization and Antidiabetic Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of the Seeds of Pterocarpus Santalinoides L’herit Ex DCFamily Fabaceae
Ani A.C, Ezugwu C.O
Background: Diabetes remains a major public health concern affecting about 2.8% of the global population. Chronic hyperglycaemia of diabetes is frequently associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs. With multiple risk factors, delayed diagnosis, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs, there is a need to look for alternative treatment. Methods: Acute toxicity and anti-diabetic property of the methanolic extract of P.santaliniodes were evaluated on mice and alloxan induced diabetic rats respectively. Twenty alloxan induced diabetic rats were used for both chronic and sub chronic test. For both test methods, two dose levels (250mg/kg, 500mg/kg) were chosen. Water (5ml) and glybenclamide (5mg/kg) were used for negative and positive control respectively. Data obtained were analysed using analysis of varaiance (ANOVA) and T-test. The plant material was subjected to pharmacognostic studies, and it includes physicochemical analysis, phytochemical evaluation, determination of extractive value, histo-chemical analysis and microscopic analysis of the powdered crude drug. Results: The 250mg/kg dose and 500mg/kg dose were statistically significant at p<0.05 at day 1,6,9,12,24 and 6, 9, 12, 24 relative to the placebo for chronic respectively. For sub chronic study, statistical significance was seen only for 500mg/kg on day 10 relative to placebo at p<0.05. Phytochemical analysis of the plant revealed alkaloids, resins, steroids,terpenoids,flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, oils, acidic compounds,cardiac glycosides, tannins and saponins. Physicochemical analysis (total ash {4.7%}, water soluble ash {1%}, acid insoluble ash {12%}, sulphated ash 1.25%}); extractive value (ethanol extractive value {2.2%}, chloroform extractive value {10%}); histochemical analysis (lignified tissue, calcium oxalate, protein, starch, fat and oil and cellulose cell wall) and microscopic analysis of the powdered (branched multicellular non glandular trichomes, elongated unicellular non-glandular trichomes, epidermal cell of the testa,starch globules, annular xylem vessel, peristerm of raphae, large irregularly shaped calcium oxalate and layer of peristerm containing pigment). Conclusions: Finally, P. santaliniodes possess anti-diabetic property which may be linked to the phytoconstituent and thus could serve as lead drug.

2. Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Effects of Betel Nut with Haematological, Histopathological and Cytological Toxicity in Solid Tumour Bearing Mouse
Sudipta Chowdhury, Samarendra Nath Banerjee
The aim of the present study is to evaluate how ethanolic betel nut extract (BNE) at different doses influences the tumour growth rate on solid tumour bearing Swiss albino mouse along with haematological, histopathological and cytogenetical toxicity. In addition, the nature of vascular density of tumour has also been studied morphometrically to investigate the angiogenic effect of BNE. A solid tumour was induced on leg for experiment. After five days of tumour cell inoculation ethanolic BNE was injected intraperitoneally on alternating days. The solid tumour growth gradually increased with the steady increase of tumour vascularisation with increasing concentrations of BNE treatment. A steady decrease in the haemoglobin percentage and total RBC count along with lymphocyte population was noted with the steady increase in the WBC count and neutrophil population. Moreover, BNE at the different concentrations induces significant genetic damage i.e. chromosomal aberration in bone marrow cells and histopathological abnormalities in liver in solid tumour bearing mice. Therefore, our present studies indicate that ethanolic betel nut extract causes significantly  mutagenic, carcinogenic and angiogenic effects on solid tumour bearing mice.

3. Chemical and Anti-Free Radical Constituents of Three Organs of Entada Africana. Guill and Perr (Fabaceae), Used in the Traditional Treatment of Hepatic Disease
Doumbia S, Fofie NBY, Haidara M, Dembele DL, Denou A, Sanogo R
Entada africana is used in the management of jaundice and liver problems. Preclinical and clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of root extracts in relieving jaundice and hepatitis. The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and anti-free radical constituents of the leaves, trunk bark and roots of the plant. Color tube reactions and thin layer chromatography were used to characterize the chemical and anti-free radical constituents by reduction of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of the anti-free radical constituents of the extracts was determined with a spectrophotometer. The major constituents found are saponosides, polyphenols, coumarins, sterols and triterpenes. The decoction of the trunk bark and the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves are the most active with IC50 of 2.535 and 2.588 µg / ml respectively. Extracts rich in anti-free radical constituents may contribute to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties of Entada africana extracts in the management of liver diseases.

4. Gardenia gummifera L. F: A Review of its Bioactive Compounds and Ethnomedicinal Properties
Suma D., Raji R.N and M S Latha M.S
This review is an innovative approach to find the current status of a renowned medicinal plant Gardenia gummifera Linn. f., which is found in the tropical forests of India. The Indian traditional healers use most of the parts of the plant as a folklore medication for the treatment of various diseases, but the resin, leaves, and bark are of particular interest owing to their activity against cardiac debility, obesity, lipolytic disorders, bronchitis, dyspepsia, neuropathy, splenomegaly, etc. The present review aims to provide a concise report on the habitat, traditional uses, and various pharmacological activities of G. gummifera identified over the years through extensive research. Through the knowledge of the importance of plants such as Gardenia gummifera that have already entered the IUCN red book, it is expected that future research could focus on the conservation of such ethnobotanically relevant plants along with paving way for the discovery of plant-based medicines for the treatment of deadly diseases.

5. Novel Drug Delivery System Used in Cosmetics: A Short Review
Siddhi Khanke, Shweta Kale
Delivery systems area unit chemical agents that carry the active compounds to the location of their action. they’re utilized in cosmetics chiefly for his or her ability to enhance the soundness of sensitive actives, their higher incorporation into formulations, reduction of irritation potential, glorious penetration and sustained unleash properties. The foremost unremarkably used delivery systems embrace liposomes, noisome, microemulsions and Nano emulsions, small and nanoparticles, chemical compound micelles and cyclodextrin complexes. Their properties and effects area unit totally different and every system is appropriate for various kinds of compounds. Delivery systems area unit wide used for the incorporation of anti-aging compounds, like lightening agents, plant extracts, antioxidants and vitamins, similarly as for ultraviolet radiation filters and fragrances. Flavourer cosmetics area unit outlined because the product that ready by or enclosed plants and/or flavourer elements that area unit combination of the many natural molecules or compounds.

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