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1. Pharmacognostic Standardization and Antidiabetic Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of the Seeds of Pterocarpus Santalinoides L’herit Ex DCFamily Fabaceae
Ani A.C, Ezugwu C.O
Background: Diabetes remains a major public health concern affecting about 2.8% of the global population. Chronic hyperglycaemia of diabetes is frequently associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs. With multiple risk factors, delayed diagnosis, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs, there is a need to look for alternative treatment. Methods: Acute toxicity and anti-diabetic property of the methanolic extract of P.santaliniodes were evaluated on mice and alloxan induced diabetic rats respectively. Twenty alloxan induced diabetic rats were used for both chronic and sub chronic test. For both test methods, two dose levels (250mg/kg, 500mg/kg) were chosen. Water (5ml) and glybenclamide (5mg/kg) were used for negative and positive control respectively. Data obtained were analysed using analysis of varaiance (ANOVA) and T-test. The plant material was subjected to pharmacognostic studies, and it includes physicochemical analysis, phytochemical evaluation, determination of extractive value, histo-chemical analysis and microscopic analysis of the powdered crude drug. Results: The 250mg/kg dose and 500mg/kg dose were statistically significant at p<0.05 at day 1,6,9,12,24 and 6, 9, 12, 24 relative to the placebo for chronic respectively. For sub chronic study, statistical significance was seen only for 500mg/kg on day 10 relative to placebo at p<0.05. Phytochemical analysis of the plant revealed alkaloids, resins, steroids,terpenoids,flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, oils, acidic compounds,cardiac glycosides, tannins and saponins. Physicochemical analysis (total ash {4.7%}, water soluble ash {1%}, acid insoluble ash {12%}, sulphated ash 1.25%}); extractive value (ethanol extractive value {2.2%}, chloroform extractive value {10%}); histochemical analysis (lignified tissue, calcium oxalate, protein, starch, fat and oil and cellulose cell wall) and microscopic analysis of the powdered (branched multicellular non glandular trichomes, elongated unicellular non-glandular trichomes, epidermal cell of the testa,starch globules, annular xylem vessel, peristerm of raphae, large irregularly shaped calcium oxalate and layer of peristerm containing pigment). Conclusions: Finally, P. santaliniodes possess anti-diabetic property which may be linked to the phytoconstituent and thus could serve as lead drug.

2. Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Effects of Betel Nut with Haematological, Histopathological and Cytological Toxicity in Solid Tumour Bearing Mouse
Sudipta Chowdhury, Samarendra Nath Banerjee

The aim of the present study is to evaluate how ethanolic betel nut extract (BNE) at different doses influences the tumour growth rate on solid tumour bearing Swiss albino mouse along with haematological, histopathological and cytogenetical toxicity. In addition, the nature of vascular density of tumour has also been studied morphometrically to investigate the angiogenic effect of BNE. A solid tumour was induced on leg for experiment. After five days of tumour cell inoculation ethanolic BNE was injected intraperitoneally on alternating days. The solid tumour growth gradually increased with the steady increase of tumour vascularisation with increasing concentrations of BNE treatment. A steady decrease in the haemoglobin percentage and total RBC count along with lymphocyte population was noted with the steady increase in the WBC count and neutrophil population. Moreover, BNE at the different concentrations induces significant genetic damage i.e. chromosomal aberration in bone marrow cells and histopathological abnormalities in liver in solid tumour bearing mice. Therefore, our present studies indicate that ethanolic betel nut extract causes significantly  mutagenic, carcinogenic and angiogenic effects on solid tumour bearing mice.

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research