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1. Synthesis, Characterisation and Pharmacological Evaluation of Substituted Thiazole Derivatives as Anti-Fungal Agents
Meenu Chaudhary, Nischal Pandey, Praveen Kumar
In this present communication, we have synthesized 2-amino-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (A) by reacting with Thio urea and ethylacetoacetate in presence of N-bromosuccinimide and Benzoyl peroxide. Further compound (A) reacted with secondary amines, formaldehyde and ethanol to give newly synthesized compounds. All compounds are further characterized FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. These newly synthesized compounds are screened for in vitro anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans, Trichophyton and Aspergillus Niger by disc diffusion method.  Compound A3 [4-methyl-2- (Morpholine-4yl methyl)-amino-thiazole-carboxylic acid ethyl ester] have showed good anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans as compared to standard drug clotrimazole.

2. Comparative Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Antigonon leptopus, Artabotrys hexapetalus and Allamanda blanchetii Leaf Extracts
Manikumar Bollapragada, Manjula Shantaram
Oxidative stress, which is frequently induced by an overproduction of free radicals, poses a high risk to human health. A molecule that has an unpaired electron is called a free radical, which is highly reactive, and could cause damages to cellular components such as DNA, or the cell membrane inside the human body. Antioxidants to neutralize free radicals are produced by human body but ageing and oxidative stress conditions would increase the formation of free radicals, therefore exogenous antioxidants are needed. Antigonon leptopus, Artabotrys hexapetalus and Allamanda blanchetii leaves are popular choices in traditional herbal medicine practice. Those plants are traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus, inflammation, cytotoxic, thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities. In the present study, leaves of A. leptopus, A. hexapetalus and A. blanchetii were used to analyze the presence of phytochemicals and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant property. Quantitative determination of total flavonoids and total phenolics was evaluated using spectrophotometric equivalents of the standards, such asquercetin and gallicacid respectively. The antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were determined using DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power and total antioxidant capacity. From this study, it is inferred that methanolic extract of A. leptopus is a rich source of secondary metabolites and antioxidant potency when compared to A. hexapetalus and A. blanchetii. Therefore, this plant may serve as a source of natural product and be utilized to treat oxidative stress mediated diseases.

3. Pharmacognostic and In vitro Anti diabetic Activity on Aerial Parts of Leucas aspera (Willd). Link
Battu Ganga Rao, Anupoju Asha Naga Sai ,Devarakonda Ramadevi
The study was designed to identify the Phytochemical work, microscopical characters and Invitro antidiabetic activity of Leucas aspera. Plants are being used from more than 1000 years to treat many diseases. Leucas aspera commonly known as “Thumbai” or Gumma is found all over India.   The preliminary phytochemical screening of Leucas aspera was done by using Ethyl acetate, Acetone and Hydro alcoholic extracts. Ethyl acetate extract showed more intense on carbohydrates, proteins, glycosides, terpenoids. Acetone extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, phenols. Hydro alcoholic extract showed positive results on alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, glycosides, flavanoids, terpenoids and saponins. On  Microscopic study involves the T.S. of leaf and stem, Powder microscopy was carried out and it showed the presence of  dominating diacytic stomatas  when compared to anisocytic stomata. Starch grains, glandular trichomes,  lignified phloem fibres, lignified xylem vessels, prismatic  calcium oxalate crystals are present. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The incidence of diabetes increasing day by day and this indicates the increasing need for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study L.aspera were screened for antidiabetic activity by using assays such as glycosylation of hemoglobin assay, glucose uptake by yeast cells. Glycosylation of hemoglobin assay  was done by taking  the standard drug (Metformin) 5mg/ml and the plant extracts 2,4,6,8,10 mg/ml. However, 10mg/ml of plant extract showed equal inhibition of glycosylation when compared with standard drug. Glucose uptake by yeast cells  was carried out by using  1, 2,3,4,5 mg/ml of plant extracts and the result shows the % increase in glucose uptake by yeast cells at different glucose concentrations, the hydro alcoholic extract of 3 mg/ml has showed significant activity when compared to the standard drug.

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research