1. Comparison of the Chemical Composition and the Bioactivity of the Essetial Oils of Three Medicinal and Aromatic Plants from Jacky Garden of Morocco Moutaouafiq Salma, Farah Abdellah, Alilou El Houssine, Benbrahim Kawtar, Bousta Dalila
The purpose of this work is the comparative study of the bioactivity of three aromatic plants: Geranium (Pelagronium graveolens), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates) used by the local population for their medicinal virtues. Our samples came from an orchard in Agadir, Morocco. We examined their chemical components and their antibacterial activities against seven pathogens (Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus luteus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilisand Staphylococcus aureus). The extraction was carried out by hydrodistillation. The analysis of the essential oil was done through GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity was examined using the disc diffusion method. C.citratus showed the highest yield 0.992% vs. 0.763% for P.graveolens and 0.313% for C. aurantium. The chemical analysis of C. citratus revealed the presence of three major constituents namely Geranial, Neral, and Geraniol. The essential oil extracted from C. aurantium is essentially composed of Limonene, Linalool, γ-elemene and α- terpineol. On the other hand, the essential oil of P. graveolens is mainly composed of alcohol Geraniol, Citronellol, Nerol, and Linalool. The biological tests have shown that all the essential oils are active against all the tested bacteria.
Family Bignoniaceae is one of the richest families in secondary metabolites. It includes many genera of high economic and medicinal values. One of the important plants of this family is Markhamia platycalyx (Baker) Sprague. Reviewing the available literature, nothing could be traced concerning the botanical features of M. platycalyx. This provoked the authors to carry out both macromorphology and micromorphology investigations of it. These various diagnostic characters could be helpful in authentication and identification of M. platycalyx stems.
3. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Murraya koenigii Engwa A G, Unaegbu M, Francis O H, Obiudu I K, Ugwu F C, Agbafor N K
Reactive oxygen species generated from certain cellular processes cause tissue and cell damage and may alter the structure and functioning of proteins and nucleic acids. Endogenous antioxidant defence mechanisms involving certain enzymes as well as exogenous antioxidant from plants are capable of preventing such complications. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of Murraya koenigii (curry leaf) extracts. Water and ethanol extracts of the leaf were obtained by soxhlet extraction. In vitro antioxidant activity was by the ferric reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays and the total flavonoid and flavonol levels determined. The in vivo activity was assessed using albino wistar rats which were treated with 100mg/kg of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts and ascorbic acid as positive control for six consecutive days after which a single dose (2.5mL/kg body) of CCl4 was administered except for the normal control group 24hrs later. The animals were sacrificed and the liver homogenate was used to assess the catalase activity and lipidic peroxidation. Aqueous and ethanol extracts showed ferric reducing activity and were concentration dependent. The hydrogen peroxide scavenging potential was very high at various concentrations for both extracts (between 81.2 to 99.9%) comparable to ascorbic acid. Molondialdehyde (MDA) level (lipidic peroxidation) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in group 2 animals which received aqueous extract compared to group 1 (normal control) and group 4 (negative control). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the catalase activity of group 2 animals which received aqueous extract compared to the normal control. Acute toxicity was observed in group 5 animals administered ethanol extract. Flavonoid and flavonol were greater in the ethanol extract (625.33 and 835.04 g/g of rutin) than in the aqueous extract (449.33 and 100.33 g/g of rutin) respectively. These results suggest that Murraya koenigii (curry leaf) aqueous and ethanol extracts possess antioxidant activity due to high amounts of flavonoid and flavonol. This property may partly be responsible for the medicinal application of the plant.
4. Cytotoxicity and in vitro antioxidant potential of Quercus brantii acorn extract and the corresponding fractions Moradi M T, Karimi A, Alidadi S, Ghasemi-Dehkordi P, Ghaffari-goosheh M S
The present study was mainly aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of hydroalcoholic extract and three corresponding fractions of Quercus brantii acorn. A 70% ethyle alcohole extract of the plant were prepared and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol. The antioxidant potential of all these fractions was evaluated by the 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity method. Cytotoxic activity was tested against two normal cell lines (African green monkey kidney [Vero] and human dermal fibroblasts [HDFs]) by MTT assay. The results revealed that the n-butanol fraction exhibited the lowest IC50 value (6.5±0.6 μg/ml) with the highest antioxidant activity as compared to the other fractions. The IC50 values of the chloroform fraction, the n-butanol fraction, the crude extract, and the n-hexane fraction were found to be significant (p<0.05) as compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The results of cytotoxicity showed that the chloroform fraction exhibited the highest cytotoxicity toward Vero and HDFs cell lines at concentration of 60.6±23 and 287.8±38 μg/ml, respectively. We conclude that at least, n-butanol fraction of this plant with high phytoconstituents and less toxicity could be a promising source of medicinally important natural compound. Our findings, therefore, suggest that overall the studied extract/fractions exhibit low cytotoxicity on normal cell lines.
5. Morphoanatomical Studies of Markhamia platycalyx Leaves Basma Khalaf Mahmoud, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed Hamed, Mamdouh Nabil Samy, Mohamed Salah Kamel
Markhamia platycalyx is one of Bignoniaceae plants. It is known as Dolichandrone platycalyx and its foliage leaves are eaten by primates such as chimpanzees. This study includes the botanical study of Markhamia platycalyx (Baker) Sprague leaves. The microscopical study of the leaflet indicates the presence of anomalous wedge shaped masses of interxylary phloem and numerous scattered vascular bundles at the periphery of the pith. Moreover, the presence of two concentric amphicribal vascular bundles on the cortical tissue of two ridges with a closed amphivasal vascular bundle at the periphery of pith of the rachis.
6. A Review of Medicinal Plants Used in Therapy of Cardiovascular Diseases Ana H. Mota
Phytochemicals are present in fruits and vegetables, it is important the consumption by the effects in protection of cardiovascular diseases mainly because these diseases are the first cause of death in world. This study is a review of principal phytochemicals present in plants (that are used in meals or not), mainly: Allium cepa; Allium sativa; Citrus limon and Citrus sinensis; Coffea arabica and Coffea liberica; Ginkgo biloba; Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata, between others. The substances in these plants have a therapeutic effect in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) like as: hypertension, atherosclerosis and stroke, between others. By other side, we can conclude that principal compounds are flavonoids; antioxidants (action in oxidative stress); ouabain; cardenolide glicosides; lanatosides; tannins; sesquiterpenoids and phenolic compounds.
7. Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Total Ethanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Terminalia Bentzoe (L.) Leaves El-Rafie H M, Mohammed R S, Hamed M A, Ibrahim G E , Abou Zeid A H
A Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants extensively distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Numerous species of this genus have been utilized for medicinal purposes because of their valuable phytoconstituents. This study aimed to compare between the phytoconstituents of the hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of Terminalia bentzone (T. bentzoe) leaves as polar extract and its petroleum ether extract (PEE) as a nonpolar extract. Concerning this, total phenolics, flavonoids, proteins and carbohydrate content of the HAE were estimated. HPLC analysis of HAE revealed identification of nine phenolic acids, two flavonoids and one anthocyanin, they were gallic, ellagic, pyrogallol, catechin, chlorogenic acid, synergic acid, pyrocatechol, cinnamic acid, paraqumaric acid, caffeic acid, quercetin and rutin arranged according to the order of elution. Colum chromatographic separation of HAE resulted in the isolation of six compounds for the first time named: gallic acid1, ellagic2 methyl gallate3 catechin4, rutin5 and quercetin6. On the other hand, the PEE was fractionated to saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions and both fractions were analysed by GC/MS. The GC/MS analysis of the saponifiable fraction revealed the identification of thirty-seven compounds as fatty acid methyl esters representing 83.51% of the total fraction, methyl hexadecanoate (39.98%) constitutes the major fatty acid methyl ester followed by methyl octadecanoate (6.62%). The analysis of the unsaponifiable fraction disclosed the presence of forty-nine compounds representing 72.32% of the total compounds, where butylated hydroxyl toluene (10.03%) constitutes the major compound. Both HAE and PEE were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant potential by DPPH and β-carotene methods. The HAE superiors PEE in its antioxidant potentiality. Correspondingly, the HAE was subdued for further investigation embracing its in vivo antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities.
8. Five Edible Flowers – Valuable Source of Antioxidants in Human Nutrition Ivanka Petrova, Nadezhda Petkova, Ivan Ivanov
Consumption of the edible flowers forms new trend in human nutrition, especially in Bulgaria. Therefore, the determination of bioactive compounds content in their petals presents important tasks for their evaluation as natural source of antioxidants for human diet. In this study the quantity of natural pigments, total phenolic content and total flavonoids content, as well the antioxidant capacities in 95 % (v/v) ethanol, 70 % (v/v) ethanol, 80 % (v/v) methanol and distilled water extracts obtained from five edible flowers targets (Tagetes erecta L.), marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), geranium (Geranium macrorrhizum L.), bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.), Jerusalem artichoke (Helinathus tuberous L.) were invastigated. Total phenols and flavonoid quantification of the extracts was achieved by using Folin–Ciocalteau and AlCl3 reagents, respectively. Geranium 95 % ethanol extracts were evaluated as the richest source of total phenols -19.79 mg GAE/g fw, while 80% methanol extracts of Helinathus tuberous L. showed the highest values of total flavonoids content – 8.89 mg QE/g fw. The highest antioxidant capacities using two methods, DPPH and FRAP assays were obtained for 95% ethanol geranium (Geranium macrorrhizum L.) extracts – 242.9 and 106 mM TE/g fw, respectively. There was positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for all investigated edible flower extracts. All studied flowers could be a valuable source of antioxidants for addition to dishes or fresh consumption for preventing diets. These findings showed that the tested flowers could be considered as new sources of safe natural antioxidants and colorants for food industry.
9. Antioxidant Activities Evaluation of Citrus Leaves Extracts from West of Java-Indonesia Using DPPH and FRAP Assays Irda Fidrianny, Andi Amaliah, Sukrasno
The aim of this research were to measure antioxidant activity from different polarities leaves extracts of five citrus using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and correlation of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content in different polarities extracts of citrus leaves with their IC50 of DPPH and IC50 of FRAP antioxidant activities. Extraction was performed by reflux using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant activities using DPPH and FRAP assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities and EC50 of FRAP capacities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. All of different polarities leaves extracts of C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. limon, C hystrix and C. aurantifolia (except n-hexane extract of C. hystrix, n-hexane extract of C. aurantifolia and ethanolic extract of C. maxima) were very strong antioxidant, using DPPH assays. Phenolic compounds in C. aurantifolia leaves extracts were the major contributor in IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity and EC50 of FRAP capacity. Leaves extract of C. hystrix and C. aurantifolia had linear result in DPPH and FRAP assays.
10. Isolation and Characterization of Compounds from Fruits of Anamirta cocculus (Linn.) Satya V, Paridhavi M
Compounds from fruits of Anamirtacocculus were isolated and characterized. Thephytoconstituents present in fruits were isolated by soxhlet extraction with methanol. Thecompounds were separated by column chromatography and characterized by chemical and spectroscopicmethods. These compounds were identified as sesquiterpenoids and aliphatic amides containing carbonyl and hydroxyl functionalities namely,5,8‐dihydroxy‐12‐methyl‐2‐oxo‐6‐(prop‐1′‐en‐2′‐yl)‐3,11‐dioxatetracyclo,dodecane‐7carboxylicacid(CompoundA1),1-hydroxy-14 (2′‐hydroxypropan‐2′‐yl)‐13‐methyl‐4,7,10‐trioxapentacyclo,tetradecane‐6,11‐dione (CompoundA2) & Methyl 1, 6 – dihydroxy‐2‐methyl‐5‐oxo‐10‐(prop‐1′‐en‐2′‐yl)‐4,8‐dioxatetracyclo,dodecane‐11‐carboxylate (CompoundA3) and two aliphatic amides namely (2Z,4Z)‐N‐methyltetracosa‐2, 4‐dienamide (Compound A4)& N –Ethyl-5-O -?-d –Glucopyranosyl pentanamide (CompoundA5) were isolated and characterized.
11. Antimicrobial Activity Screening of Symbiotic Fungi from Marine Sponge Petrosia nigrans Collected from South Coast of West Sumatera, Indonesia Dian Handayani, Ronald Ornando, Rustini
The present study was concerned with the screening of antimicrobial activity from symbiotic fungi associated with marine sponge Petrosia nigrans collected from Carocok Coast of West Sumatera, Indonesia. The symbiotic fungi that associated with sponge were cultivated on SDA media. The test of antimicrobial activity was done by using agar diffusion method. The identification of bioactive fungi isolates was done by comparing its macroscopic and microscopic characteristic base on literature. A total of 18 fungi were obtained from marine sponge P. nigrans. The antimicrobial activity was studied with all the 18 isolates. Among those isolates shown to have antibacterial activity, namely P2, P4, P6, P11, P15 and P16 against S. aureus. Three of active fungi were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus (P2), Aspergillus flavus (P11), and Candida sp (P15). This study suggests that symbiotic fungi of P. nigrans having antibiotic producing properties and need to be investigated further so that it can be exploited in new drug discovery and used commercially in the future.
12. Assessment of Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from the Leaf, Stem, Fruit and Root of Pistacia lentiscus L. Zitouni Amel, Belyagoubi-Benhammou Nabila, Ghembaza Nacéra, Toul Fethi, Atik-Bekkara Fawzia.
Pistacia lentiscus belong to the family of Anacardiacea is widely used as medicinal plant in Algerian folk medicine for their powerful biological activities. The aim of this study is to quantify the different phenolic content from different parts of P. lentiscus (leaves, stems, fruits and roots), to evaluate their antioxidant activity, and to identify responsible molecules for this activity. The antioxidant activity of methanolic and selective extracts from all studied parts of P.lentiscus were evaluated by using DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching assay and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The phytochemical analysis of leaves, stems, fruits and roots extracts of P. lentiscus showed the presence of principal groups of secondary metabolites (flavonoids, tannins and anthocyanins). Leaves showed the highest value of phenolic compounds (216.289 ± 20.62 mg GAE/g DM), flavonoids (121.515± 9.171 mg CE/g DM) and condensed tannins (19.162 ± 0.436 mg CE/g DM). All extracts of leaves, stems and roots revealed a powerful total antioxidant capacity and high activities to scavenge DPPH radical, to reduce power and to inhibit the oxidation of β-carotene. Fruits exhibit the lowest values of antioxidant activity. Chemical composition realized by HPLC allowed the detection of gallic acid, ascorbic acid, r-coumaric acid, catechin and quercetin in the leaves of P. lentiscus, and for the first time: ferulic acid, vanillic acid and naringenin were also detected.
13. Melissa Officinalis L.- GC Profile and Antioxidant Activity Popova A, Dalemska, Z, Mihaylova D, Hristova I., Alexieva I
The rich world of herbs, with thousands of varieties and species, exhibiting multiple biological effects, including antioxidant activity, demands extensive studies. Melissa officinalis L., a representative of the Lamiaceae family, is a well-known herb that has long been used in traditional medicine to treat many disorders, and multiple studies have been conducted to identify its healing properties. The essential oil obtained by microdistillation of aerial parts of Melissa officinalis L. (Bulgarian origin) was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty-seven compounds were identified, representing 92.27 % of the total oil. The major components were terpenes with citronellal- 18.45 %, and geraniol- 15.22 % as the dominant representatives. Two water extracts were prepared to evaluate the radical-scavenging ability of M. officinalis – decoction and infusion. The antioxidant activity was determined using four spectrophotometric methods (ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC). The TEAC values of the herb ranged from 389.52±3.11 μM TE/g DW (DPPH-infusion) to 1228.71±46.07 μM TE/g DW (CUPRAC-decoction). A significant correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity was also determined. All obtained results revealed M. officinalis as a potential source of natural antioxidants.
14. Sesquiterpene Lactones and Flavonoids from Artemisia sieberi
Lamya H. Alwahibi, Wael M. Abdel-Mageed, Mohamed S. A. Abdelkader, Soad A. L. Bayoumi, Omer A. Basudan, Ali A. El-Gamal, Krishna Bolla
Phytochemical Investigation of the leaves of Artemisia sieberi growing in Saudi arabia leads to isolation of eight sesquiterpene lactones of eudesmanolide 1-4, germacranolide 5-7 and davanone 8 types in addition to six methoxylated flavonoid derivatives 9-14. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against human Hela and MCF-7 cell lines. The results exhibited that none of the isolated sesquiterpenoids displaying any cytotoxic activity whilst isolated flavonoids exhibited promising growth inhibitory action.
15. Human Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Effect, Antioxidant In Vivo of Algerian Germander Extracts
Boussoualim N, Krache I, Baghiani A, Trabsa H, Aouachria S, Arrar L
Objective The aim of this study consisted in evaluating the antioxidant in vivo properties, anti-hemolytic and XOR inhibitory effect of Globularia alypum L. (GA) extracts. Methods: GA was submitted to extraction and fractionation to give crude (CrE), chloroformique (ChE), ethyle acetate (EAE) and aqueos (AqE) extracts. Total polyphenols contents of GA extracts were determined. The inhibitory activity of the extracts on the human oxidoreductase was evaluated. antioxidant activities of the CrE, EAE and AqE were tested by an in vivo assay in mice, the plasma ability to inhibit DPPH radical was measured. Results: EAE is the most rich in polyphenols (157.74 ± 5.27 mg GAE/mg of extract). GA Extracts inhibited XO in a concentration-dependent manner, the EAE showed the highest inhibitory properties on the XOR activity (IC50 = 0.083 ± 0.001 mg/ml), followed by CrE and ChE. The The CrE was found to exhibit the greatest scavenger activity with 48.41 ± 2.763%, followed by AqE and EAE (40.54± 7.51% and 41.79± 1.654%, respectively). Total antioxidant capacity of red blood cells was measured, from the kinetics of hemolysis obtained. The calculated HT50 reveal an extension of time for half hemolysis in all treated groups compared with the control group. CrE increase significantly HT50 (112.8± 2.427 min). The hemolysis is lagged, indicating that endogenous antioxidants in the erythrocytes can trap radicals to protect them against free-radical-induced hemolysis. Conclusions: Globularia alypum L. fractions have a strong inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidoreductase and also have a significant antihemolytic and antioxydant effect.
16. Attenuating Effect of Elsholtzia Communis (Collett & Hemsl.) Diels. on Dysregulated HPA Axis in Stressful Conditions Barua C C, Patowary P, Bordoloi M J, Dutta P P, Dutta D J, Purkayastha A, Barua I C
The study was conducted to evaluate the adaptogenic activity of hydroethanolic extract of Elsholtzia communis (Collett & Hemsl.) Diels. by estimation of neurobiological and biochemical changes associated with acute and chronic stress. Adult male Wistar rats were given forced swimming induced acute and chronic stress for 3 and 7 days, respectively. Hydroethanolic extract of Elsholtzia communis (EC) was orally administered at 100 (EC-100) and 200 (EC-200) mg/kg doses. For comparison, Panax ginseng (PG) extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard adaptogen. Plasma corticosterone, BDNF level, brain levels of lipid peroxides (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), cortical and hippocampal levels of monoamines viz. norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Ep) and dopamine (DA) were quantified for ascertaining biochemical changes accompanying stress. The results were further confirmed by the estimation of various proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α) in serum. As compared to vehicle treated stressed rats, the EC and PG treated significantly normalised chronic acute and chronic stress induced elevation of corticosterone and reduction of plasma BDNF; both doses (EC-100 and EC-200) stabilized the irregular oxidative status of the brain in stressed rats. EC treatment further suppressed the elevated levels of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in stressed animals. The leaf of the plant is consumed by the local tribes in Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh of northeast India, easily cultivated by farmers for its immense popularity. Hence, our study as an adpatogen has added one more medicinal property of this food plant, which can be successfully utilised as an adpatogen to combat adverse climatic condition prevailing in those areas.
17. Cytotoxic and Antidiabetic Activity of Leaf Extracts of Paedaria Foetida. L Bhatnagar S, Sahoo M
Cytotoxic and antidiabetic effects of Paederia foetida L. leaf extracts were explored using Brine shrimp lethality bioassay and antidiabetic effect by alpha glucosidase and alpha amylase inhibition activity. Four extracts were prepared these were hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol. Mild cytotoxic and anti diabetic activity was obtained in most of the extracts, highest antidiabetic as well as cytotoxic activity was obtained in acetone extract in both 45 and 64 percent respectively.
18. Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Chloroform Extract of Sida acuta Burm. F. Perumalsamy Muneeswari, Subburaj Deepika, Palanisamy Chella Perumal, Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan, Kannappan Poornima
Sida acuta is one of the Indian medicinal plant which belongs to the family Malvaceae. The whole plant is reported to have many biological activities such as abortifacient, anthelmintic, antiemetic, demulcent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, stomachic, diaphoretic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. Therefore main aim of the present study is to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of the chloroform extract of sida acuta. Screening of phytochemical constituents and free radical scavenging potential were analyzed by DPPH radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, Reducing power assay and FRAP assay. The preliminary phytochemical screening has shown the presence of Steroids, flavonoids, tannins and Glycosides. The chloroform extract of Sida acuta hold restrained free radical scavenging activities. Based on the results this study can be concluded that, sida acuta has rich free radical scavenging activities, may be which the presence these secondary metabolites in it. In future by isolating and identifying these compounds, if may be used to treat various diseases.
19. Cytotoxic Compounds from Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum (a. juss.) Miq. Mariquit M. De Los Reyes, Glenn G. Oyong, Vincent Antonio S. Ng, Chien-Chang Shen, Consolacion Y. Ragasa
Squalene (1), polyprenol (2), triglycerides (3), and β-sitosterol (4), isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum, were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities against three human cancer cell lines, breast (MCF-7) and colon (HT-29 and HCT-116), and a normal cell line, human dermal fibroblast neonatal (HDFn) using the in vitro PrestoBlue® cell viability assay. The HT-29 cell line was most susceptible to the compounds tested. Squalene (1) and polyprenol (2) were most cytotoxic against HT-29 (IC50 of 0.84 and 1.059 μg/mL, respectively), followed by MCF-7 (IC50 of 4.404 and 3.786 μg/mL, respectively), and HCT-116 (IC50 of 7.859 and 9.258 μg/mL, respectively). Triglycerides (3) was highly anti-proliferative against HT-29 cells (IC50 of 2.738 μg/mL) and moderately inhibitory against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells (IC50 of 13.05 and 16.12 μg/mL, respectively). β-Sitosterol (4) was most cytotoxic against HT-29 and MCF-7 (IC50 of 1.41 and 2.277 μg/mL, respectively) and moderately cytotoxic against HCT-116 (IC50 of 11.63 μg/mL). Comparing the cytotoxic effects of these compounds against the three cancer cell lines, 1–4 were most cytotoxic against HT-29. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 were less inhibitory to MCF-7 and least inhibitory to HCT-116. Comparing the effects of 1–4 on the two colon cancer cell lines, their IC50 values against HT-29 were lower than those of HCT-116. Compounds 1–4 showed moderate cytotoxicity against HDFn cells (11.18 to 17.72 μg/mL) and were less cytotoxic to the normal cells than the cancer cells.
20. Comparative Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Phytochemicals in Five Different Herbal Formulations of Bacopa monnieri
Bhardwaj P, Jain C.K, Mathur A
Current study highlights the qualitative and quantitative analysis of different therapeutically important phytochemicals in five different herbal formulations of Bacopa monnieri. Crude extraction of phytochemicals were optimized using two different methods and solvents viz. conventional solvent extraction (CSE) method and maceration method, with one of the herbal powder formulation, HF-1. Based on higher cumulative phytochemicals yield in macerated methanolic extract, all further extractions from different herbal formulations were performed using maceration in methanol. Spectrophotometric analysis of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and saponins yield showed variations among different formulations. Like TPC, TFC was also comparatively higher in macerated methanolic extract of HF-3 than other formulation while saponins were comparatively higher in HF-4. Also, thin layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis of all five formulations showed variations in the saponins among different formulation. Saponins being the major component showing nootropic properties of the plant extract, suggesting possible variations in therapeutic potential.
21. Validated High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Quantitative Determination of Anthracenderivatives in Decoction, Syrup and Water-Alcohol Extract of Rhamnus cathartica L. Fruits. Shmygareva A A, Kurkin V A, Sankov A N
A wide range of chromatographic methods for the analysis of anthracenderivatives in medicinal plants has been published over the years. However, no high performance liquid chromatographic methods using for the analysis of anthracenderivatives in decoction, syrup and water-alcohol extract of Rhamnus cathartica L. The method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the most sensitive and effective for identification and quantitative determination of anthracenderivatives in medical plants. Using HPLC analysis we obtained the results of the quantitative determination of anthracenderivatives in decoction, syrup and water-alcohol extract of Rhamnus cathartica L. fruits. The content of total anthracenderivatives in decoction amounted to 7,58 µg/20 ml, in syrup amounted to 3,99 µg/20 ml, in water-alcohol extract amounted to 8,21/20 ml µg.
22. An Isoflavonoid Phtoalexin and a Sesquiterpene from Cycas wadei Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Vincent Antonio S. Ng, Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo, Chien-Chang Shen
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of the roots of Cycas wadei, a plant endemic to the Philippines, led to the isolation of a new isoflavonoid phtoalexin, wadeiol (1) and selin-4(5)-en-1β,11-diol (2). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.
23. Pharmacognostical investigation of leaf and stem of Persea Americana Amany Hamouda Mahmoud, Mamdouh Nabil Samy, Amira Samir Wanas, Mohamed Salah Kamel
Persea americana Mill (family Lauraceae) is an evergreen tree native to Mexico and Central America and distributed in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Avocados are commercially valuable and are cultivated in tropical and Mediterranean climates throughout the world. The present study deals with macro and micromorphological investigations of leaf and stem Persea americana, which assists in identification and standardization of the plant in both entire and powdered forms.