International Journal of

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 4873

p-ISSN: 2961-6069

Peer Review Journal

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1. Superdisintegrants from Natural Origin: An Updated Review
Satyajit Panda, Gayatri Sethi, Pipasa Madhusrota
The  desire  of  improved  attractiveness  in  orally  administered  products  has  prompted  the  advancement of various formulations with improved performance and acceptability. Orally disintegrating tablets are an urgent trend in novel drug delivery systems and have received ever-increasing demand during the last few decades. This  is  accomplish  by  decreasing  the  disintegration  time  which  in turn  enhances drug dissolution  rate. Disintegrants  are  substances  or  combination  of  substances enhance to the  drug preparation that  encourages  the  breakup  or  disintegration  of  tablet  or  capsule  content  into  smaller  particles  that  dissolve  more rapidly. Superdisintegrants are utilized to increase the effectiveness of solid dosage forms. Superdisintegrants are essentially utilized at a lower level in the solid dosage form, normally 1- 10 % by weight relative to the total weight of the dosage unit. Diverse  categories  of  Superdisintegrants  such  as  synthetic, natural and  co-processed  blends  etc.  have  been  employed  to  develop  effectual  orodispersible or mouth  dissolving  tablets  and  to  overcome  the limitations of conventional tablet dosage form. In recent times there is an extreme demand of the natural Superdisintegrants over synthetic or semi-synthetic ones because of their abundant availability, cheaper rates, non-irritating and nontoxic properties. The current study describes the different Superdisintegrants  collected from natural origin which  are  being  used  in  the  formulation  to  provide  the  safer, effective  drug delivery with improved patient’s compliance.

2. Malvastrum coromandelianum (l.) Garcke: An Invasive Weed with Multiple Ethnopharmacological Properties
Shaiphali Saxena, D. S. Rawat and P. B. Rao
Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke (Malvaceae) is an invasive alien weed distributed globally in tropics, subtropics and utilized by diverse ethnic groups of tribal populations as a conventional drug against manifold disorders in multifarious forms like powder, paste, infusion, etc. However, the phytopharmacological data are very scarce on this plant species. The present review mainly focuses on the ethno-pharmacological aspects of the title plant based on bibliographic investigation. The phytochemicals like malvastrone 1, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, dotriacontanol, campesterol, n-hexadecanoic acid, diosgenin, guanosine, squalene, etc., have been traced and identified in the leaves. The plant holds anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, analgesic, larvicidal, antioxidative, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, wound healing and antidiarrhoeal properties.

3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Potentialities and In-vivo Safety Tests of Ocimum gratissimum Lin (Lamiaceae) a Leaf Vegetable for Medicinal Use in Cotonou, Republic of Benin
Kpètèhoto H W, Johnson R C, Amoussa A M O, Houéto E E M, Mignanwandé F M Z, Loko F, Lagnika L
The empirical use coupled with the toxicity of medicinal plants and the emergence of resistant bacterial strains impose on researchers new health challenges. In Benin, Ocimum gratissimum is the subject of a wide range of uses in folk medicine. Initiated to promote the safe use of Ocimum gratissimum, this study evaluates the antimicrobial and safety properties of this plant. The material used consists of a bacterial carrier, ethanolic extract and female Wistar rats. The MICs and the reversion of the bacterial resistance were investigated by microdilution in a liquid medium. The CMBs were determined by tube dilution coupled with solid medium spreading and kinetics of action by spectrophotometry. The ETMs were measured by voltammetry with redissolution. Oral gavage was performed with an intragastric tube following OECD guidelines, Standards 423 (Acute Toxicity) and 407 (Subchronic Toxicity), followed by blood sampling by retro-orbital sinus puncture. Hematological and biochemical analyzes were performed on the basis of standardized protocols and histological examinations by eosin staining and microscopic observation. The threshold of significance of the statistical results was set at P ˂ 0.05%. The in vitro tests reveal MICs and CMBs with a resistant, bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect in contact with the extract respectively on 12.5%, 25% and 62.5% of the germs tested. The bacterial load of the most sensitive seeds is reduced in the reaction medium to 72.44% or 98.49% after 32 hours. The reversal of bacterial resistance showed hypersensitive reductions in MIC and a synergistic effect for all tested germs. The plant contains negligible levels of cadmium and arsenate. In vivo testing did not result in any mortality or changes in behavior. The doses tested do not have a significant impact on the elements of general toxicity, the hematological and biochemical parameters. Histological examinations revealed no evidence of atypia. Ocimum gratissimum with antibacterial potential requires a clinical safety of 5000 mg.Kg-1 single dose or up to 1000 mg.Kg-1 taken daily for 28 days.

4. Treatment with ethanolic extract of senna auriculata, phyllanthus emblica.l., syzygium cumini(l.) Skeels used by rural areas of rajasthan state, india on diabetic complications like nephropathy & cardiomyopathy in rats.
Ashish KumarSharma, Charanjeet Singh
Purpose of the research: India is “diabetes capital of the world”. Diabetes Atlas-2006: Rise to 69.9 million by 2025 unless urgent preventive steps are taken, considered major causes of morbidity and mortality. Methods: Rats treated Alloxan(150 mg/kg)i.p. results diabetic rats given ethanol extract of Senna auriculata leaf, Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels seeds and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels seeds(150 mg/kg)p.o.,for 42 days. Biochemical parameters of diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiomyopathy and histopathology of sciatic nerve, kidney and heart was done at end. Results: In Diabetic Group found Blood Glucose level(BGL)(84.42±6.384 to 369.36±7.784mg/dl);. blood protein(7.48±0.051 to 25.18±0.046mg/dl); urine protein(0.692±0.061 to 2.68±0.056mg/dl); blood albumin(1.94±0.043 to 0.248±0.007mg/dl); urine albumin(0.082±0.009 to 2.68±0.056mg/dl); blood myoglobin(0.042±0.00274 to 0.056±0.00207ng/dl); urine myoglobin(0.0048±0.00142 to 0.0098±0.00107mg/dl); Blood Urea Nitrogen(BUN)(23.04±1.093 to 124.81±1.238 mg/dl); Serum Creatinine(84.06±6.723 to 218.56±7.586(µMol/dl). Etholic extract of Senna auriculata leaf, Phyllanthus emblica.L. fruits and Syzygium cumini(L.)Skeels seeds & combination treated groups found BGL124.42±7.042, 112.07±6.942, 126.25±7.051 & 98.83±6.932mg/dl; blood protein7.98±0.039, 8.02±0.053, 8.06±0.039 & 7.48±0.045mg/dl; urine protein1.22±0.058, 0.94±0.049, 0.96±0.056 & 0.82±0.062mg/dl; blood albumin1.64±0.033, 1.82±0.036, 1.87±0.044 & 1.96±0.039mg/dl; urine albumin0.122±0.008, 0.098±0.007, 0.132±0.009 & 0.108±0.011mg/dl; blood myoglobin0.045±0.00189, 0.036±0.00177, 0.041±0.00223 & 0.043±0.00175ng/dl; urine myoglobin0.0042±0.00129, 0.0052±0.00119, 0.0064±0.00126 & 0.0036±0.00125mg/dl; BUN35.81±1.186, 36.06±1.123, 34.53±1.177 & 29.03±1.229mg/dl; Serum Creatinine98.42±5.526, 99.73±6.064, 101.97±6.052 & 94.83±6.678µMol/dl. Conclusions: Ethanol extract of three plants (150mg/kg) and  combination normalizes biochemical parameters & Morphological changes myocardium & kidney. Combination was found to be more effective in these diabetic complications.

5. Quantification of Shankhpushpi Using Phytochemical and Molecular Markers
Irshad Saba, Singh Niraj, Khatoon Sayyada, Rana T S 
Shankhpushpi is a well known brain tonic of Ayurveda. However, controversies associated with its authenticity due to several plant species such as Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy., Clitoria ternatea L., Evolvulus alsinoides L. and Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. reported in the literature. In the present study High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography was used to know the concentration of phytochemical markers of all the collected species and commercial samples of Shankhpushpi. RAPD and ISSR profiling were done and phylogenetic tree was generated to check their genetic similarity with collected plant species. The results showed variation in phenolics (ferulic and caffeic acid) and terpenoid (β-sitosterol and lupeol) markers in all the Shankhpushpi samples. These variations were correlated with RAPD and ISSR profiling which showed that Shankhpushpi samples of Delhi, Hisar and Jaipur came in same cluster with C. pluricaulis in the dendrogram. Hence, the above commercial samples resembled C. pluricaulis. However, phytochemical markers, RAPD and ISSR profiling in other samples of Shankhpushpi were showed the mixture of two species. The Mumbai sample was unidentified. Phytochemical markers and molecular profiling are important tool for herbal drug authentication and applicable to assure the quality, efficacy and batch to batch consistency in the pharmaceutical preparation of Shankhpushpi.

6. Biocidal activities of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Tagetes minuta against Antestiopsis orbitalis ghesquierei carayon (Heteroptera: Pentatomoidae) in vitro
Jean Augustin Rubabura Kituta,  Jean Jacques Bagalwa Mashimango, Lorena Aguirre Cadarso, Christian Masunga  Lubaki, Jean Baptiste Mugisho Lushombo
An account is given of the effectiveness against antestia bugs of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and of Tagetes minuta plants traditionally used in South Kivu, the eastern of the Democratic Republic of Congo to protect coffee. The two organic botanical extract have positive biological compounds. Respectively, the aqueous extract of Tagetes minuta and Chenopodium ambrosioides show the high rate mortality of Antestiopsis orbitalis of 91, 7 % and 83, 3 % by using 200 g/mL. At the concentration application of 20 mg/mL, Tagetes minuta has high toxicity because 50 % of Antestiopsis orbitalis killed in 24 hours but Chenopodium ambrosioides need high concentration of 85 mg/mL to kill 50 % of the same insect in vitro. The extract of Tagetes minuta has high toxicity against Antestiopsis orbitalis than Chenopodium ambrosioides in vitro.

7. Exploration of Antibacterial Properties of Gnidia Glauca (Fresen) Gilg. Leaf Saponin Fraction
Torankumar Sannabommaji, Vadlapudi Kumar, Poornima D.V., Giridhara Basappa, Gajula Hari, Rajashekar J.
The present study deals with the evaluation of in vitro antibacterial profile of leaf saponin fraction of Gnidia glauca (Fresen) Gilg (Thymelaeaceae) against two bacterial blight Gram-negative bacterial strains viz., Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas campestris pv. punicae. The antibacterial activity of saponin fraction was evaluated through zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth dilution method. Leaf saponin fraction of G. glauca affected the growth curve of both the bacterial strains, through affecting outer membrane permeability, causing cellular contents leakage as confirmed by the respective assays. The G. glauca leaf saponin fraction is rich in triterpenoid saponins, showed significant antibacterial activity with MIC at12.5 µg/ml against X. oryzae and X. punicae. Further the present study gives insights into its mode of action of G. glauca leaf saponins, and potential application as natural bactericidal agents to manage and control of bacterial blight causing pathogens in crop plants.

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