Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


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Volume3,Issue3

1. Quality Standards of Ringworm Cassia
Kumavat U, Shimpi S, Jagdale S, Bindu G
Abstract
Ringworm Cassia is the commercial name of Cassia alata Linn. (Family – Leguminosae). Leaves of C. alata are used to cure ringworm – a fungal skin infection. They are also recommended as antibacterial, antiparasitic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antineoplastic, etc. Generally leaves are marketed in dehydrated form for preparation of variety of products like, herbal tea, extracts, tinctures, herbal soaps and shampoos. To ensure the authenticity and quality of leaves of Ringworm Cassia, the pharmacognostic study is of utmost importance. In present work, for first time the pharmacopoeial standards are laid down for the said drug. Along with unique morphological features, the drug anatomically shows glandular trichomes and papillose lower epidermis. In microscopic study of powdered drug, epidermal cells with circular outlines of papillae become diagnostic characteristic. Along with these identifying characters, physicochemical constants are also of help in detection of drug impurities. Thus all these quality standards will prove to be useful in assessment of marketed crude drug. In addition to this, the phytochemical analysis exhibits presence of major secondary metabolites which can act as the indicators of bioactivity of the drug.

2. Isolation of Diterpenoid Lactones from the Leaves of Andrographis Paniculata and Its Anticancer Activity
N.V.L Sirisha Mulukuri, N.B.Mondal, M.Raghu Prasad, S.Renuka, K.Ramakrishna
Abstract
Ringworm Cassia is the commercial name of Cassia alata Linn. (Family – Leguminosae). Leaves of C. alata are used to cure ringworm – a fungal skin infection. They are also recommended as antibacterial, antiparasitic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antineoplastic, etc. Generally leaves are marketed in dehydrated form for preparation of variety of products like, herbal tea, extracts, tinctures, herbal soaps and shampoos. To ensure the authenticity and quality of leaves of Ringworm Cassia, the pharmacognostic study is of utmost importance. In present work, for first time the pharmacopoeial standards are laid down for the said drug. Along with unique morphological features, the drug anatomically shows glandular trichomes and papillose lower epidermis. In microscopic study of powdered drug, epidermal cells with circular outlines of papillae become diagnostic characteristic. Along with these identifying characters, physicochemical constants are also of help in detection of drug impurities. Thus all these quality standards will prove to be useful in assessment of marketed crude drug. In addition to this, the phytochemical analysis exhibits presence of major secondary metabolites which can act as the indicators of bioactivity of the drug.

3. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies of The Leaves of Albizia Odoratissima (L.F) Benth
M. Rajan, V. Kishor Kumar, P. Satheesh Kumar, T. Venkatachalam, V. Anbarasan
Abstract
Various traditional systems of medicine enlightened the importance of the leaves of Albizia odoratissima (L.F) benth (Mimosoideae) to have a great medicinal value. The present study was aimed at pharmacognostic and preliminary phytochemical evaluations of A.odoratissima leaves. The pharmacognostic investigations were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopy, microscopic and physical parameters. The dried leaves powder was subjected to successive Soxhlet extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water. These solvent extracts were subjected to a preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the different chemical principles present viz., carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, fixed oils. The phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and phenolic compounds, fixed oils. These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity, quality and classification of the plant, which is gaining relevance in plant drug research.

4. Pharmacognostical studies on the root tuber of Pimpinella tirupatiensis Bal. & Subr. – An endemic to Tirumala Hills of Eastern Ghats, India
A. Sudhakar, C. Ramesh, N. Nagaraju, K. Sri Rama Murthy
Abstract
Pimpinella tirupatiensis Bal. & Subr. (Apiaceae) has potential medicinal value in traditional medicine for various use like aphrodisiac, stomachache, sexual debility, ulcers in the stomach, mouth, throat etc., The present study deals with the Pharmacognostical examinations like morphological and histological characters of root tubers of Pimpinella tirupatiensis besides physiochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analysis. These observations will enable to standardize the botanical identity of the drug in its crude form. Data evolved in this exploration could be used in laying down pharmacopoeial principles for the drug studied, as standardization of herbal medicines is completely essential and is need of the hour.

5. Phytochemical Screening of The Rhizome of Kaempferia Galanga
Rajendra C E, Gopal S Magadum, Mahaboob Ali Nadaf, Yashoda S.V, Manjula M
Abstract
Different extracts of Kaempferia galanga rhizome were screened for the presence of chemically active compounds by Standard methods. The results revealed the presence of sterols, Triterpenoids and resins in petroleum ether extract, sterols, Triterpenoids, Flavanoids and resins in chloroform extract, Steroids, Triterpenoids, alkaloids, Flavanoids, carbohydrates, resins and proteins in methanolic extract. The water extract showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates and proteins. However the tannin content was not detected from any of the rhizome extracts under sturdy, were commended. Further research on this plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various chemical active substances.

6. Common Herbal Plant in Uttarakhand, Used in The Popular Medicinal Preparation in Ayurveda
Rakhi Rawat, D P Vashistha
Abstract
A survey was conducted at different herbal drug stores in Uttarakhand, to list plants components of various Ayurvedic formulations being sold. The list contained about 150 medicinal plants. The most notable among them are Aconitum heterophyllum, Acorus calamus, Adhatoda zeylanica, Asparagus racemosus, Aleo barbadensis, Andrographis paniculata, Boerhavia diffusa, Bergenia ligulata, Callicarpa macrophylla, Cissampelos pareira, Eclipta prostrata, Evolvulus alsinoides, Hedychium spicatum, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Swertia chirayita, Oroxylum indicum, Plumbago zeylanica, Ricinus communis, Sida cordifolia, Solanum nigrum, Tribulus terrestris, Tinospora cordifolia, Valeriana jatamansi, Vitex negundo, Withania somnifera and Zanthoxylum armatum. The listed plants are given complete description viz, taxonomy, habitat, branded drug etc. It is also evident that few herbal plants : Acorus calamus, Aconitum hetrophyllum , Aegle marmelos, Asparagus racemosus , Boerhavia diffusa, Callicarpa macrophylla, Eclipta prostrata, Gloriosa superba, Hedychium spicatum, Oroxylum indicum, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Plumbago zylanica, Vitex negundo etc, are regular constituent of several medicines, while Amaranthus polygonum, Cinnamonum zylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Solanum nigrum, Symplocos racemosa are used in preparation of specific drugs . The present study assumes significance in selection of herbal plants recommended for cultivation and emphasizes herbal potential of Uttarakhand.

7. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies on Hemidesmus Indicus Root
Rajan. S, Shalini. R, Bharathi. C, Aruna. V, Elgin. A, Brindha. P
Abstract
Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants are one of the richest sources of bioactive compounds. Roots of Hemidesmus indicus is one of the plant drugs used as a tonic, demulcent, diaphoretic and diuretic, in the treatment of syphilis, chronic rheumatism and urinary disorders. Scientific evidences further supports traditional uses of this traditional drug. Present work aims to highlight the phytochemical and pharmacognostical standards of Hemidesmus indicus root. Organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical and fluorescence features were studied along with their phytochemical features using methods given in Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Market samples were also analysed pharmacognostically and phytochemically and compared with authentic samples.

8. Isolation, Characterization and Evaluation of Anti-microbial Activity of Ravenia spectabilis (Rutaceae)
Alam A, Asaduzzaman M, Nasrin N
Abstract
Stem bark of the plant Ravenia spectabilis (family: Rutaceae) was extracted and the extract was fractionated by using standard chromatographic techniques. This yielded a total of four compounds among which one was an alkaloid that was isolated and identified by spectral data (1D and 2D NMR). The alkaloid has been characterized as arborinine [RS- 1]. The other compounds isolated from the plant (RS-2, RS-3 & RS-5) could not be elucidated due to insufficient spectral data. Two VLC fractions of crude extracts from which pure compounds were isolated, were screened for their antibacterial activities against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activities against some clinically isolated fungi were also observed. The results obtained were compared with those for a standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The zones of inhibition produced by the VLC fraction-16 were found to be 08-12 mm at a concentration of 200 μg/disc. Fraction-16 exhibited moderate activity against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Vibrio mimicus and mild activity against some other studied bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi. Fraction-11 showed no activity and found to be resistant against bacteria and fungi studied. Fraction -16 showed moderate activity against Aspergillus niger and Sacharomyces cerevacae fungi and mild activity against Candida albicans.

9. Quercetin Reduces Staphylococcus aureus Interaction With Neutrophils
Camargo M.S., Bonacorsi C., Kitagawa, R. R., D A Fonseca L.M., Raddi M.S.G.
Abstract
Flavonoids, including quercetin, have been reported to modulate the ability of Staphylococcus aureus to adhere to host tissue without exhibiting direct antibacterial activity. In the present study, we evaluated the interaction of S. aureus pretreated with 40 μg/mL of quercetin with neutrophils to assay oxidative burst stimulation, using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. S. aureus pre-incubated with subinhibitory concentration of quercetin induced significantly less light emission by neutrophils than did untreated bacteria. The results of the present study demonstrate that quercetin decreases S. aureus uptake by neutrophils.

10. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum
Sneha G, Margaret N J, Sastry P, Jyothi Ch
Abstract
A study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Ocimum oil. The oil extracts were prepared using Clevenger-Hydro-Distillation process. Antibacterial activity of oil extracts was tested using Disc diffusion method. Ocimum showed high antibacterial activity. This was compared against antibiotics routinely used as chemotherapeutic agents. Our investigations indicated that Ocimum extracts are equally or sometimes more effective as antibacterial agents in comparison to antibiotics.






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research