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1. Antidiabetic Potential of Aqueous and Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Vitex negundo.
Prasanna Raja. P , Sivakumar. V , Riyazullah. M. S.
The traditional system of the medicine remains the major source of the health care. It is safe alternative, lesser cost and better tolerance and its complications. Aqueous and ethanol leaf extract of Vitex negundo was studied for its antidiabetic activity using alloxan induced diabetic model in rats. The aqueous extract showed (P<0.01) significant activity than the ethanol extract at the tested dose level, which were comparable to glibenclamide, a standard antidiabetic drug.

2. Oral Glucose Tolerance of Traditional Medicines in a Diabetes Induced Rat Model.
Femi Kayode Fatokun , Michael Paul Danckwerts, Nigel Crowther
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the oral glucose tolerance activity of aqueous extracts of Icacina tracantha (tuber) (fam Icacinaceae,) Ananas cosmos (fam. Bromeliaceae), and Uraria picta (leaves) (fam leguminosae) on a high calorie diet fed animal model to induce type II diabetes. These plants have a long history of use as anti-diabetic agents in western Nigeria. 120 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into two major groups. One group was fed on normal rat chow with the other group fed on a high calorie diet for four months. The plant crude extracts were prepared according to the traditional healer method of boiling, filtering, drying and reconstituting. A nontreated group as well as a metformin dosed group of rats were used as the control and comparator respectively. Over a 3 week period, all the animals were orally dosed with the different doses of plant extracts daily. Blood was collected from of each rat prior to dosing and thereafter weekly, and analysed for glucose concentration. During this period, the animals were weighed weekly and food intake was measured every three days. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after the dosing period and fasting, 0, 30, 60 and 120 minute blood samples were taken and assayed for glucose concentration. Only UP showed a significant difference in its effect on the plasma glucose lowering in the normal chow fed rats. The effect of the plant extracts on the weight, and food consumed, was minimal and in most of the groups was not significant.The administered doses of IC and UP in the normal diet fed animals significantly improved the glucose clearance rates. None of the different plant extracts had any significant effect on the glucose clearance rate in the high calorie diet fed animals. Higher doses need to be checked in future studies as well as the insulin sensitivity of the plant extracts.

3. Effect of Hesperdin isolated from orange peels on Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity.
Sreedevi Adikay, Spandana U., Bharathi, K.
Present study is designed to evaluate the effect of Hesperidin, a naturally occurring citrus flavanone isolated from orange peels, against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephroprotector activity was evaluated in male Albino rats. Nephrotoxicity induced by intraperitoneal administration (6 mg/kg,i.p., single dose) of cisplatin. Hesperidin was administered by gastric intubation. Nephroprotector activity of hesperidin was tested at two dose levels i.e., 200mg and 400mg/kg Body weight. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by estimating blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and estimating urinary parameters. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity was characterized by elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and high protein excretion in urine and reduced levels of creatinine clearance. Hesperidin produced significant protection against cisplatin – induced nephrotoxicity in dose dependent manner.

4. Phytochemical Examination of Corchorus aestuans (Tiliaceae) Capsule.
D.Ramadevi, S.Ganapaty
From the capsule extract of Corchorus aestuans L, β-sitosterol, lupeol, betulin, 2-methyl anthraquinone, scopoletin and corchoroside-A were isolated and characterized by spectroscopy and also the hexane, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Corchorus aestuans were tested for antimicrobial activity.

5. Antigenotoxic effect of Murraya koenigii towards cyclophosphamide induced cytogenetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells
Deshmukh Swati, Pathak A. K, Burande M.D.
The chemoprotective activity of Murraya koenigii methanolic extract has been studied using swiss albino mice bone marrow as an in vivo model. The methanolic extract (ME) effectively prevented cyclophosphamide (CP) induced chromosomal aberration. Animals were injected (i.p.) with 100mg/kg body weight of 50% methanolic extract (ME) of M. koenigii as a single dose & exposed to cyclophosphamide (50mg/kg) body weight ½ hr later. Bone marrow protection was studied by scoring aberrations in metaphase chromosomes. No drug toxicity was observed at this dose (100 mg/kg) b.wt. The effectiveness of methanolic extract (ME) of M. koenigii when administered gave a significant protection against CP alone group.

6. Thin Layer Chromatographic Method for Quantification of Swertiamarin in Whole Plant Powder of Enicostema littorale
P. Praveena., D. Sudarsanam
A sensitive simple and accurate HPTLC method has been developed for the quantification of swertiamarin in dry whole plant powder of Enicostema littorale (Lam). Chromatographic analysis was performed using chloroform alcoholic and aqueous extract on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plate, using a solvent system, comprising of Ethyl acetate methanol (8:2) as mobile phase gives good separation of swertiamarin at Rf 0.56. Detection and swertiamarin was done by densitometric scanning at λ=254 nm. The concentration of swertiamarin in the alcoholic extract of dried powder of Enicostema littorale by the proposed HPTLC method. The identity of swertiamarin band in the sample extract was confirmed by overlapping UV absorption spectrum of the sample with that from the reference standard swertiamarin using the CAMAG TLC scanner 3. The porposed HPTLC method provided a good resolution of swertiamarin from other constituents present in the extracts could be used for a routine quantity control analysis and quantification of swertiamarin in the whole plant extracts of Enicostema littorale.

7. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity in five underutilized starchy Curcuma species
Angel G R, Vimala B, Bala Nambisan
Rhizomes and leaves of five underutilized Curcuma species viz. C.aeruginosa, C.brog, C.malabarica, C.rakthakanta and C.sylvatica were evaluated for total phenolic content, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The total phenols in methanolic extracts of rhizomes ranged from 210 to 700 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g and in leaves from 840 to 1480 mg/100g. Flavonoid content in leaves ranged from 270 to 380 mg epicatechin equivalents/100 g dw. The leaves of all species had higher content of phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power as compared to rhizomes. There was good correlation between the phenol content and antioxidant activity in rhizomes, but not in leaves. The results of the study highlighted the potential of these unutilized Curcuma species (rhizomes and leaves) as a rich source of antioxidants for food and health.

8. Preliminary Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Givotia Moluccana Leaves
Baskar Ananda Raj .V, Murugamani.V, Anusha.C H, Indraja.N
Preliminary Pharmacognostical screening was studied in Givotia moluccana leaves to establish authenticity and possible to help and distinguish the drug from other species. The study includes preparation of extract by successive soxhlet extraction for detailed analysis. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis was carried out using powder leaves. Fluorescence analysis of the leaf extract and powder were noted under UV light and normal day light, which signifies there characteristics. Different physicochemical parameters such as percentage yield, extractive value, chemical evaluation were carried out as per WHO recommended physicochemical determinations and authentic phytochemical procedure’s. Preliminary qualitative chemical tests for the extract shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids and tannins.

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research