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Volume4,Issue4

1. Distribution, Phytochemistry and Antioxidant Properties of the Genus Parkia r.br. (Mimosaceae) in Nigeria
Adaramola, T. F., Ariwaodo, J. O, Adeniji, K. A
Abstract
The present study examined the ecological distribution range of the two occurring Nigeria species of Parkia (Allopatric taxa): Parkia bicolor and Parkia biglobosa. The phytochemical content and antioxidant activities of leaves and stem bark of both species were also studied using standard techniques. The antioxidant activities of the crude extract was carried out using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picyrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Methanolic extracts of the leaf and stem bark of the two species were analyzed quantitatively by simple, sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric methods for the following phytochemicals: alkaloid, saponin, phenols and flavonoids. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both plants had similar constituents namely cardiac glycoside, alkaloids, saponin, tannin and flavonoid. Anthraquinone was present only in the leaf of P.bicolor and stem bark of P. biglobosa respectively. Both plant species showed promising antioxidant activity considering their scavenging activity on DPPH. The DPPH method indicated that the antioxidant activity of the stem bark extract of both species showed a significant free radical activity in a concentration dependent manner. Its action was comparable to standard antioxidants like ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), rutin, butylated hydro-anisole (BHA) and alpha-tocoherol (Vitamin E).The leaf extracts of Parkia bicolor showed a high antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner when compared with the leaf extracts of Parkia biglobosa. The quantitative screening of phytoconstituents contained in the leaf and bark extract of the two species revealed that phenols and saponin are relatively high, while flavonoid is relatively moderate with the alkaloid content relatively low. This study justifies the therapeutic usage of Parkia species in traditional medicine.

2. Pharmacognostical and Physicochemical Evaluation of Coleus  spicatus Benth.
Jaslin Edward J,   Dinesh Kumar C, Padmaja V, Bino V, Anandarajagopal K
Abstract
The present study presents a detailed pharmacognostical and physiochemical studies of the root, stem and leaf of the crude drug, Coleus spicatus Benth (Labiatae) (C. spicatus). This investigation includes morphological and microscopical evaluation, determination of physicochemical constants, histological study and the preliminary phytochemical screening of different extracts of C. spicatus. The parameters presented in this paper may be proposed to establish the authenticity of root, stem and leaf of C. Spicatus and may possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.

3. Standardization and Anti Bacterial Activity of Couroupita Guianensis Fruit Pulp Extract
Shah G.N., Shete S.A., Patil V.S., Patil K.D., Killedar S.G.
Abstract
Cannon ball (Couroupita guianensis) ripen fruits were collected in month of May; outer shell was removed and dried under shade for 15 days. The dried pulp was powdered and fine powder (#80) was extracted with alcohol (95%) by maceration method. Extract was filtered by vacuum filtration and filtrate was evaluated for pH, viscosity, fluorescence specific gravity. The liquid extract was evaporated and dried under reduced pressure. Standardization of dried pulp powder sample was done as per WHO guidelines. The powder sample showed extractive values for alcohol (7.2%) and water (36.5%), moisture content (6.8%), total ash value (11.5 %), acid insoluble ash value (10.6%) sulphated ash value (25.66%) water soluble ash value (3.76%). Phytochemical screening showed presence of tannins, sugars and polyphenolic compounds. Alcoholic extract was screened for antibacterial activity by cylindrical cup plate method using four standard bacterial cultures E.coli, S.aureus, B.subtilis, P.aeruoginosa. The most significant activity was found against B. subtilis at concentration 4mg as compare to other tested organisms.

4. A Comparative Study of Antibacterial Activity of Leaves and Latex of Jatropha curcas L.
Kumar Arun, Bhardwaj Anu, Guleria Ruchika
Abstract
Different parts of Jatropha curcas L. has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes to cure various diseases. In the present study the comparison of antibacterial activity of latex, leaves and their various extracts (methanolic and ethanolic) has been investigated against Escherichia coli (gram negative species) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive species) by using disc diffusion method. Antibacterial activity of pure latex and its ethanolic extracts has been found only against E. coli. But the ethanolic extract of leaves of Jatropha curcas L. showed antibacterial activity against both the bacterial test species. Methanolic extract of latex as well as leaves also exhibit antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The magnitude of antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus found to be significantly higher in latex and its extracts as compare to leaves. Antibacterial activity of latex and its extracts found to be higher then the antibacterial activity of standard tetracycline as compared to leaves extracts.

5.Disposition Kinetics of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) In Healthy Buffalo Calves
Parikshit R. Dahikar, Nitesh Kumar, Y. P. Sahni
Abstract
The disposition kinetic study of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) was investigated after single dose administration of 500 mg/kg, orally in six non-descript healthy buffalo calves. Estimation of concentration of Withania somnifera in plasma was carried out by microbiological assay technique (Agar gel diffusion technique) by using Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) as test organism. Following a single oral dose of Withania somnifera in healthy buffalo calves, mean peak plasma concentration at 0.75 hr was 248.16 ± 16.12 mg/ml and was detected up to 3 h with a mean plasma concentration of 6.55 ± 0.12 mg/ml. The mean therapeutic concentration (≥ 0.1 mg/ml) of Withania somnifera was maintained from 10 min to 3 h in plasma of healthy buffalo calves. The mean elimination half life (t1/2 β) of Withania somnifera was observed to be 0.92 ± 0.032 h. The mean value of area under curve in plasma (AUC) and area under first moment curve (AUMC) were found to be 181.44 ± 8.84 mg/ml.h and 246.26 ± 17.66 mg/ml.h2 . The total body clearance (ClB) ranged from 2.26 to 3.09 L/kg/h with a mean value of 2.78 ± 0.12 L/kg/h. Considering the AUC/MIC and Cmax /MIC ratios obtained in the present study, it can be stated that Withania somnifera administered orally in the dosing schedule applied is efficacious against bacteria with MIC values under 0.1 mg/ml in buffalo calves. The high values of AUC/MIC (1814.4) and Cmax /MIC (2481.7) obtained in the present study, provides support for excellent clinical and bacteriological efficacy of Withania somnifera in buffalo calves.

6. Comparative Phytochemical Studies and Evaluation of Radical Scavenging Activity in Selected Jasminum Species
Sulaiman C.T, Soudha V., Deepak M., Indira Balachandran
Abstract
Phytochemical studies were carried out in five Jsaminum species. The chemical profiles of different species were compared using chromatographic techniques such as TLC and HPLC. The total phenolic content (TPC) and radical scavenging capacity were also evaluated. The DPPH EC50 value was found least for Jasminum Grandiflorum (7.5µg) showing its highest antioxidant activity. The EC 50 (DPPH) values vary as, 15 μg (J.angustifolium), 12 μg (J.auriculatum), and 7.5μg (J. grandiflorum).

7. To Evaluate the Analgesic Activity of Leaves of Musa sapientum Linn.
Atul kumar Gangwar,  A.K.Ghosh, Vikas Saxena
Abstract
Musa sapientum linn. (Musaceae) commonly known as Banana, is extensively cultivated throughout India .By literature survey different parts of Musa sapientum have been studied for antiestrogenic, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, wound healing, antacid, hypoglycemic, diuretic, anti ulcerogenic activities. The pill and stem extract of banana was found to have analgesic property. But, there is no evidence in literature for analgesic activity of leaves of Musa sapientum linn. Hence the present investigation was undertaken to study analgesic activity of aqueous extract (AEMS) and ethanolic extract (EEMS) of leaves of Musa sapientum linn. using hot plate method. AEMS and EEMS (400mg/kg and 400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased reaction time as compared to vehicle treated group. Maximum analgesic effect was observed at 2 hrs interval for 400mg/kg and 400 mg/kg i.p. (P=0.001).

8. Anticancer Activity of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Against Dalton’s Lymphoma
Lijy Jacob, M.S. Latha
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of Clitoria ternatea in Dalton’s lymphoma(DLA) bearing mice. Tumour was induced in mice by the intraperitoneal injection of DLA cells. After 24 hours of tumour inoculation, methanol extract of Clitoria ternatea(MECT) was administered at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days. The effect of MECT was assessed using in vitro cytotoxicity, survival time, peritoneal cell count, hematological studies and antioxidant parameters. Treatment with MECT led to a decrease in tumour volume, packed cell volume and viable count. It also increased the non-viable cell count and mean survival time, thereby increasing the life span of EAC bearing mice. Hematological profile reverted to more or less normal levels in the treated group. The results suggest that MECT exhibit significant antitumour effects in DLA bearing mice.

9. Evaluation of Anti-Obesity Activity of Lantana camara var Linn by Progesterone Induced Obesity on Albino Mice
Rohit Gundamaraju, Sartaj Banu Mulaplli, Dr.Ramesh.C.
Abstract
The anti-obesic activity of Lantana camara was studied on progesterone induced models of hyperlipedemia in mice. Hyperlipidemia condition established by progesterone, which changed various parameters in the body . An increase in food consumption and water consumption usually accompanies the body weight gain, which is the characteristic nature of progesterone stimulation. Increased consumption of food and water generally leads to elevated parameters like LDL,VLDL, serum cholesterol etc. Accumulation of fat in areas like inguinal, epididymal , neck etc. was observed . Ethanobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants is one of the most prominent source of new drugs and has shown potential results for treatment of obesity. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Lantana camara revealed the presence of phyto constituents such as steroids , flavinoids , alkaloids, etc.

10. A Comprehensive Study of Phytochemical constituents and Screening of Anthelmintic activity of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.
Sobin K Paul, Vipin Sharma, Akhil S Sharma, Sunil Goyal
Abstract
Anthelmintics are the drugs that either kill or paralyse and expel infesting helminthes. Helminthiasis is prevalent globally, but it is more common in developing countries with poor personal and environmental hygiene. In the human body, gastrointestinal tract is the abode of many Helminthes, but some also inhibit the tissues or the larvae migrate into the tissues. They harm the host by depriving him of nutrition causing nutritional deficiencies including anemia. They may also cause injury to organ and intestinal or lymphatic destructions. Helminthiasis is rarely fatal but is a major cause of ill health. Although some synthetic drugs are available to control the infection produced by the helminthes, the development of more effective and safe drugs from reasonably less expensive natural source is our main consideration. This can be approached through the study of indigenous traditional plant remedies. The present study explains the anthelmentic potential of a traditionally used medicinal plant of India. In the present communication, the whole plant of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. was extracted with ethanol and ethanolic extract was fractionated with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts were evaluated for phytochemical constituents. The extracts were investigated for anthelmintic activity against Adult Indian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma, which has anatomical and physiological resemblance to the intestinal round worm in humans. Various concentrations were used in the bioassay in which the paralysis and death time of the worm was determined. All the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity

11. Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus  Sinensis  Pulp
Chede P.S.
Abstract
Citrus Sinensis pulp was screened for its phytochemical composition. The aqueous as well as the ethanoic extracts of the pulp revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, fixed oils and lipids, sugars, proteins, steroids, and amino acids whereas the terpenoids are present only in the ethanolic pulp extracts.

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12. Quantification of Sennosides By Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled With Electro Spray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Unani Formulations
Shreedhara C. S, Ghosh A, Shenoy G, Shetty R, Kumar V. S, Sanghai D. B
Abstract
Unani system is a science which deals with the preventive and promotive aspects of health of human beings and health problems occurred by the Ecological and Environmental factors, which may vitiate humours i.e. Blood, Phlegm, Yellow bile and Black bile, the fluids circulating in the body vessels. There is considerable demand in drug testing for a specific and precise analytical method for the identification of sennosides in various Unani formulations. A combination of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) will provide unambiguous fingerprint information for chemical structural confirmation and estimation of sennosides. The objective of the present investigation is to develop a simple, economical and reliable high performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of sennosides in Unani formulations. The validated method allows quantification of sennosides in 1 – 100.00 µg/mL. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.9990 for the sennosides. The simplicity of the assay and rapid liquid-liquid extraction make it an attractive procedure in estimation of sennosides in Unani formulations. The separation was achieved in C18 column and negative ion mode was used for detection in ESI-MS detection.

13. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Celatsrus paniculata
Ashish Suttee, Anil Bhandari, Chain Singh Bais, Anupam Sharma
Abstract
The present study aimed at detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drug, Celastrus paniculata. Morphoanatomy of the leaves of C.paniculata was studied with the aim to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification using light and confocal microscopy, WHO suggested physico-chemical determinations and authentic phytochemical measures. Different extracts were prepared using the soxhlation method and these were used for phytochemical analysis and to determine various pharmacognostic parameters. The various measures were performed following the WHO guidelines. Various pharmacognostic parameters were reported following the WHO guidelines. The physico-chemical and morphological parameters presented in this paper may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of C.paniculata and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research