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Volume5,Issue2

1. Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Ethanolic Extract for Selected Varieties of Phoenyx dactylifera
Laouini S. Eddine, Segni Ladjel, Ouahrani M.Ridha, Gherraf N.Eddine, Mokni Sonia
Abstract
The date palm (Phoenyx dactylifera ) consisted, for the people of southern Algeria, as tree of providence. Dates and their extracts are also used for many centuries as a medicine against allergy, inflammation, constipation and gastroprotective; they also have a high antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, no studies are conducted to evaluate the extract from the leaves of date palm (Phoenyx dactylifera) in point of view of phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and the antioxidant activity. In this study, we have determined the phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts from three varieties of leaves tree. According to the results the leaves extracts have very important values for polyphenols (215.24 to 156.46 mg GAE / g DW) and high antioxidant activity (324. 45 to 206.21 mg GAE / g DW), DPPH (IC50 =  2.98 to 4.83 μg / ml) and β-bleaching test (IC50 = 133. 93 to 194. 12 μg / ml); also the three extracts reveal a considerable antimicrobial potency and antifungal considerable activity , the diameter of inhibition is 14.4 ± 0.6 mm for Hamraya, 19.8 ± 0.5 mm for Ghars and 17.4 ± 0.8 mm for Deglet Nour (concentration 50 mg / ml) from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC.

2. Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Leaves of Parkia biglandulosa Wight & Arn.: An Important Ethnomedicinal Plant
Sunita Shailajan, Neelam Sayed, Bhavesh Tiwari, Naresh Chandra
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to evaluate pharmacognostic characters of leaves of Parkia biglandulosa Wight & Arn. The evaluation was carried out in terms of macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical and chromatographic analysis.Leaves of P. biglandulosa showed the presence of circular dark brown gland at its base on either side of rachis. Microscopically, transverse section of leaflet and rachis showed unicellular trichomes. The total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash content was found to be 5.158 %, 0.915 %, 4.689 % respectively. Impact of regional variation on the content of β-sitosterol in the samples collected from different regions was clearly evident using HPTLC and HPLC. Findings of the current study will aid in the correct identification and standardization of leaves of P. biglandulosa.

3. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anthelmintic Activities of The Methanolic Extract of Thevetia peruviana
Md. Mizanur Rahman Moghal , Md. Saifur Rahaman, Sayed Koushik Ahamed, Syed Masudur Rahman Dewan, Md. Mahmodul Haque, Md. Nurul Amin, S. M. Naim Uddin
Abstract
This study screened the cytotoxic, and anthelmintic effects of methanol-extracted bark of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana). Cytotoxicty was determined against brine shrimp nauplii and LC50 of the plant extract was determined 3.9 μg/ml. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate (LC50 value 0.839 µg/ml) was used as positive control. And in comparison with vincristine sulphate, it can be said that the methanolic extract has significant cytotoxic activity. The anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract was carried out against adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Albendazole was used as standard reference drug. In this test five different concentration of extract was used. The test showed that the methanolic extract at higher concentration 50 mg/ml showed moderate anthelmintic activity in comparison with reference standard albendazole at concentration of 20 mg/ml.

4. Larvicidal Effect of Ether and Chloroform Extract of Kaempferia galanga Against the Larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Tri Baskoro T.Satoto.,Shamini Maniam.,Kohilam Ganesen., Ernaningsih.
Abstract
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease. Many insecticidal programs are in practice to eradicate this notorious vector of dengue virus, Aedes aegypti. Due to increased risk of pollution because of chemical insecticide, researches have been carried out to identify suitable biopesticide to eradicate Ae.aegypti. A study has demonstrated that Kaempferia galanga rhizome to possess larvicidal properties against mosquito larvae. Aim of the study is to determine the larvicidal activity of ether and chloroform extract of K.galanga rhizome against larvae of Ae.aegypti. Furthermore, to determine which of the two extract used is more potent. The larvicidal test was performed by exposing the 3-4th instar larvae of Ae.aegypti to various concentration of ether and chloroform extract of K.galanga according to standards recommended. The LC50 for the ether extract of K.galanga rhizome was 64.08 ppm, while the LC50 of chloroform extract was 105.02 ppm. The low LC50 level of both ether and chloroform extract proves that the K.galanga is an effective larvicide against the larvae of Ae.aegypti. However, ether extract is more effective as a larvicide than chloroform extract.

5. Isolation of Piperine and Few Sesquiterpenes from the Cold Petroleum Ether Extract of Piper nigrum (Black Pepper) and its Antibacterial Activity
Aditi Gupta, Monika Gupta, Sudhakar Gupta
Abstract
A crystalline compound [{(1,5-(1,3)-benzodioxol-5yl)-1-oxo-2,4 pentadienyl}-piperidine] and fifteen sesquiterpenes (linalool, 4-terpinol, alpha terpinol, delta elemene, alpha copane, beta elemene, caryophyllene, alpha caryophyllene, tau gurjunene, beta bisabolene, delta cadinene, elemol, caryophyllene oxide, murrolene, beta eudesmol) have been isolated from the petroleum ether extract of Piper nigrum seeds. Piperine is the compound, mainly responsible for the pungent taste of Piper nigrum where as the components isolated from its oil is meant for aroma. The oil separated from petroleum ether extract was analyzed by GC-MS spectroscopy. The components identified by GC-MS spectra, show that caryophyllene was present as major component and linalool as minor component. Their structures were fully elucidated assuming that detailed spectroscopic study and chemical analysis. Antibacterial activity of petroleum ether extracts is checked against Gram (+) and gram (-) bacterias

6. Pharmacognostic Standardisation of Heart Woodof Combretum albidum G.Don; An Important Ethno-Medicinal Liana
Sreekanth Sreedhar, U Prakash Kumar, A B Rema Shree
Abstract
Traditional knowledge and ethno-botanical use of plants have been widely acknowledged all over the world. The tribes of Chinnar, Idukki District of Kerala are being using Combretum albidum G.Don as an effective remedy for jaundice, though they are aware about the use of Phyllanthus species against jaundice. So the validation and pharmacognostic standardisation of heart wood of C. albidum were carried out to establish its macro- and microscopical standards, physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical investigation and TLC profiles to evaluate the characters of the plant. The dried pieced of heart wood usually very hard, around 1 to 2 cm in thickness, bright yellow in colour, odourless and slightly bitter in taste. Detailed anatomy showed xylem region consists of vessels, xylem parenchyma loaded with starch grains, crystal fibers and medullary rays. Histochemical studies revealed the presence of lignin, tannin and starch grains. Physicochemical parameters like moisture content (7.82%), total ash (4.32%), acid insoluble ash (0.06%), extractive values of alcohol (6.56 %) and water (7.51%) and sequential extractive values of sample in petroleum ether (0.64%), ethyl acetate (1.85%) and methanol (6.91%) were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis indicated a high percentage of tannins, flavonoids and triterpenes. Well resolved TLC profiles were recorded in sequential extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The above parameters, which are being reported for the first time in this plant, are significant towards establishing the pharmacognostic standards for future identification and authentication of genuine plant material.

7. Gastroprotective Efficacy of Folic Acid and Omeprazole in Indomethacin-Induced Gastropathy in Rats
Samar Morjan, Shaza Al Laham, Rana Atieh
Abstract
Gastric and intestinal mucosal damage is the commonest adverse effect of NSAIDs. Their use is associated with a significant risk of hemorrhage, erosions, and perforation of both gastric and intestinal ulcers. NSAID-induced ulcers can be prevented largely through co-administration of a proton pump inhibitor to block acid secretion in the stomach. Also there is a role for folic acid in the attenuation of indomethacin induced gastric ulceration. Study the effect of Folic acid and its association with the antisecretory drug Omeprazole (Proton pump inhibitor) for their abilities to protect gastric mucosa against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. The experiments had been done on 10 white wistar rats for each group. Gastric ulcer was induced by administration of indomethacin (20 mg/kg i.p.).  Folic acid (2 mg/kg, orally) has been given for the first group, while Omeprazole (20 mg/rat, orally) has been given for the second group and Folic acid (2 mg/kg, orally) with Omeprazole (10 mg/rat, orally) has been given for the third group as a repeated administration (once daily for 7 days). The gastric ulcers in stomach’s rat were examined histological and macroscopical .The ulcer Index and protective Index were calculated. Then the glycoproteines of stomach’s mucus gel was measured by spectrophotometer. The combination-treated group (Folic acid and Omeprazole ) gave significant increase in the amount of gastric mucosa as compared to Indomethacin group and in comparing to each drug alone the protective Index  was increased while ulcer Index retreat. It could be concluded that the combination-treated groups afford a good gastro-protective potential against the gastric ulceration induced by indomethacin better than each drug alone. The antioxidant effects of folic acid and omeprazole are involved and ameliorating the oxidative stress induced by indomethacin in the gastric mucosa.

8. Determination of Flavanoidal Content by Ficus Religiosa Linn Leaf Extract by TLC and HPTLC
Lakshmi HimaBindu M.R, Angala Parameswari S, Gopinath C
Abstract
Herbs have always been the principal form of medicine in India. Ficus religiosa (L.), commonly known as pepal belonging to the family Moraceae, used to cure some of the diseases like Asthma, Diabetis, Epilepsy, Gastric problems,etc., Plant parts used are leaves, bark, bud and fruit. Leaves mainly used for skin diseases. Chemical constituents present in Ficus religiosa are Beta-sitosteryl, n-octacosanol, methyl oleanolate, lanosterol, sigmasterol, lupeol. The extraction done by cold maceration process by using methanol as solvent. Thin layer chromatography is done by using silica gel as adsorbant and benzene:chloroform (7:3) as mobile phase. Spotting is done by Ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, n-butanol, chloro form,pet-ether,benzene extracts, and water.Spots are detected under long UV at 365nm in UV chamber, then RF values are calculated. HPTLC method is done to know percentage content present and it is most reliable method. It has no toxic effect on human consumption when taken in prescribed dosage.

9. Review- Pharmacological Activities Based on Different Extracts of Cissus quadrangularis
Subhashri S, Vedha Hari BN, Ramya Devi D
Abstract
Since ancient age nature has been a source of medicinal agents and many of the traditional drugs have been isolated from natural source. Research focus on the natural source has been increased recently due to its minimum side effects.  Articles reveal that almost more than 15000 plants have been used by different ethnic communities in India. Many active compounds have been isolated from the plants through various extraction method using different solvents and these are pharmacologically active. The isolated chemical constituents from Cissus quadrangularis extract, which plays major role including gallic acid derivatives, steroids, iridoids, flavonoids, stilbenes and triterpenes. This review is concentrated on the different extracts of Cissus quadrangularis and its activity against numerous pathophysiological effects. Versatile activity of this plant has revealed it as a valuable medicinal plant.

10. 17-Aza Steroids as 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: A Review
Manav Malhotra, Richa Dhingra, Rajiv Sharma, T.R. Bhardwaj
Abstract
17-aza steroids are the important class of compounds used as 5α-reductase inhibitors for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. As these agents blocks the conversion of Testosterone (T) into Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which is the main reason for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the noncancerous proliferation of the prostate gland associated with benign prostatic obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as frequency, hesitancy and urgency. Its prevalence increases with age affecting around 70% by the age of 70 years. Main attention given to the 17-aza steroids is due to the back binding or inverted action that was proposed by Mac Donald et al. In this review, different 17-aza steroids such as seco-steroids, alkyl chain derivates at 17-position, 3β-esters and many other derivatives were shown.






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research