Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume6,Issue4

1. Scanning Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (Sem-Edx) Studies Of Quercus Infectoria Gall
Hasmah A, Wan Nurhidayah W H, Hermizi H, Rapeah S
Abstract
Quercus infectoria gall extract are popular among Malaysian. Therefore there is vast availability of the galls supply in Malaysian local market. However, these galls found in Malaysian market were brought out from another country such as Iran and India. In this regard, maintaining the quality of the source is very important to ensure the expected health benefit. In this study we used scanning microscope-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) to analyse the microscopical image and basic elements present in crude and aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria gall in comparison with macroscopical view. Galls of Q. infectoria were divided into external surface and cross section inner parts were performed using hard cutter. Macroscopical view showed that the gall looked alike ball-shaped with numerous protruding blunt horn-like lumps on external rugae like surface (1.4-2.3 cm in diameter). The cross section revealed three major parts; outer, middle and inner layer containing whitish core separated by barrier. The parenchyma cells could be seen in most part of the layer and elongated to formations of tracheid cells. Elemental analysis showed that the galls contain various useful minerals of carbon, calcium, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, potassium, sodium and chlorine. The elements distributions were different in each part. Most of the elements found in the external surface. The cross section part showed the highest number of elements on the outermost layer and it was the only part where the sodium and chlorine were found.  These present study serve as a valuable information about macroscopic and microscopic features of the galls besides trace elements composition that will be useful for the establishment of quality standards and future reference for galls authentication.

2. Cytotoxicity of Ethanol Extracts of in vivo, in vitro and Biotized Grown Plants of Vernonia divergens on EAC Cell Lines
Rajeev Kumar, Anand Prakash, Sanju Kumari, Utkarshini, Nishi Kumari, Rohit Krishna, Kanak Sinha, Santosh Kumar
Abstract
The present study was attempted to enhance the anticancer activities in in vitro grown medicinal plant, Vernonia divergens, generated under the stress of a fungus, Piriformospora indica and to evaluate the effect of such biotization against EAC cell lines using standard MTT assay. The effect of adenine sulphate in addition to the phytohormones was assessed for micropropagation of V. divergens from shoot tip explants. The regenerated plantlets were biotized with a fungus, P. indica through soil drenching method. After acclimatization of 30 days, the ethanol extracts of these regenerants were screened for their inhibitory action against EAC mouse cell lines at different concentrations for 72 hours of treatment and compared with that of the inhibitory action of both in vivo and in vitro (non-biotized) generated plants. The combination of adenine sulphate and phytohormones sufficiently increased the number of shoots and roots per explants. Biotization of micropropagated plantlets not only enhanced the survival rate and growth of root, shoot and leaf of the regenerated plants but it also increased the anticancer potentiality. The level of inhibition of ethanol extract against EAC cell lines of these regenerated plants was found to be low as compared with that of the natural garden plants but the stress of biotization with this fungus helped the regenerants to regain the inhibitory action against the cell lines. Thus, biotization with the fungus, P. indica is vital not only in the growth promotion of plants but also demonstrated enhanced anticancer potentialities in micropropagated plants, grown under stress.

3. Pharmacognostic and Physico-chemical Studies on Leaves of Syzygium zeylanicum (l.) DC
Anoop M V, Bindu A R
Abstract
Syzygium zeylanicum syn. Syzygium lineare (Family – Myrtaceae), is also known as Poochapazham or Kaatuvazhana (Malayalam). It is a widespread evergreen large shrub. The present investigation deals with the qualitative and quantitative microscopic evaluation of the leaf material and establishment of its quality parameters, including physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation. In the microscopic studies, the leaf was found to be dorsiventral and the chief characters of transverse section includes single plano convex and collateral vascular bundle, which consists of several short 3 celled xylem rows and a thin layer of phloem on the lower end and mesophyll consists of 2 layer of thin, vertically oblong, compact palisade cells and lower part of 5 or 6 much lobed spongy parenchyma. . Chief characters of powder include thick, wavy epidermal cells, the cells being much lobed; stomata appear in deep pits and calcium oxalate druces seen scattered in surface view of the lamina. Leaf constants were analysed. Physicochemical parameters such as moisture content, chlorophyll estimation, ash values and extractive values were evaluated. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of many therapeutically important classes of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, sterols, terpenoids, saponins and carbohydrates. Such a study would serve as a useful tool in standardization of the leaf material, isolation of medicinally important phytoconstituents, performing pharmacological investigations and ensuring quality formulations in the future. It would also help in distinguishing the plant material of Syzygium zeylanicum.

4. Pharmacognostical Study of a Medicinal Plant of India: Sarcostemma Acidum
Bhavesh Kumar Dave, Ronak Dhirawat, Mukesh Kumawat
Abstract
Sarcostemma acidum is widely used by the folk people in the treatment of verity of diseases and disorders. The present study was therefore carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details about the plant. Methods: macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and other WHO recommended parameters for standardization were performed. Result: A perennial leafless, jointed shrub with green, cylindrical, fleshy glabrous, twining branches having milky white latex, taste bitter; Flower white or pale greenish white with fragrant odour. The microscopy reveals dicotyledonous plant having circular vascular bundles in stem, absence of pith in root and anomocytic type of stomata on stem bark. Other physicochemical tests like moisture content, ash value, extractive values were determined and Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presences of carbohydrates, triterpenoids, phytosterols, saponins and lignins. Extraction of chemical constituents and chromatographically analysis (TLC) were performed. Conclusions: The microscopic using histological identification, microscopic constants, and other physico chemical examinations of Sarcostemma acidum can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and botanical identification technique is useful in standardization, hence would be of immense value in authentication of plant.

5. Microscopical and Phytochemical Investigation of Egyptian Artemisia judaica L. Var. Sinaitica Tackholm and its Free Radical Scavenging Activity
Bakr, R.O
Abstract
Artemisia judaica L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial fragrant small shrub widely growing in desert and coast of Egypt. Microscopical features of the leaves were characterized by the presence of non glandular T-shaped trichomes beside the tube like secretory duct responsible for oil production and storage. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated using colorimetric assays where ethyl acetate had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents. Orientin was the major identified flavonoid. Radical scavenging activity was estimated using DPPH assay where butanol extract showed the highest potency compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyanisol. A. judaica represents a future antioxidant candidate from natural source.

6. Comparative Pharmacognostic Studies on Three Species of Portulaca
Silvia Netala, Asha Priya M, Pravallika R, Naga Tejasri S, Sumaiya Shabreen Md, Nandini Kumari S
Abstract
Different parts of Portulaca were examined for macroscopical, microscopical characters. Physicochemical, phytochemical and fluorescence analysis of the plant material was performed according to the methods of standardization recommended by World Health Organization. The plants are succulent, prostrate herbs. Usually roots at the nodes of the stem. Leaves are opposite with paracytic stomata and characteristic Kranz tissue found in C-4 plants. Abundant calcium oxalate crystals are present in all vegetative parts of the plant. Quantitative determinations like stomatal number, stomatal index and vein islet number were performed on leaf tissue. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids. The results of the study could be useful in setting quality parameters for the identification and preparation of a monograph.

7. Isolation and Characterization of Chemical Constituentss from Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract
Vijay Sattiraju, K.S.Chandrashekar
Abstract
6 new compounds were isolated for the first time from Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract along with one known compound by using simple column chromatographic techniques. They were characterized by chemical and physicochemical evidence and identified as Quercetin 3-O- rutinoside, Chrysoeriol, Monotropein, Di butyl phthalate, De acetyl asperulosidic acid, 1,2 benzene di carboxylic acid and  Trigoneoside II a.

8. Campylospermine, an N-Hydroxy-alkaloid from the Leaves of Campylospermum densiflorum (Ochnaceae)
D.S. Ngono Bikobo, P. Mosset, A. Abouem A Zintchem, A.T. Atchadé, M. Balemaken Missi, N. Mbabi Nyemeck II, D. E. Pegnyemb
Abstract
(E)-3-[(N-hydroxy)-N-methylamino)-N-(2-hydroxyethylene)] acrylamide (1), an N-hydroxy linear alkaloid namely Campylospermine, was isolated from the leaves of Campylospermum densiflorum. Four other known compounds were also isolated and identified as: one coumarin, umbelliferone (2) and a mixture of three steroids, campesterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, sistosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3). The structures of the new compound and the others ones were determined by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with literature data.

9. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and GC-MS Analysis of Ethanolic Extract of Mangrove Plant-Bruguiera Cylindrica (Rhizho) L.
Revathi P, Jeyaseelansenthinath T, Thirumalaikolundhusubramaian P
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to screen the phytochemicals present in the leaf extract of Bruguiera cylindrica (B.Cylindrica) and further analysis of the bioactive components present in it by Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Phytochemical screening of the sequential extracts of B.Cylindrica leaves revealed the presence of various bioactive components of which Carbohydrate, Protein, Amino Acids, Lipids, Fatty acids, Fibre, Alkaloids, flavonoids, Tannin, Tri terpenoids, Saponins, Phenols /Gallicacid equivalent, Glycosides, Cardiac Glycosides, Lignin, Volatile Oil and Steroids In this work, forty eight phytochemicals were analysed with their fragmentation pattern, molecular formula, molecular weight, structure of phytocomponants by GC-MS technique. The compounds identified such as: 2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 2-hydroxy , 1,1,4-Trimethyl-3-pyrazalone, Phenol,1-Amino-2,6-dimethylpiperidine: , 5,9-Dodecadien-2-one, 6,10-dimethyl(E,E), 6-Desoxy-l-altritol, 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, Ethyl hydrogen succinate, 3,4-Altrosan, 2-Coumaranone, Benzofuran, 2,3-dihydro, 8-Azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol, 8-methyl, endo, D-Allose, 2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl) -3,5,5-trimethyl-,Tetradecanoic acid,3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 3-O-Methyl-d-glucose, Phytol, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, 9-Octadecenal, (Z)-, Octadecanoic acid, 5-Naphthalen-1-yl-2H-pyrazol-3-ol-etc. From the results, it could be concluded that B.Cylindrica contains various bioactive compounds have various biological activities. Therefore, it is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.

10. Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolus chayamansa Mcvaugh
Kulathuran Pillai K, Narayanan N, Chidambaranathan N, Jegan N
Abstract
The tree spinach (Cnidoscolus chayamansa Mc Vaugh, Euphorbiaceae), called “Chaya” in south Texas, is popular in Mexico and Central America and has been introduced into the United states (Mainly south Texas and Florida) and now presently available in and around southern part of India, It is traditionally used for its various properties and hence, the present study is to evaluate the phytoconstituent’s composition. The results reveal the presence of medicinally active constituents like Alkaloids, Carbohydrate, Amino acids, Protein, Tannins, Flavanoids, terpenoids, Glycosides, steroids and presence various elements. The presence of phytoconstituent’s were determined by TLC and HPTLC fingerprint sequence profile of the medicinally important leaf part of the plant of Ethanolic Extract of Cnidoscolus chayamansa (EECC),which further confirmed the  presence of main active constituents like Flavanoids (Kaemferol).

11. Chemical Properties and Assessment of the Antioxidant Capacity of Leaf Extracts from Populations of Ugni molinae Growing in Continental Chile and in Juan Fernandez Archipelago.
Avello M, Pastene E, Barriga A, Bittner M, Ruiz E, Becerra J
Abstract
Ugni molinae Turcz is a Chilean native plant widely distributed in Central South Chile as well as in Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Its fruits are consumed fresh because of its organoleptic properties. Given the importance of the chemical compounds identified from U. molinae, it becomes important to know if there are variations in the chemical content and biological activity among populations growing geographically separated, as well as in different habitats, such as those populations that grow in Continental Chile and in Juan Fernandez Archipelago. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from populations of U. molinae that grow in Continental Chile and in Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Composition of chemical compounds was determined by chromatographic methods (HPLC-ESI-MS). Antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of unspecific methods (DPPH and ABTS) and stabilization of the hydroxyl radical. Differences are observed in the chemical composition among continental and insular (Juan Fernandez Archipelago) populations of U. molinae. The latter presents greater content and variety of phenolic and triterpenic glycosides of oleanone type. These populations exert greater antioxidant capacity, probably due to the insular geoclimatic conditions.

12. In Vitro phytochemical screening and anthelmintic activity of Viscum congolensis and Galiniera coffeoides against adult earthworm Alma emini
Bahizire K., Bagalwa M., Bashwira S., Basabose K., Bagalwa B.
Abstract
This study was conduct at the Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles de Lwiro to evaluate the anthelmitic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Viscum congolensis and Galiniera coffeoides, two plants collected in Kahuzi-Biega National Park. The objective was to assess their activity against earthworms Alma emini. The results revealed that the plants contained organic natural substances which have anthelmitic effect such as tannins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids and quinines. The aqueous extracts are efficacy than ethanolic extracts. Their concentrations varied between 2 and 0.2 mg/mL. These results were compared to positives control (Mebendazole, Albendazole and Decaris) and negative one (water). The detailed are necessary for the isolation, characterization and evaluation of the substances responsible of anthelmitic activity and the action mode of the substance identified.

13. Favorable effects of Globularia alypum L. lyophilized methanolic extract on the reverse cholesterol transport and lipoprotein peroxidation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Fayçal Djellouli, Djamil Krouf, Malika Bouchenak, Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois
Abstract
The beneficial health effects of plant polyphenols were frequently attributed to their powerful hypolipemiant and antioxidant effects. We hypothesized that administration of Globularia alypum (Ga) lyophilized methanolic extract would ameliorate glycemia, lipid parameters, reverse cholesterol transport, as well as lipoproteins peroxidation, in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats, weighing 250±10 g by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg body weight). Diabetic rats (n=20) were divided into two groups, and fed during 4 weeks diets containing 20% casein (D) or a casein diet supplemented with a Ga extract (1 g/kg BW) (DGa). At d28, in DGa vs D group, glycemia was lowered by 81%, while insulinemia was markedly increased by 72%. Liver and serum lipid values were significantly decreased (P< 0.05). Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was improved (+48%). Indeed, HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) concentrations were respectively reduced by 50 and 52%, whereas HDL2-CE values (product of LCAT reaction) were increased (+35%). Atherogenicity ratios VLDL-LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and apoB/apoA were lowered respectively by 50%, 25% and 71%. Moreover, VLDL-LDL and HDL3 peroxidation was decreased by 47 and 75%, respectively.In STZ-induced diabetic rat, Globularia alypum extract reduces glycemia, liver and serum lipids values, VLDL-LDL and HDL3 lipid peroxidation and ameliorates the reverse cholesterol transport. Therefore, Ga extract may be useful for preventing diabetes and lipid disorders.

14.Withdrawn by Authors

15. Immunomodulatory Activity Of Fruit Rinds Of Garcinia Indica (Family Guttiferae) On Swiss Albino Mouse Model
Khan S , Sonar P K , Saraf S A , Saraf S K , Javed S A
Abstract
Garcinia indica (Guttiferae) is a plant widely used in the traditional medicine in India as antiscorbutic, cholaguage etc. It is prescribed in certain immune disorders like asthmatic affections, chronic catarrah and cough. The study  was aimed at scientifically evaluating the immunomodulatory activity of Garcinia indica L. (Guttiferae), on Swiss albino mice against sheep RBC (SRBC) antigen challenge, thereby verifying the traditional usage. The major constituent of the extract was ascertained to be garcinol, by chromatographic and spectroscopic studies. Oral administration of hexane extract (HE) (50 – 300 mg/kg) elicited a dose-dependent increase in Haemagglutination antibody (HA) titers, delayed-type hypersensitivity response and phagocytosis. At the selected maximum dose, HE demonstrated higher immunostimulatory activities in comparison with control and positive standard (levamisole).

16. Evaluation Of Cyathodium cavernarum Kunze Aqueous Extract  For  Anthelmintic Activity
Surendra Kumar. M,  Astalakshmi. N.,  Mithra. T., Nikhil. BR., Rinshida P  Zubair., Muhammed Ameer. VK , G. Babu.
Abstract
Bryophytes are a common sight in and around the world. Being small and relatively common, bryophytes are often over looked and understated. The present study aims at exploring one such kind – Cyathodium cavernarum Kunze for its anthelmintic property.  Anthelmintic activity of Cyathodium cavernarum aqueous extract was evaluated using Indian earthworms Phertima posthuma at 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml and 50mg/ml, using piperazine citrate as standard.  The time taken for paralysis and death was calculated for both the groups. Cyathodium cavernarum aqueous extract exhibited poor anthelmintic activity as compared to the standard drug. The study clearly indicates Cyathodium cavernarum aqueous extract is not a suitable drug of choice for anthelmintic properties.

17. Plant Derived Novel Biomedicinal : Diosgenin
Deshpande H A, Bhalsing S R
Abstract
Medicinal plants attain untapped prosperity of chemical compounds which make these plants as sources of useful biomedicinals. A biologically active steroidal phytochemical – Diosgenin is used as a preliminary intermediate for synthesis of steroidal compounds, oral contraceptives and sex hormones. On the basis of investigation it was revealed that diosgenin serves as a medicine useful for the treatment of different types of disorders in the future. In this current review, we have focused on the potential novel effects of diosgenin including chemistry, structure, its sources, uses, market demand, bioactive compounds derived from diosgenin and in vitro techniques for diosgenin production which could serve as a possible source for contribution in the modern system of herbal medicine.

18. In Vitro Evaluation of Memecylon umbellatum  Burm. F for Antihyperglycemic Activity and Phytochemical Potential
Rajesh V,  Sarthaki R,  Palani R, Jayaraman P
Abstract
It is reported that the naturally obtained plant foods and drugs are able to control blood glucose level which is not having any side effects.  In vitro and in vivo studies on anti-diabetic activity of many plant compounds have been tested and proved efficiently to decrease the glucose level in blood. Therefore, the present study is carried out for assessing the anti-diabetic efficacy and evaluates the anti-hyperglycemic potential of the plant species Memecylon umbellatum Burm.f collected from Malachery forest, Gingee, Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu.  For the analysis of anti-diabetic activity, inhibitory assay of α-amylase, non enzymatic  glycosylation of hemoglobin, the Glucose diffusion assay and  the glucose uptake by the yeast cells were performed. Among the solvents like methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane used for extraction from plant leaves of Memecylon umbellatum Burm.f, the methanol extract showed higher activity for anti-diabetic assay and the presence of other phyto-chemical constituents. The results for the antidiabetic assays, α-amylase inhibitory assay exhibited significant inhibitory activity as 57% – 78%, Non enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin shows comparable inhibitory activity with the standard drug as 47% to 62% and the percentage increase in the glucose uptake by yeast cells was found to the range between 54% to 71% in 5 mM glucose at methanol extract sample concentration of 250 – 1000 μg/ml.  The Glucose diffusion assay performed and found significant level of inhibition of glucose movement at various time intervals when compared to control. The photochemical analysis of plant extract revealed the presence of phenols (1189 µg/ml), flavonoids (388 µg/ml), terpenoids, tannins, saponins and proteins;  the absence of alkaloids, glycosides and reducing sugars in the methanol extract. To elucidate the bioactive compounds present in the best screened extract, they were isolated identified by chromatography in methanol:chloroform (1:9) v/v, which shows better separation of compounds and it is most distinct and clear in iodine vapour and UV light.  This study presents a review on the in vitro anti-diabetic effect of Memecylon umbellatum Burm.f  which provides promising results for the utilization of this plant as a formulation for the drug to treat diabetes after testing for  clinical trials and further analysis.

19. Phytochemical Constituents of Leaves Of Celastrus paniculatus Wild: Endangered Medicinal Plant.
Deodhar Kamalinee Avinash , Shinde Nanda Waman
Abstract
Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in different parts of Celastrus paniculatus belonging to Celastraceae family was assessed and compared. All the plant parts were found to contain alkaloids, tannins on large scale respectively. The significance of the plant parts in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plant parts in ethnomedicine worldwide.

20. Phytochemical and Pharmacognostic Value of Enicostemma littorale
P.Praveena, D.Sudarsanam Jennifer M Ambrose, Jayaraman
Abstract
Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) Raynal, syn. E.littorale Blume family Gentinaceae, is a perennial herb found throughout the greater part of India. Locally it is known as chota chirayita and used in indigenous medicines in the treatment of fevers and as bitter tonic and forms hypoglycemic marketed formulations. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the phytochemical studies and antioxidant activities by various methods. It was observed that the methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether crude extracts of E.littorale possess a significant anti-microbial activity against a bunch of microorganisms responsible for causing many life threaterning diseases like AIDS etc., Hence our results suggest that Enicostemma littorale may be a potential plant for developing better therapeutic drugs for treating various infectious diseases.

21. Fungicidal Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract on Alternaria brassicae.
Sheema K.K, Durai M.
Abstract
Alternaria brassicae is a widespread pathogen causing black leaf spot in the common cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linn.). Ample spectrum of effective chemical fungicides is in use against this pathogen. The agricultural areas of the Nilgiris are fragmented shola forests of this biodiversity hot spot. The indiscriminate usage of chemical fungicides may cause physiological damage, including the endocrine disruption not only in the human but in wild life also. So a universally available bio-fungicide is in quest. With this view the study was conducted to find a biofungicide against the common crucifer pathogen Alternaria brassica. The experiment tested 10 plant extracts against the pathogen in culture plates. The pathogen is collected from the field and the pure line was isolated, the pathogenesis was confirmed by re-infecting the pathogen on host under controlled condition. The majority of the extracts though show efficient in controlling the pathogen, Solanum nigrum is more effective and the activity is almost found equal to chemical fungicides. The results were discussed in relation to the literature and steroidal saponins were concluded to be the active principle in controlling the pathogen.

22. Comparative Pharmacognostic Studies on Three Species of Portulaca
Silvia Netala, Asha Priya M, Pravallika R, Naga Tejasri S, Sumaiya Shabreen Md, Nandini Kumari S
Abstract
To compare the structural features and physicochemical properties of three species of Portulaca. Methods: Different parts of Portulaca were examined for macroscopical, microscopical characters. Physicochemical, phytochemical and fluorescence analysis of the plant material was performed according to the methods of standardization recommended by World Health Organization. Results: The plants are succulent, prostrate herbs. Usually roots at the nodes of the stem. Leaves are opposite with paracytic stomata and characteristic Kranz tissue found in C-4 plants. Abundant calcium oxalate crystals are present in all vegetative parts of the plant. Quantitative determinations like stomatal number, stomatal index and vein islet number were performed on leaf tissue. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids. Conclusions: The results of the study could be useful in setting quality parameters for the identification and preparation of a monograph.


23. Adhatoda vasica
 Leaves Protect Cell Surface Glycoconjugates Abnormalities During DMBA Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis.

Manoharan S, Prabhakar M M
Abstract
Glycoproteins play an integral role in several biological functions including cell-cell interaction. Altered glycoproteins in the cell membrane or surface leads to malignant transformation. The main objective of the present study is to explore the protective effect of Adhatoda vasica on cell surface abnormalities during DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Hamsters treated with DMBA alone for 14 weeks (thrice a week) in the buccal pouches resulted in well developed and well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Increased glycoprotein content was noticed in both tumor tissues and circulation of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of Adhatoda vasica ethanolic leaf extract (AVELet) at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw to hamsters treated with DMBA prevented the oral tumor formation as well as protected the DMBA- induced cell surface abnormalities. The present study thus concludes that Adhatoda vasica has the ability to protect the cell surface abnormalities induced by the carcinogen, DMBA, during oral carcinogenesis.

24. Pharmacognostical and Physiochemical Properties of Hypericum hookerinum Wight & Arn
Murugesan Senthil Kumar, S. Kavimani
Abstract
The plant of the genus of Hpericum consists of more than 400species out of that Hypericum hookerianum has selected and carried out Pharmacognostical and Physiochemical studies. The plant  Hypericum hookerianum. Family Hypericaceae , popular  herb which posses anti bacteria, anti cancer, wound healing, anti inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. Hence the aim and objectives of the present study was to evaluate the Pharmacognostical and Physiochemical properties from the aerial parts of the plant. The important histological features of leaves and stem reveled that presence of  anamocytic stomata, epidermal cells, oil cells, palisade cells, crushed cortex and secondary xylem. The physiochemical studies  includes ash values, extractive values, and fluorescence analysis were studied

25. Anticonvulsant Activity Study of Artemisia nilagirica
Santilna K.S. , Mahesh N.M.,  Suresh J.
Abstract
Artemisia nilagirica is commonly called as Indian wormwood, which was used traditionally in the treatment of epilepsy. So in the present study the antiepileptic potential of the leaves of Artemisia nilagirica was evaluated. The leaves part of the plant was dried and powdered and subjected to maceration using solvents like diethylether, chloroform and ethanol (95%). All the three extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical tests and anticonvulsant activity (pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion). Results show that the alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were identified to be present in all three solvents extracts. Among the extracts ethanolic extract (600 and 800mg/kg) produced better anticonvulsant activity than chloroform extract. Both the extracts were less potent than diazepam treated group. Diethylether extract did not produce anticonvulsant activity.  The result obtained suggests that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts of Artemisia nilagirica may be beneficial in the treatment of epilepsy.

26. Antimicrobial, Phytochemical and Insecticidal Properties of Jatropha Species and Wild Ricinus communis L. Found in Mauritius
Sillma Rampadarath, Daneshwar Puchooa, Mala Ranghoo- Sanmukhiya
Abstract
Jatropha species and Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) are important medicinal plants growing in both tropical and warm temperate regions of Africa, Southern Asia and Malaysia and are widely distributed throughout the island of Mauritius. These medicinal plants have been reported in several research works and valued for their various uses in traditional medicine for curative properties against inflammation, rheumatism, respiratory disorders, fever, bacterial infection and jaundice, among others.   Publications exist on the various traditional and ethno medical uses of the plants, however no known scientific studies have been undertaken locally using Jatropha species and Ricinus communis, and no toxicity against Bactrocera insects have been reported .   In this context, the present study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemical, antimicrobial activities and insecticidal properties of different Jatropha species and Ricinus communis (castor). The disc diffusion, MIC and toxicity assays tested the antimicrobial sensitivity and activity of ten microorganisms, lethality effect of the crude solvent extracts

27. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fenugreek Seeds Extract
Idries Muhson Abeed AL. Mashkor
Abstract
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a nutrient dense food rich in beneficial phytochemicals.  In this study, three types of solvent extracts of  fenugreek seeds were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent on total phenolics content (TPC),  1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)  were determined.  Results showed that extraction solvent had significant effects on TPC and antioxidant activity of acetone extract. The highest content of TPC and antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) were found in 50% acetone extracts.  The TPC for fenugreek seeds from 25.90 to 15.45 mg GAE/100 g DW and antioxidant activity FRAP from 47.49 to 31.85 mg TE /100 g DW, DPPH were from 67.30 % to 43.61%). The largest amount of total phenol content which leads to more effective radical scavenging effect was shown by 50% acetone extract. Moreover, amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities increased in acetone extract. Acetone 50% and methanol 50% solvent showed the greatest capability in extracting antioxidants and inhibiting the free radicals produced. It was concluded that extraction solvent play important roles on the phenolics compounds and their antioxidant activity of fenugreek seeds extract.

28. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Three Bupleurum Plants
Byongsoon Lee , Seongkyu Choi ,  Kyeong Won Yun
Abstract
The antibacterial activity of three Bupleurum plants (Bupleurum falcatum, Bupleurum falcatum ‘Mishima’ and Bupleurum latissimum) was tested against three gram-positive and three gram-negative bacteria using the disk-diffusion method. The ether and ethyl acetate fraction of crude methanol extract from the three Bupleurum plants showed potent antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of B. falcatum exhibited a higher antibacterial activity than the other two Bupleurum plants. In general, the ethyl acetate fraction of crude methanol extract of B. falcatum and B. falcatum ‘Mishima’ showed a higher growth inhibitory activity than the ether fraction against tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In contrast, the ether fraction of B. latissimum showed a higher antibacterial activity than the ethyl acetate fraction. Antibacterial assay showed that Salmonella typhimurium was the most sensitive microorganism with the lowest MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). In addition, the extract of the three Bupleurum plants displayed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis.

29. Difference of Solvent Polarity to Phytochemical Content and Antioxidant Activity of Pluchea indicia Less Leaves Extracts
Paini Sri Widyawati, Tarsisius Dwi Wibawa Budianta, Fenny Anggraeni Kusuma, Evelyn Livia Wijaya
Abstract
Pluchea indica Less called local name Beluntas or Luntas, one of herb plants, is usually used as traditional medicine by people in Indonesia. Phytochemical content in this Pluchea leaves can reduce odor body and prevent many diseases. Phytochemical polarity in Pluchea leaves is various so that can be extracted by different solvents. The phytochemical contents determine their antioxidant capacity. The study was conducted to determine difference of solvent polarity (water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexanes) to phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity of Pluchea leaves extracts.  The results showed that major phytochemical in Pluchea leaves was polar properties extracted by water, methanol, and ethanol, including flavonoid, saponin, phenol hydroquinone, alkaloid, sterol, tannin, and reducing sugar. A part of them had semi polar properties, such as sterol, flavonoid, phenol hidroquinone, and alkaloid. Another of them had non polar properties, i.e. sterol, flavonoid, and phenol hydroquinone, and alkaloid. Phytochemical content was correlated with total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. Methanolic extract had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid, 1185.2 mg GAE/g samples dry base and 911.9 mg CE/g samples dry base, respectively, consequently it had the highest a DPPH free scavenging activity and iron ion reducing power, 794.9 mg GAE/g samples dry base and 2.14 mg GAE/g samples dry base, respectively.

30. In Vitro Investigation of Antidiabetic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants
Vijayalakshmi. K, Immanuel Selvaraj. C, Sindhu. S, Arumugam. P
Abstract
Diabetes Mellitus is a systemic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, abnormal elevated levels of lipid, and fat in blood and hypoinsulinaemia. This study aims at determining the anidiabetic potential of five traditional medicinal plants such as, Sarcostemma brevistigma, Grewia hirsuta, Indigofera aspalathoides, Memecylon edule and Solanum trilobatum. The selected plant parts were subjected to solvent extraction and analyzed for their antidiabetic activity using in vitro assays such as, α-amylase inhibition assay, glucose difusion assay, glucose uptake by yeast cells, and nonenzymatic glycosylation assay followed by phytochemical analysis and thin layer chromatography. The results of the assays suggest that among the selected plants, methanol extract of the S. brevistigma was significant in inhibiting the activity of α-amylase with IC50 value of 250µg/ml. Further assays proved that the same was efficient in its antidiabetic potential. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids in major amount. In addition, the thin layer chromatography revealed that five distinct compounds were present in the methanol extract of S. brevistigma, which might be responsible for its antidiabetic activity. Thus the study suggests that Sarcostmema brevistigma might be considered as a potential source of natural antidiabetic agents.

31. Antibacterial Activity of the Leaf Extracts Of Different Varieties Of Ixora coccinea Linn: A Comparative Study
Poornima S, Dhanalakshmi P, Jaya Prakash Priya A, Rekha R, Arumugam P
Abstract
The antibacterial property of leaves of different colored varieties of Ixora coccinea Linn (Family: Rubiaceae) was studied against drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The ethyl acetate extracts of all varieties showed significant concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, particularly, against gram negative bacteria. Bioassays showed the presence of several specifically active compounds at different Rf values in Ixora coccinea red plant leaf extract. Presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, phenols, steroids, saponins, and flavonoids were observed in the plant extracts which have antibacterial activity and can be used for medicinal purpose. Further mechanistic studies could prove this plant as an excellent source of antibiotic agents.

32. Effect of Ascorbic acid and Niacin on Protein, Fatty Acids and Antibacterial Activity of Lupinus termis  Seeds
Ismail Mahmoud Ali Shahhat, Gamal Mahmoud Ghazal, Ghada Samir Mohamed
Abstract
The aim of this work is to study the effect of foliar application of various concentrations (50, 100 and 200 ppm) of ascorbic acid and niacin on protein, oil, fatty acids and antibacterial activity of bitter lupine (Lupinus termis L.) seeds. The results obtained showed that, foliar application of both ascorbic acid and niacin had significant effect on protein and oil content of lupine seeds. Gas liquid chromatography of the oil showed increase in unsaturated fatty acids with all foliar application treatments except 200 ppm nicotinic acid compared with control. Palmitic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) were the most affected saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in response to different vitamins types and levels.  The best ratio of linoleic over linolenic (2.18:1) was obtained with using 200 ppm of ascorbic acid.  It was noted that, nicotinic acid at all concentrations caused more increases in essential fatty acids (ω-6 and ω -3) than ascorbic acid treatments at the same concentration. The results of this study showed that there was no almost antibacterial activity for L. termis oil extract against all the tested strains. Ethanol extracts had the highest inhibition zone in the treatment with foliar application of ascorbic acid, which increased by increasing the treatment concentration to reach its maximum value at 200 ppm. The G-ve bacteria were more resistant to the plant extract than gram-positive bacteria such as Ps. aeruginosa exhibited more resistant than B. subtilis when they were tested with L. termis extract.

33. Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical and Physiochemical  Study of Evolvulus nammularius (Convolvulaceae).
Sahu Namrata , Yadu Umesh Kumar, Jana G. K., Tripathi Ramashish
Abstract
The aim of this study is to focuse on the ethnomedicinal importance of  the plant Evolvulus nummularius (L) belonging to the family Convolvulaceae. The investigation carried out by us was on the Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Physiochemical study of the aerial part of the plant. During the course of the experimental work the aerial part showed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavonoids, tannins, protein, phytosterol, alkaloids, saponin etc.The ethnomedicinal documentation confirms about the potent activity of the aerial part of Evolvulus nummularius . The physicochemical, morphological and histological parameters carried out as per WHO guidelines of quality control methods for medicinal plant materials.

34. Study the anti-anxiety effect of acute injection of Lavandula angustifolia extract in elevated plus-maze test in male rat
Komaki Alireza, Hashemi-Firouzi Nasrin, Reshadi Mina, Aghasi Zahra, Shahidi Siamak, Sarihi Abdolrahman
Abstract
With respect to anxiety prevalence and the fact some available anxiolytic drug remain side effect, design of suitable drugs, without unwanted side effects is necessary. Lavandula angustifolia (LA) is used in herbal medicine for the treatment of anxiety. Present study investigated the acute effects of hydro-alcoholic extracts of LA on anxiety-like behavior in Elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. The EPM is one of the most widely used animal models of anxiety. Four different groups of male Wistar rats intraperitoneally received LA extract (25, 50, 100 mg/kg), or saline (as control group) 30 min before submitting into EPM test. The statistical analysis of data was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc analysis.The results showed that compared to the control group, LA (50, 100 mg/kg) increased the percentage of entries in open arms (P<0.01) and time spent in open arms (P<0.01, P<0.05; respectively). LA extract has no effects on the total distance covered by animals and number of closed arm entries. The locomotor activity was not significantly changed by LA.The LA appears to be an anxiolytic influence effect. Future investigations are essential for pharmacological providing of LA and better understanding of anxiolytic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of LA extract.

35. A Novel Approach to Develop Safe & Eco-friendly Herbal Mosquito Repellent
Pallabi Sen, M.Chandran, Rajamani Ramanathan, SekarBabu Hariram
Abstract
There are really only two reasons to control mosquitoes; to avoid nuisance biting, and to preclude the spread of mosquito-borne disease. Everyone recognizes that mosquitoes can be a real nuisance, but most people do not realize the magnitude of the health threat that they represent. Some of the world’s most dreaded diseases are known to be carried and transmitted by mosquitoes. Many countries around the world are ravaged yearly by malaria, yellow fever, and dengue-hemorrhagic fever. According to the World Health Organization mosquitoes infect over 300 million people a year with Malaria and Dengue, just two of the life threatening diseases mosquitoes can carry. Most of the people have aversion over the use of present synthetic mosquito repellent due to its unacceptable smell and highly poisonous to human due to its chemical pesticide Apart from this it causes bronchial congestion to bronchitis patients and children. The prolong use of synthetic mosquito repellents shows other side effects like neurotoxicity and altered immune system. Hence the main objective of this project is to produce an organic and novel product which is cost efficient and eco-friendly .For this many herbs have been tried such as Lemon, Nochi, Marigold, Datura and Neem. To have effective pesticide action without creating any problem to human, Apart from this the plants included can remove the bronchial congestion so that both bronchitis patients and children would feel comfortable. Through many trials carried out it is very clear that  kaduka gives excellent binding to bring out desired shapes of the proposed mosquito repellent. The prepared pellets were tried on mosquitoes kept in specially fabricated mosquito cage. The results are quite interesting to note that it completely keeps away the mosquito which is evidenced by concentration of mosquitoes towards the corner of the cage which indicates the repellent action of discovered mosquito pellet. The study can be further extended to screen the toxic effect through animal studies to bring it as a potent safe and eco-friendly mosquito repellent.

36. Phytochemical Studies and In Vitro Antioxidant Properties Of Ziziphus Mauritiana Fruit Extract.
Okala A, Ladan M. J, Wasagu R.S.U., Shehu K
Abstract
The present study was aimed at investigating the phytochemical and antioxidant properties  of Ziziphus mauritiana fruit. Qualitative phytochemical studies were carried out which revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. The antioxidant properties of the extract was also evaluated using various in vitro assays.The IC50 value of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was found to be 338.45µg/ml. Reducing power assay was another in vitro model used which showed antioxidant potential by reducing ferrous ion which was concentration dependant. Measurement of total phenolic compounds was found to be 402.31±53.6mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/100g.

37. Polyphenols Contain and Antioxidant Activities of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (Dandelion) Leaves
Ivan Georgiev Ivanov
Abstract
Plant of genus Taraxacum known as dandelion have long been used in tradition medicinal. Extracts from dandelion possess anti-influenza virus, anti-fertility and anti-retrovirus activity, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. Chicoric acid also known as dicaffeyltartaric acid and belongs to phenylpropanoids is one of the main constituent of T. officinale. The current investigation was conducted to determinate the total polyphenols and total dihydroxycinnamic derivatives contents, and to evaluate the antioxidant capacities in aqueous and ethanol-water extracts prepared from T. officinale leaves. Total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The antioxidant capacities in the forms of DPPH, FRAP and CuPRAC were evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. The results indicated that TPC, chicoric acid concentration, DPPH, FRAP and CuPRAC values were higher in 50% ethanol extract of T. officinale leaves: 33.90 ± 0.57 mg GAE/ g DW, 3.1 g/ 100g DW, 136.3 mM TE/ g DW (DPPH method), 131.5 mM TE / g DW (FRAP method) and 407.8 mM TE/ g DW (CuPRAC method). The results clearly demonstrated the Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg leaves are rich source of polyphenols possess high antioxidant properties. The high yield of cichoric acid make this plant valuable source of commercial production.

38. Terpenes and Sterols Composition of Marine Brown Algae Padina pavonica (Dictyotales) and Hormophysa triquetra (Fucales)
Gihan A. El Shoubaky, Essam A. Salem
Abstract
In this study the terpenes and sterols composition were identified and estimated qualitatively and quantitatively from the brown algae Padina pavonica (Dictyotales) and Hormophysa triquetra (Fucales) by using GC/MS (Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrum). Significant differences were found in the terpenes and sterols composition of the selected algae. The analysis revealed the presence of 19 terpenes in Padina pavonica and 20 terpenes in Hormophysa triquetra, in addition to 5 sterols recoded in both of them.The total concentration of terpenes in Hormophysa triquetra recorded the highest percentage than Padina pavonica. In contrast, Padina pavonica registered high content of sterols than those in Hormophysa triquetra. The main terpene component was the hemiterpene 3-Furoic acid recording in Hormophysa triquetra more than in Padina pavonica. The diterpene phytol compound occupied the second rank according to their concentration percentage in both of the studied species. Hormophysa triquetra characterized by alkylbenzene derivatives more than Padina pavonica.Fucosterolwas the major sterol component in both of the selected algae recording a convergent concentration in Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra. β- Sitosterol was detected only in Padina pavonica whereas β–Sitostanol and Stigmasterol were characterized in Hormophysa triquetra. Campesterol was found in the two studied species. Some of the high molecular weight compounds of sterols distinguished by binding of a sugar moiety (Steryl glycosides) and sodium adduct (Na+). Stigmasteryl- glucoside+Na+ found in Padina pavonica only whereas β -sitosteryl- glucoside+ Na+ detected at the two selected species. Medicinal importance of terpenes and sterols in these brown species was discussed.

39. Natural Gums and Mucilages: A Review on Multifaceted Excipients in Pharmaceutical Science and Research
Rohit Rajendra Bhosale, Riyaz Ali M. Osmani, Afrasim Moin.
Abstract
The application of natural polysaccharides in novel drug delivery systems to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic polymers. The main benefits of the natural polysaccharides are their being biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, richly available and less expensive. Because of the advances in drug delivery technology, natural polysaccharides are included in novel drug delivery to fulfill multitask functions and in some cases directly or indirectly control the extent and/or rate of drug release. Substantial research efforts have been directed towards developing safe and efficient natural based polysaccharide particulate drug delivery systems. The present review outlines the natural based polysaccharides, natural gums and mucilages and their isolation, purification, standardization and characterization characteristics along with their applications are covered. Also this review covers fabrication techniques for natural polysaccharide based particulate drug delivery systems, specifically micro and nanoparticle drug delivery systems with their characterization techniques and applications are discussed.

40. Pharmacological Evaluation of The Methanolic Extract of Tribulus bimucronatus Growing in Saudi Arabia in Rats
Shoeib N, Hassan M, Abd El-Latif H.A.
Abstract
The methanolic extract of Tribulus bimucronatus (Zygophyllaceae) growing in Saudi Arabia was screened using albino rats in a dose of 100, 200 & 400 mg/kg of body weight.The tail cuff for hypotensive, the hot plate for the antinociceptive and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method for the anti-inflammatory activity were adopted. The results revealed a significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore marked hypotensive and antinociceptive  effect were observed  at the higher dose (400 mg/kg).Tribulus bimucronatus is shown to be a promising plant and may be comparable to the famous Ayurvedic Tribulus teresteris from which commercial products are available.

41. Persistence of Profenophos and Quinolphos on Cultivated Cucumber and its Removal
D. Raveendranath, K. Sri Rama Murthy, B. Vijayalakshmi, A. Harinatha Reddy, D. Siva Rama Prasad
Abstract
Two sprays of profenophos 50% EC and quinolphos 25% EC were applied on cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) at the rate of 500 and 250 g a.i. ha-1, respectively. The first spray at fruit formation stage followed by second spray at seven days interval and the samples of cucumbers were collected at regular intervals of 0 (2 h after application), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after second spray. Residues were quantified by using gas chromatography. The initial disappearance of profenophos and quinolphos appeared to follow first order kinetics with different rates of reactions of 0.19and 0.33 day-1 for cucumber respectively. The corresponding half-lives (t1/2) were 3.65 and 2.10 days. To reduce the safe waiting period, efforts were made to decontaminate the residues from cucumber by various household processing methods (viz. washing, washing plus cooking, 2% salt water washing and peeling). Various household processing substantially reduced the residues from cucumber in the range of 41.53-84.17% for profenophos and 60.0- 83.05% for quinolphos. The maximum reduction (84.17%, 83.05%) was observed by 2% salt water washing, so the consumers are suggested to follow dipping of cucumber in 2% salt water, as best risk mitigation method.

42. Effect of Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract on Gluconeogenesis in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice
J.Mandarika, Dr. N. Rama Krishna, , Ch. Saidulu
Abstract
Emblica officinalis (Amla), known as Indian gooseberry, has been used extensively in the ancient Indian Ayurveda as a potent rasayana i.e. a herbal formulation that helps attain longevity and rejuvenation. Administration of Emblica officinalis fruit extract to allaxon induced diabetic mice showed increase in the contents of pyruvate and lactate in liver, kidney and thigh muscle tissue. It also showed decreased levels of glucose – 6 -phosphatase indicating reduced gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis from lactate, pyruvate, glycerol and amino acids is a major essential function of glucose for nervous system at times when dietary carbohydrates is lacking. The lactate levels in all the tissues have shown a fall in the diabetic state and after treatment with the fruit extract have shown an increase indicating the reversal towards normalcy.

43. Hepatoprotective Activity of Elytraria Acaulis Plant Extracts in Albino Rats
G. Venkat Raji Reddy, R.Vijay Kumar, M. Krishna Reddy
Abstract
Development in the science is helping the people to have the knowledge of unknown things. In that attempt, finding the plants as the best therapeutic option for the health problems and making them familiar to the people. The present experiment was conducted for 7 days to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of plant Elytraria acaulis in CCl4 (1ml/kg) treated rats. The extracts were prepared by the Elytraria acaulis whole plant extracts in ethanol and aqueous solvents through maceration technique. The 6 groups were maintained as control, CCl4 induced, CCl4+ Liver tonic, CCl4+Elytraria acaulis extracts (ethanol 200mg/kg and aqueous 200mg/kg). On the 8th day blood was collected for the study of serum enzymes like SGOT (Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase), SGPT (Serum Glutamate Phosphate Transaminase) and bilirubin and then the separated liver is processed for the histological studies. The decreased levels of SGOT, SGPT and total bilirubin in the treated rats were an indication of the hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Elytraria acaulis. The histological changes are also evidence for hepatoprotective activity of extracts. All the values are significant at p<0.05.

44. Effect of Sesamol and Folic Acid on Behavioural Activity and Antioxidant Profile of Rats Induced with 6-Hydroxy Dopamine
Khadira Sereen A, Priya Nagappan, Vijayalakshmi K
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is caused due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons present in substantia nigra. Oxidative stress due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) within the nerve is one of the main etiologies of PD, which breaks down the neuronal integrity and threatens the neuronal survival. The deficiency of dietary folic acid also causes PD. This was experimented in male wistar rats. They were segregated into five groups (6 rats in each group: Group1-control; Group 2 – lesion; Group 3-lesion+sesamol; Group 4- lesion +sesamol+folic acid; and Group 5- lesion + l-Dopa). For lesion, the rats were induced once with 6-hydroxydopamine (10µg/2µl in 0.1% ascorbic acid-saline) by intrastriatal administration. After three weeks, each group was treated with Sesamol(SA), folic acid (FA) and l-Dopa. The behavioural tests, such as apomorphin-induced rotational test, grip test, ladder climbing test and swing and climb test were performed. The activity of Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidiase and Glutathione reductase, and the levels of Glutathione, Vitamin-C, Vitamin- E, TBARS and Nitric oxide were estimated in the brain tissue.  Disability was noted in the behaviour of rats induced with PD, and it was recovered by administering SA and FA. The activities and the levels of biochemical parameters were brought to near normal by administering SA and FA together. This study indicates that the combination of SA and FA is useful in treating PD and further investigation is required to prove the same.

45. In Vitro Pharmacognostical Studies and Evaluation of Bioactive Constituents from the Fruits of Cucumis melo L. (Muskmelon)
Sasi Kumar R , Priyadharshini S, Nandha Kumar L, Nivedha S
Abstract
The objective of the present study is to evaluate the presence of bioactive constituents and antioxidant, antimicrobial activity of solvent extract of fruit of Cucumis Melo Linn.  The extraction was done with Ethanol using reflux apparatus. The GC-MS analysis was done by using the standard procedure. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by Agar well diffusion method against five human pathogens.  DPPH radical-scavenging activity was done by using standard procedure. Ten compounds in ethanolic extract were identified. 5-hydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2,3-dimethyl-4H-chromen-4-one (21.04%) was the major proportion.  The extract and fractionates of fresh fruits of Cucumis Melo showed a significant and remarkable activity against all the microorganisms. Based on the antioxidant analysis obtained, it was showed that the extract of Cucumis melo fruits exhibits the greatest antioxidant activity through the DPPH radicals scavenging activity. The present study concludes that the ethanol extract of fruit of Cucumis melo contains broad spectrum of bioactive compounds and also exhibit antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. It indicates the presence of these biologically active chemical in Cucumis Melo may justify their wide usage in traditional medicine.

46. Phytochemistry and Anti-acetyl Cholinesterase Activity of Salix nigra
Wasim A, Mushtaq A, Nadia M
Abstract
Phytochemical costing is very significant for confirmation of various naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites in plants. The methanolic crude extract of Salix Nigra was evaluated for phytochemical screening which showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, coumarins and betacyanins. Methanolic extract of leaves of Salix Nigra failed to inhibit acetylcholinesterase in TLC bioautographic detection. The rest of plant extracts, including methanolic extract of stem, hexane extract of both leaves and stems, were detected to have acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties.

47. Pharmacognostical Investigation of Erythropalum scandens Bl., Bijdr (Erythropalaceae) – An Ethnomedicinal Plant
Sutha S, V. Kalpana Devi V, Daffodil E.D, Mohan V.R.
Abstract
Erythropalum scandens Bl., Bijdr (Erythropalaceae) commonly known as “Vaathavallikodi” in Kanikkar tribals of KMTR, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu. Tender shoots and leaf of this plant treat rheumatic complaint by the Kanikkar tribals. The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the leaf and stem of the above said plant. Pharmcognostic studies include microscopic, physico-chemical constant, fluorescent analysis and preliminary phytochemical evaluations. These findings should be suitable for inclusion in the proposal pharmacopoeia of Indian medicinal plants.

48. Antiglucosidase Activity and Phytochemical Evaluation of Tanacetum parthenium
Saugata Dutta, Sujit Biswas, Mohabbat Ullah, Shuvra Debnath, Jamilur Rahman Bhuiya , Amdadul Huque
Abstract
Tanacetum parthenium is a medicinal plant of multifarious implications. Its application on the human being is increasing day by day, but still a lot of its beneficial properties are to be disclosed. So, the aims of this study were to probe the antiglucosidase activity of T. parthenium and to evaluate the phytochemical properties of this plant. We observed whether there is any color change after termination of a chromogenic reaction. Then we measured the mean of the absorbance reading at for the water extract, ethyl acetate extract, petroleum ether extract of Tanacetum parthenium and the crude Tanacetum parthenium of different concentrations. We analyzed different plant parts (leaf and root), DCQA, plant part together with DCQA (Dicaffeoyl quinic acid), petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract and water extract of that plant part and the standard by gradient HPLC at two wavelengths- 215 nm and 280 nm. The color of the water extract, ethyl acetate extract, petroleum ether extract of Tanacetum parthenium and the crude T. parthenium remained unchanged. So, we can say that there is no antiglucosidase activity at all neither in the extracts of T. parthenium nor in the crude T. parthenium. At both the wavelengths, all the samples clearly indicated that the leaf sample of T. parthenium has the desired compound. The other samples like root, DCQA, combination of DCQA and root did not have the certainty that the desired compound will exist in these samples. In case of petroleum ether, there is no probability to get the desired compound in the extract whereas there is a probability to get the standard compound in the water extract. At both the wavelengths, ethyl acetate extract retained a strong probability for the existence of the desired compound. Tanacetum parthenium does not possess any type of antiglucosidase property. Moreover, out of different studied samples leaf and ethyl acetate extract of T. parthenium root showed the best results. So, more effective and optimized drugs can be developed from leaves and ethyl acetate extract of T. parthenium.

49. Phytochemical Screening of Methanol Extract of Root Tuber of Smilax china
Saravanakumar S, Christilda Felicia, Sundarapandian. S
Abstract
The phytochemical activity of the methanol extract extract of root tuber of Smilax china (family: Liliaceae) was studied to fix the parameters of pharmacogostical standards. These created an interest to test the possible phytochemical activity of the plant. In the screening process of Smilax china indicate the presence of fat, Saponins, glucosides, gum, starch, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. This phytochemical study was performed by using standard procedure.  The methanolic extract of root tuber of Smilax china showed protective effects on liver and testis. Further, detailed studies are needed to know whether in-vivo administration of the extracts is beneficial for patients.

50. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial studies and Investigation of Secondary metabolites from stem bark of Barringtonia acutangula (L.)
Mohan A, Sasi Kumar R
Abstract
In the present study, the bioactive components of Barringtonia acutangula stem barks have been evaluated using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrum (GC-MS). Seven compounds in ethanolic extract were identified. 9-Octadecenoic acid, (E) (21.64%) was the prevailing compound in ethanolic extract, which is suggested to be an anticancer compound.  The ethanol extract of stem bark was found to be exhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella and Escherichia coli.  The extract and fractionates of fresh stem bark of Barringtonia acutangula showed a significant and remarkable activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella and Escherichia coli when compared to standard. It indicates the presence of these biologically active chemical in Barringtonia acutangula may justify their wide usage in traditional medicine. Based on the antioxidant analysis obtained, it was showed that the extract of Barringtonia acutangula stem bark exhibits the greatest antioxidant activity through the DPPH radicals scavenging activity. The present study concludes that the ethanol extract of stem bark of Barringtonia acutangula contains broad spectrum of bioactive compounds and also exhibit antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. It indicates the presence of these biologically active chemical in Barringtonia acutangula may justify their wide usage in traditional medicine.

51. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of Acalypha indica Linn in experimental animal models
Shivakumar S. Godipurge, Jaiprakash S. Biradar,  Nitin Mahurkar
Abstract
In the present study the plant was subjected to phytochemical evaluation and anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by hiring carrageenan induced paw edema, human red blood cells membrane stabilization method (HRBC) as well as animal model of acute inflammation was adopted to probe the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism and eddy’s hot plate and tail flick methods. Polyphenolic extract of Acalypha indica Linn (PPEA) produced significant anti-inflammatory (P < 0.001) and analgesic (P < 0.001) effects in dose dependent manner. The highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids (9.27 mg TA/g and 8.75 mg Ru/g, respectively).The total phenolic and flavonoid content indicates that these compounds are likely to be the main nociceptive and inflammatory contributing to the observed activities. PPEA exhibited significant anti-inflammatory mechanism of chemical constituents may be due, at least in part to the inhibition of PGE2 levels. These finding suggest that of the medicinal herb studied in this paper are good source of inflammations. The results afford evidence to support the traditional linctus abuse of PPEA for the action of inflammation.

52. Elemental compositions of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. Stem bark by ICP-MS
J. Shashikanth, Ch. Mohan, S. Sridhar, P. Ramachandra Reddy
Abstract
Analysis of heavy metals, minerals and trace elements of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. belonging to Anacardiaceae family will be presented by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy. ICP-MS is a new and fast technique for ultra trace elemental analysis. The concentrations of these elements in plant drug will be discussed in relation to human health. Study revealed that heavy metals are within permissible limits. The data evolved in the present work will aid in identifying the drug in dry form and standardization of the drug and control the adulteration of raw drugs. Heavy metal contents such as Selenium, Lead, Arsenic, Cadmium, Nickel, Chromium and mineral and trace elements such as Iron, Copper, Manganese, Zinc, Cobalt, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Aluminum (a total 16 elements) were analyzed.  The results in comparison the values of permissible limits will be presented.

53. Quality Standard Parameters of Anti-asthmatic Ayurvedic Formulation “Kanakasava”
Arora P, Ansari S. H.
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to optimize the method of preparation of herbal anti-asthmatic Ayurvedic formulation “Kanakasava” and to standardize the prepared formulation by important pharmaceutical parameters.  Kanakasava, a polyherbal Ayurvedic asava formulation, consists of Datura metel Linn. Adhatoda vasica Nees.,  Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Piper longum Linn., Solanum xanthocarpum Scrad & Wendl, Zingiber officinalis Rosc., Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon, Mesua ferrea Linn, Abies webbiana Lindl, Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. Since ages the formulation has been used traditionally for the treatment of asthma. Method of preparation was optimized for pH and CO2 release as check parameters for completion of fermentation and prepared formulation was standardized for preliminary physico-chemical parameters as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The formulation was also investigated for toxicological determinants like pesticides residues, heavy metals, aflatoxins and microbial growth. The results of standardization i.e., pH (3.86 ± 0.029), specific gravity (1.046 ± 0.009), viscosity (1.52 CS ± 0.006), phenolic content (0.079 % w/v ± 0.012%), alcohol content (7.18% v/v± 0.577), total solid content (14.64 % w/v ± 0.348) and toxicological determinants complies with the official limits. Results show that the prepared formulation is characterized for physico-chemical parameters that would facilitate the identification of formulation for further research.

54. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Spirulina platensis extracts against opportunistic pathogen model
Biswajit Chakraborty, Rajesh P. Jayaswal and Pranay P Pankaj
Abstract
Spirulina platensis extracts were prepared in water, methanol, ethanol and acetone with different concentrations and tested against Staphylococcus aureus. It was investigated that water extract of Spirulina platensis showed higher antibacterial activity than other extracts whereas acetone extract showed least amount of antibacterial activity. Methanol and ethanol extract of Spirulina platensis showed a reduced amount of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.  Water extract exhibited the highest zone of inhibition of 19 mm in diameter followed by methanol extract, ethanol extract and acetone extract which revealed zone of inhibition of 16mm, 13mm and 09mm in diameter respectively. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of water, methanol, ethanol and acetone extract showed 2025mg/ml, 3600mg/ml, 6400mg/ml and 12800 mg/ml concentration respectively.

55. Phytoconstituents: Isolation And Characterization From Root Bark Of Shorea robusta Plant
Sharma T. C., Sharma A. K., Sharma K. K., Payal P., Sharma M. C., Dobhal M. P.
Abstract
Phytochemical examination on the petroleum ether extract of Shorea robusta root bark led to the isolation of Asiatic acid (1), 3,25-epoxy-1,2,3,11-etrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic Acid (2), 3,25-epoxy-1,2,3-trihydroxyurs-l2-en-28-oic Acid (3), Phayomphenol (4) and 3,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The structure of these compounds was elucidated on the basis of different spectroscopic techniques.

56. In vitro Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activity of C. aromaticus Essential Oil Against Multidrug Resistant (MDR) Urinary Tract Infected Pathogens
Govindaraju subramaniyan, Indra Arulselvi Padikasan
Abstract
The present work is aimed to the extraction of essential oil from Coleus aromaticus and evaluation of its antioxidant and antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant urinary tract infected pathogens. Essential oil extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger type apparatus and thus free radical scavenging ability tested with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Nitric oxide (NO). The antibacterial activities were conducted against urinary tract infected multi drug resistant (MDR) Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative pathogens (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris) by agar diffusion, growth inhibition analysis through optical density measurement. The free radical scavenging ability of essential oil expressed in IC50 (50% of inhibition) value in this for DPPH the IC50 was 54.23μl/ml, whereas nitric oxide scavenging was 72. 91μl/ml.  The antibacterial activity of C. aromaticus essential oil is dosage dependent from lower to higher (20-80μl/ml) concentration. Whereas the maximum zone of inhibition was determined in Gram positive pathogens than Gram negative at the higher concentration of 80μl/ml. The highest percentage of growth inhibition was measured in 24hr incubated culture through optical density measurement study. C.aromaticus essential oil possessed potent antioxidant and antibacterial activity and this in vitro study supports its traditional approach as a preventive therapy for the treatment of microbial diseases and replacement of artificial antioxidants.

57. Pharmacognostic studies on whole plant of Merremia emarginata Burm.f (Convolvulaceae)
Purushoth Prabhu.T, Shine Sudev, Clement Atlee.W, R.Suresh, S.Balasubramanian
Abstract
Pharmacognostic evaluation is the first and foremost step to determine identity and to assess the quality and purity of the crude drug. Merremia emarginata Burm.f (convolvulaceae) is a perennial, much branched herb (creeper). It is found widely distributed all over the India, especially in damp places in upper gangetic plain, Gujarat, Bihar, West Bengal, Western‐ Ghats, ascending up to 900m in the hills, Goa, Karnataka in India, Ceylon and Tropical Africa.  All the genus of the family are economically important. Merremia emarginata is also known as Ipomoea reniformis chois. The current study describes some pharmacognostical studies on whole plant of Merremia emarginata.

58. Anti cancer activity of Plumeria rubra (Flowers) against human liver Cancer
N.Muruganantham, S.Solomon, M.M.Senthamilselvi
Abstract
The present study has been performed experimentally by in vitro method to examine the anti cancer activity of various concentrations of ethanolic extract of flowers of Plumeria rubra. The report on to the experiment reveals a significant anti cancer activity at different concentrations of the extract. The ethanolic extract of flowers of Plumeria rubra was tested for its anti cancer activity against liver cancer HePG2 cell line by MTT assay. The CTC50 value of sample was 98.14μg/ml against liver cancer HePG2 cell lines. Significant results were observed thereby justifying the use of this plant in the traditional system of medicine

59. Standardisation of Guazuma tomentosa leaf
Minakshi Sharma, Shyam Baboo Prasad
Abstract
Standardisation of leaf of Guazuma tomentosa is carried out to establish its macroscopic and microscopic characters and its quantitative physicochemical standards. Total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash, swelling index, extractive value (ethyl acetate, dichloromethne, alcohol and water soluble extractive value both hot and cold) were determined for physicochemical evaluations. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done to detect the presence and absence of phytoconstituents. Thin layer chromatography was carried out which play important role in assuring quality of crude drug. The drug can be identified on the basis of morphology and microscopic characters. Phytochemical screening revealed that leaf extract contain alkaloids, carbohydrate, phytosterol, resin, flavanoids, tannins, diterpenes and protein. TLC chromatogram and different phsicochemical standard has been developed. The present study on pharmacognostic standardisation, physicochemical evaluation of Guazuma tomentosa leaf might be useful to supplement information in regard to its identification parameters assumed significantly in the way of acceptibility of herbal drugs in present scenario.

60. Amelioration of Diazepam Induced Memory Impairment by Fruit of Cucumis sativus L. in Aged Mice by Using Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease
Manish Kumar, Akash Garg, Milind Parle
Abstract
Traditionally fruit of Cucumis sativus var sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae) has been used for its high fiber and vitamin content in gastrointestinal, skin problems and as cooling agent for body as well as brain.The present study assessed the pharmacological effects of cucumber on learning and memory capabilities of mice. Fresh cucumber paste in doses 3, 6, 9 g/kg were fed orally to mice for 15 successive days. Elevated plus maze, sodium nitrite induced metabolic hypoxia and object recognition task models were employed to test learning and memory. Biochemical tests measured anti-cholinesterase activity in brain, serum glucose levels, cholesterol levels, malonadialdehyde levels and reduced glutathione levels in the brain of mice. 9 and 6 g/kg doses reduced TL of mice significantly on 14th (P < .05) as well as 15th day (P < .001 and P < .01 respectively) in EPM whereas in diazepam induced amnesia 6 mg/kg dose reduced transfer latency significantly (14th day P < .01 and 15th day P < .001). 6 mg/kg dose increased FESC, NESC and DESC in small compartment scores profoundly (P < .05) in sodium nitrite induced hypoxia model and depicted significantly (P < .001) enhanced d2 index in object recognition task. Brain AChE and serum cholesterol levels were reduced significantly (P < .01) by 9 g/kg dose whereas the lower dose (6 g/kg) dose depicted significant (P < .01) results on blood glucose, brain GSH and lipid peroxide levels. This is the first report describing that cucumber increased learning and memory in rodents. Various chemical constituents such as agmatine, cucurbitacins, vitamins etc make the cucumber a deserving candidate for studying its effects on brain. Further research is needed for elucidation of its mechanism in brain and specific chemical constituent responsible for its memory modulating activity in aged mice.

61. Phytochemical Potential of Euphorbia Hirta linn. and Strychnos Nux-vomica Linn. with Reference to Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties
Mathivanan K, Rengasamy D, Rajesh V, Palani R, P.Jayaraman
Abstract
Since the synthetic drugs are more costly and lead to side effects the usage of herbal medicines are getting importance due to promising results and less or no side effects.  The plant containing active biological compounds are prepared from various parts of medicinal plants and used as drugs for curing diseases including diabetes and tumor diseases to human and proved for controlling  blood glucose level and protect cells against the damaging effects of free radicals.  Therefore the present study involved in assessing of antidiabetic and antioxidant efficacy of plants like  Euphorbia hirta Linn. and Strychnos  nux-vomica Linn.  collected from jawadhu hills of Tamil Nadu India. The assay methods like inhibitory assay of α-amylase non enzymatic  glycosylation of hemoglobin for antidiabetic evaluation and DPPH assay for antioxidant were performed. Among the solvents like chloroform ethyl acetate and methanol used for extraction from both the plants the methanol extract showed higher activity. The results for the antidiabetic assay for α-amylase inhibition exhibited from 4.4% – 35.7% and glycosylation of hemoglobin shows 22% – 55% in the concentration of 250 – 1000 μg/ml. The antioxidant potential of the extracts were found moderate to significant in both the samples with remarkable radical scavenging activity. The IC50 values were recorded as 108 and 73.41μg/ml for E.hirta and S.nux-vomica Linn. respectively.  The phytochemical analysis of E.hirta Linn. and S.nux-vomica  Linn. extracts revealed the presence of phenols (79.99 GAE/g) flavonoids (388 µg/ml) terpenoids tannins saponins and proteins;  the absence of alkaloids glycosides and reducing sugars in the methanol extract.  This study presents a review on the in vitro anti-diabetic and antioxidant  effect of E.hirta Linn. and S.nux-vomica  Linn. which leads to the utilization of these plants as a potential source of bio-compounds for development of herbal medicine.

62. Phytochemical Analysis and In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Russula lepida and Pleurotus ostreatus from North West Himalayas, India
Madhavi Joshi, Pooja Pathania, Anand Sagar
Abstract
This research aimed at screening and determination of phytochemical compounds and examine in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous  and methanolic extracts of two wild edible mushroom (Russula lepida and Pleurotus ostreatus) found in Himachal Pradesh. The phytochemical analysis reveals that the extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents containing saponins, phenols, steroids, glycosides, terpenoids and flavonoids. Methanol extract was shown to be more effective against all the tested pathogens followed by aqueous extract. B.subtilis was found to be more sensitive organism followed by S.aureus and E.coli. Methanol extract have higher solubility for more active antimicrobial and phytochemical constituents, consequently displaying the highest antimicrobial activity. The extract could be potential source of new antimicrobial agents and scientifically validates the use of the macro fungi in traditional medicine.

63. In vitro antibacterial activity of essentials oils from Mentha pulegium, Citrus aurantium and Cymbopogon citratus on virulent strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
Lakhdar L. , Farah A. , Bajjou T., Rida S. , Bouziane A., Ennibi O.
Abstract
Giving the incidence of periodontitis and the increased resistance of oral bacteria to antibiotics, there is a need of alternative products, such as natural agents. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of selected Moroccan essential oils of Mentha pulegium (Pennyroyal), Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass) and Citrus aurantium (Sour orange) against two virulent serotype b strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa); JP2 and non-JP2 clones. This periopathogen, including the highly virulent JP2 clone, is known strongly associated with aggressive periodontitis. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Their antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion and broth microdilution methods against a clinical Moroccan isolate of Aa sampled from periodontitis patients (JP2 clone) and a reference non-JP2 strain of Aa. All the tested essential oils induced significant inhibition zones for both strains and showed bactericidal effect. Statistically, no significant difference was found between two strains of Aa. The MICs and MBCs were ranged from 0,07 % to 0,3 % (v/v). Cymbopogon citratus was the most effective (MIC and MBC of 0,07%) against both two strains. Thus, the selected Moroccan essential oils exhibited a strong antibacterial activity on the highly pathogenic JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans as well as on non-JP2 strain suggesting the usefulness of these products as potential antimicrobial agents in periodontal diseases associated to this microorganism

64. Assessment of Bioactive Constituents by GC-MS of Crotalaria longipes Wight & Arn.: An Endemic Plant
Paulpriya, K., Tresina, P.S., Mohan, V.R.
Abstract
Crotalaria longipes is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the family Fabaceae, commonly known in english as “Rattlepod”. The present investigation deals with the GC-MS determination of methanol extract of the above said plant. Twenty five phytochemical constituents have been identified by comparing the chromatogram, peak value of unknown compound with entries in NIST database. The presence of various bioactive compounds confirms the application of C. longipes for various ailments. However, isolation of individual phytochemical constituent may ensue to find a novel drug. This is the first report of identification of active constituents from aerial parts of C. longipes.






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research