Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


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Volume8,Issue10

1. Determination of Total Phenol, Flavonoid, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extract of Teucrium polium L. in Algerian East
Dridi A, Hadef Y, Bouloudani L
Abstract
The phenolic compounds are one of the main group of components, which act as antioxidant of the free radicals; it reduces and decrease the accumulation of their products. This article presents the anti-oxidizing activity of Teucrium polium L. Methanolic extract which was evaluated by two methods; capacity of reduction of iron and the trapping of the free radical DPPH, which expressed by a remarkable but weak IC50 in front of ascorbic acid: 32 mg/ml for the first and 23.09 mg/ml for the reduction of DPPH. Determination of the total polyphenol content in the extracts of Teucrium polium L.; has been estimated by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu. The result shows that our plant is rich in polyphenol, which is equal to 288.41±1.83 mg equivalent of gallic acid/gdry material. The total flavonoids were determined by the colorimetry method using AlCl3, and were expressed out of mg equivalent of cathechine/g of dry material, which was estimated at 200.24±2.46 mg EC/gDM. The antimicrobial activity was tested on seven strains of bacteria of ATCC type: Staphylococus aureus ATCC25923, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC10428, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC27853, Enterococus faecalis ATCC29212, klebsiella pneuminiae ATCC700603, Bacillus subtilis ATCC7033 and one yeast Candida albicans ATCC10231. The antibacterial activity was estimated by the test of sensitivity and calculation of the minimal inhibiting concentration (MIC) according to the method of micro dilution. The diameter of inhibition varies between 11.5 mm and 26 mm and resistant for Salmonella typhimurium ATCC10428 for a concentration of 600 mg/ml, whereas the values of the MIC are varied between 3.125 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml which showed an important activity for some strains.

2. The Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Activities of Some Medicinal Plant Species Used to Treat Inflammatory Pain Conditions in Southern Africa
M Ondua, S A Adebayo, L J Shai, S L Lebelo
Abstract
The biological activities of 4 medicinal plants (Acokanthera oppositifolia, Plantago lanceolata, Artemisia vulgaris and Conyza canadensis) were investigated. These plant extracts were subjected to screening for their possible effects as analgesic, and anti-inflammatory agents. The plant materials (only leaves were used in this study) were used in 4 solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane). Plantago lanceolata hexane leaf extract inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity with an IC50 value of 0.41 µg/mL. Quercetin, positive control in this study inhibited COX-2 with a recorded IC50 = 8.39 µg/mL. However, the COX-1 inhibition by same extract indicated an IC50 of 68.99 µg/mL compared to the positive control (quercetin), whose activity was represented with an IC50 value of 4.6 µg/mL. The lipoxygenase assay indicated that Plantago lanceolata hexane extract and Acokanthera oppositifolia acetone extract were the most active samples with an IC50 of 4.75 µg/mL and 7.73 µg/mL.  Plantago lanceolata hexane extract was the most active in all enzyme inhibitions, revealing the great potential it presents as a source of new anti-oxidative, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, with less adverse effects.

3. The Characterization of Phytochemical and Gc-Ms Analysis on Borneo Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk) Leaves and Its Utilization as an Anti- Browning in Apple Juice
Maharani R, Fernandes A, Turjaman M, Lukmandaru G, Kuspradini H
Abstract
In consideration of the sustainability of agarwood production and its plants, besides resin of agarwood infected, others alternatives are use for agarwood derivative products i.e., agarwood leaves for pharmaceutical industries. The present study aimed to utilized agarwood leaves as a supplementation for anti-browning in apple juice. Here is also evaluated the presence of different phytochemical along with GC-MS investigations of water and ethanol soluble crude extracts, anti-oxidant, and organoleptic obtained from young and mature leaves of Borneo Agarwood (A. malaccensis). The results showed that A. malaccensis leaf extracts revealed presence of alkaloids and carbohydrate. GC-MS analysis of organic compound of Borneo Agarwood leaves identified that the most organic compound of young leaf (DM) is established ketones and benzoid compound, while nitrogen and benzoid compound also for mature leaf (DT). Antioxidant activity for all types of Borneo Agarwood leaves extract with hot water extraction showed a higher percentage than its ethanol, especially DM. DM solution was also best solution as an inhibition of browning in apple juices, as well as an essence for its. Thus, the present study has proved the usefulness of A. malaccensis for potential sources of active drugs.

4. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Different Leaf Extract of Celosia argentea L.
Karthiyayini R, Nithya K
Abstract
Celosia argentea L. is belonging to the family Amaranthaceae. This is commonly used as a leafy vegetable in most of the Asian countries. The whole plant used as medicine to cure diabetes, leucorrhoea, anti-inflammatory, etc. The present study was carried out to find out the antioxidant potential of different leaf extracts, of celosia argentea L. by using various in vitro assays. Among the different extracts of celosia argentea L. the methanol extract showed greater antioxidant activity compared to petroleum ether and aqueous extracts.

5. Pharmacognostical and Genetic Characterization of Tecoma smithii Will. Wats.
Saleh Naglaa Abdrabou, Ezzat Shahira M, El-kashoury El-sayeda A, Taha Kamilia F
Abstract
Objective: very limited information were traced on the macromorphology of Tecoma Smithii Will. Wats. and nothing was found regarding the micromorphology. Furthermore, there were no reports regarding the genetic profiling of the plant although it is claimed to be a hybrid of two other species. Therefore, the study aims to of find out the diagnostic characters for identification and differentiation of this species. Method: the macro- and micromorphology of the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant cultivated in Egypt were carried out. DNA samples of three species of Tecoma: Tecoma Smithii Will. Wats.; as the hybrid, and the parents: Tecoma mollis Humb. & Bonpl., and Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Lindl. were extracted from fresh leaves and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was conducted using ten primers of arbitrary sequences. Results: botanical characters of different organs of the plant were identified. On the other hand, the ten primers of arbitrary sequences generated a total of 224 fragments in all of the three species; distributed as 69, 73, and 82 for Tecoma mollis Humb. & Bonpl., Tecoma Smithii Will. Wats., and Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Lindl. respectively. A 100% genetic similarity percentage was observed between the three species using the primers OPC-01 and OPE-03, supporting the claim of the hybridization and strong relation between the three species. The highest level of polymorphism was recorded using the primer OPAX-16 thus could be a good tool for differentiation between the three species or each two of them. Conclusion: in the present study, macro and micromorphological characters, as well as DNA fingerprint can be considered as discriminating features to authenticate and differentiate Tecoma Smithii Will. Wats.

6. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Dandelion Against Orodental Pathogens
Shankar Sangeetha, Devaraj Ezhilarasan
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the anticariogenic effect of dandelion extract against different oral pathogenic clinical isolates. Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial effect of dandelion against oral pathogens by the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Clinical isolates such as Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Lactobacillus acidophilus were used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of dandelion. Results: In this study, dandelion showed antibacterial activity against most of the oral microbes tested.  In particular, dandelion shows high sensitivity against cariogenic microbes such as Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus salivarius. Conclusion: Taraxacum officinale suggested as a useful herb in order to control dental caries and endodontic infections. It can be better drug candidates to combine with regular antimicrobial agents. However, further studies are warranted on these lines to explore their exact mechanism of action against oral pathogens.

7. Chemical Constituents, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Erysimum corinthium Boiss. (Brassicaceae)
Ateya A, Al-Gendy A, Kotob S, Hafez Al
Abstract
Aerial part of Erysimum corinthium Boiss (Brassicaceae) was subjected to chromatographic and biological investigations. GLC analysis of fatty acids methyl esters revealed the presence of 13 fatty acids where linolenic acid is the major one (47.9%). Column chromatography of the petroleum ether fraction afforded five compounds: lupeol acetate, lupeol, α-amyrin, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-O-glucoside. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and rutin were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction. The structures of these compounds were determined using IR, MS and 1H and 13C-NMR spectral analysis. HPLC analysis of total alcoholic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction indicated the presence of 17 phenolic acids. Ethyl acetate fraction showed strong anti-oxidant activity (SC50 0.95 µg/ml) vs. ascorbic acid (SC50 1.45 µg/ml). Ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions showed significant antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms with 35-46 % activity compared with standard.  The plant showed anti-inflammatory activity where 100 mg/kg of alcoholic extract induced 55% inhibition of rat paw edema equivalent to that of diclofenac sodium (4 mg/kg).

8. Isolated Burn Skin Pathogens: Screening Against Extract of Carissa Edulis Vahl and Computational Studies
Essa Ajmi Alodeani
Abstract
The extract of Carissa edulis Vahl was evaluated for the potential therapeutic effects against pathogens isolated from the skin of burn patients such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella spp, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli. The biological screening results exhibited that methanol extract has more potential therapeutic effect than n-hexane extract. Considerable zone of inhibition was observed for both the extract against S. aureus and E. coli. The computational studies were carried out for all components to calculate physicochemical parameters and drug likeness and portrayed that all components found in compliance with the Lipinski rule of five and have the bioactivity score in the category of active drugs.

9. Comparative Studies on the Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Jatropha Species (J. curcas L. and J. gossypifolia L.) of Odisha
Ashish ku. Nayak, Kunjabihari   Satapathi, Sabuja Sahoo
Abstract
In the recent years Jatropha plant has gained a lot of importance due to its property to produce biodiesel. Another reason is the medicinal properties of some species of Jatropha genus. Both the J. curcas and J. gossypifolia species having antimicrobial and anti-oxidant activities. The latex, leaf, bark and fruits contain several saponins, alkaloids, tannins, phytosterols, flavonoids and steroids that exhibit wide range of medicinal properties. Commercial exploration for biopharmaceuticals, antimicrobial activity and bioenergy production are some of the prospective future potential of these plants. But the question arises, out of two species of Jatropha which one has more efficiency against some skin diseases producing microorganism and anti-oxidant activity. The aim of this study was extraction from leaf of two plant species such as methanolic and petroleum ether extracts and comparative investigation of phytochemical compounds, antimicrobial and anti-oxidant activities. The phytochemical constituent of the dried powdered in organic (methanolic) solvent was carried out. First we studied the phytochemical screening by which we got number of secondary metabolites like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins. After that the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and its inhibition was studied by disc diffusion method. The result indicated that out of four extracts of both species petroleum ether extract of J. gossypifolia showed more potential against micro-organisms and free radicals than J. curcas.

10. Garcinia parvifolia Miq. Dried Pericarp Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity
Mohd Nasir A R, Farnidah Jasnie
Abstract
The reports of drug resistant microbes are increasing and will significantly affect the current available antimicrobial drugs. Plants have been widely used since ancient time and may provide the solution to solve this problem. Moreover, modern medicine has also used plants as preparatory material in producing synthetic drugs. There are still plants that are widely used with much bioactive potentials but unknown to the society.  Garcinia parvifolia is a commonly used plant of Sabah, Malaysia in flavouring local dishes, with no known medicinal values. Locally, it is known as takob-akob. The Genus Garcinia is prominent for their phytochemicals and bioactives. Therefore, current study is conducted to determine the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial potential of G. parvifolia, emphasizing on the dried fruit pericarp of G. parvifolia. Through this study, phytochemical screening of the methanolic dried pericarp of G. parvifolia fruit has revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoid and phenolic compounds. The antibacterial activity was determined by the disc diffusion evaluation, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MAB) evaluation. The Disc diffusion evaluation showed that the extract is resistant against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 14756) with inhibition zone of 10.67±0.88 mm and susceptible against Serratia mercescens (ATCC 43300) with the inhibition zone of 17.00±0.58 mm.  Whereas, the MIC and MBC is identified at 250µg/ml. This study has revealed the potential of G. parvifolia as natural antibacterial agents besides being used only as food additives. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the medicinal properties efficacy of this plant.

11. Phytochemical Screenining and In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Alysicarpus monilifer
Suresh kasala, Priyanka K, Ramanjaneyulu K, Himabindhu J
Abstract
The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Methanolic extract of leaves of Alysicarpus monilifer at five different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/ml) respectively. The extract was screened for anthelmintic activity against Indian earth worm Pheretima posthuma. The results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Albendazole was used as standard control group. All extracts exhibited Significant activity compared to standard Albendazole. In conclusion, the use of leaves of Alysicarpus monilifer as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity.

12. Garlic and Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Review
Patil T R, Patil S, Patil A, Patil S T
Abstract
Incidence of neurodegenerative disorders is increasing at alarming high rate. Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and associated disorders like diabetes mellitus hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia aggravate the underlying pathology. Though treatments for alzheimers disease, parkinsonism, Huntingtons disease and cerebrovascular stroke have witnessed enormous developments, still all the underlying etiopathologies are not adequately addressed by them. Contents of garlic like aged garlic extract [AGE] and S-allyl cysteine [SAC] fill this void by their pleiotropic actions. Their antioxidant property constitute scavenging of free radicals and induction of antioxidant enzymes with inhibition of pro oxidant enzymes. Activation of factor Nrf2, a master regulator of cellular redox state and chelation of metals contribute for neuroprotection.  Increased insulin contents in the brain, inhibition of aldose reductase, anti platelet, anti hypertensive, NO and H2S generating properties play a vital role in amelioration of neurodenerative disorders.

13. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Fingerprinting and Comparative Antioxidant Properties of Fruit and Leaf Extracts of Kigelia africana
Falode J A, Obafemi T O, Akinmoladun A C, Olaleye M T, Boligon A A, Athayde M L
Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate and compare the phytoconstituents and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Kigelia africana leaves and fruits. Kigelia africana was found to contain flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, isoprenoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, saponins and tannins. Alkaloids, steroids and anthraquinones were absent in the fruit while only anthraquinones was absent in the leaf. Total flavonoids, total phenolic and total antioxidant capacity of the fruit extract was found to be 9055.5µg/mg quercetin equivalent, 180.7692µg/mg tannic acid equivalent and 299.6215mM/mg ascorbic acid equivalent respectively while those of the leaf extract were 23222.2µg/mg quercetin equivalent, 598.7192 µg/mg tannic acid equivalent and 296.6826 mM/mg ascorbic acid equivalent respectively. The leaf extract showed better antioxidant activity with respect to reducing power assay, DPPH, ABTS and NO radical scavenging activities. Relatively, the fruit extract showed better antioxidant activity in terms of Fe2+ chelating ability, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, anti-denaturation activity, anti- hemolytic and anti-lipoperoxidative. Both extracts exhibited significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant characteristics, these may be due to the substantial amount of phenol and flavonoids that were noticed. The results of this work suggest that leaves and fruits of Kigelia africana are promising sources of natural phytochemicals and antioxidants that can combat oxidative stress caused by free radicals.

14. Antioxidant Activity and Histochemical Analysis of Acalypha indica L. and Acalypha wilkesiana Muell. Arg. Vegetative and Generative Organs
Novia Agustina, Yekti Asih Purwestri, Laurentius Hartanto Nugroho
Abstract
Acalypha indica L. and Acalypha wilkesiana Muell.Arg. which are member of Euphorbiaceae have ethnopharmacological history. However, the use of Acalypha indica L. and Acalypha wilkesiana Muell.Arg. have not been optimalized. The objective of this study was to know the antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites content, the location and distribution of secondary metabolites, and secretory structure of Acalypha indica L. and Acalypha wilkesiana Muell.Arg. Antioxidant activity were determined by DPPH methode using chloroform and methanol extracts of stems, leaves, and the mixture of flowers-fruits-seeds. Secondary metabolites contents were tested using various reagent and measured using spectrophotometre. Moreover, the distribution of secondary metabolites were analyzed by histochemical test. DPPH test showed that methanolic extract of leaves and the mixture of flowers-fruits-seeds of Acalypha wilkesiana performed the best antioxidant activity compared to other samples. The IC50 value of leaves and flowers-fruits-seeds mixture methanolic extracts were 3,42±0,78 μg/ml and 4,71±0,71 μg/ml respectively. The phenol content of leaves and the mixture of flowers-fruits-seeds methanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana were 238,89±19,48% GAE and 301,22±32,16% GAE respectively; flavonoids content were 36,93±2,01% QE and 58,67±1,51% QE respectively; and tannin content were 84,18±5,68% GAE and 60,96±0,67% GAE respectively. Antioxidant activity could be due to the phenol, flavonoids, and tannin contents. The histochemical test showed that phenol, flavonoids, tannin, and alkaloids could be found in the stems, leaves, and the mixture of flowers-fruits-seeds of Acalypha indica and Acalypha wilkesiana. The distribution of various mentioned group of compound were almost in the whole of various tissues. The secretory stuctures were consisted of internal structure and external structure which in the forrm of capitate glandular trichome.

15. Study of Phytochemical Screening and Larvicidal Efficacy of Ehtanolic Extract of Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) from North Center of Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Vector of Serious Human Diseases
El Ouali Lalami Abdelhakim, El-Akhal Fouad, Ez Zoubi Yassine, Taghzouti Khalid
Abstract
Mosquitos, including Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), are the responsible vectors for the transmission of several deadly disease: Dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, Filariais, Yellow fever… The use of synthetic larvicidal cause’s negative effects on organisms and environment. Most of mosquitoes such as Culex pipiens, are becoming resistant to these chemicals. In the present study, the ethanolic extract from Salvia officinalis grown in Morocco was analyzed and studied for its insecticidal effect on the Culex pipiens as well as has been compared against Temephos, the insecticide which is currently used for larval control. The phytochemical investigation was studied using a simple qualitative analysis method and the biological test was performed using a methodology inspired the WHO standard protocol. The percent yield of the hydro-ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Salvia officinalis was 12,3 ± 1.2%. Presence of flavonoids, tannins, catechic tannins, sterols and terpenes, glycosides, gallic tannins and mucilage have been observed. The biological test revealed that the extract from Salvia officinalis has remarkable larvicidal properties. The minimum levels necessary to achieve 100% larval mortality of Culex pipiens was valued at 600 ppm. The LC50 and LC90 lethal concentration measured for the extracts of Salvia officinalis appears to be effective with respective values of about 287 ppm and 487 ppm. The insecticidal activity of ethanolic extract from Salvia officinalis plants against Culex pipiens has not been studied previously in Morocco. This extract has provided valuable mortality of Culex pipiens and can be used as botanical insecticides in integrated management programs of this mosquito vector of diseases.

16. Mucuna Seed Extract Treatment Alleviates SDS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Damage in Carp Brain
Kumar Saheli, Moniruzzaman Mahammed, Mukherjee Mainak, Das Debjit, Chakraborty Suman Bhusan
Abstract
The neurotoxic effects of a synthetic detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on brain function in freshwater carp Cirrhinus cirrhosus and the efficacy of methanol extract of Mucuna pruriens seeds for alleviating such effects were demonstrated. Fish (n=36, 2 replicates) were exposed to SDS (2.53 mg/l) for 0 (control), 15 and 30 days. After 30-days treatment, methanol extract of Mucuna seed was injected for continuous seven days and sampling was done on each alternate odd days. Levels of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na+-K+-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase; monoamine oxidase; nitric oxide, cortisol, estradiol-17β (in females) and testosterone (in males) were measured in Cirrhinus brain tissue and serum. 30-days treatment with SDS caused significant decrease in glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and estradiol-17β, while glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, malondialdehyde and cortisol level increased significantly (P<0.05). Administration of Mucuna extract (15.5 mg/kg body weight) was found to restore the neurological activity and reduce stress in a time-dependent manner as the biochemical and neurological parameters in fish after 7-day extract administration showed no significant difference (P>0.05) compared to those in control without SDS treatment.

17. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Activity and Chromosome Number of Helichrysum italicum from Algeria
Bouchaala M, Ramdani M, Chalard P, Figueredo G, Lograda T
Abstract
The hydro-distillation of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum variety numidicum Pomel gave a viscous liquid with pale yellow oil. The average yield of essential oil of the samples is 0.03%. The chemical composition of essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total 43 compounds representing 92.9% of the oil were identified in H. italicum. The chemical composition is dominated by the presence of major products, Isopropyl tetradecanote (12.10%), α-pinene (12.02%), Hexadecanoic acid (9.96%), Caryophyllene (E) (9.22%), Ledol (9.11%), Palustrol (5.55%), α-Humulene (4.28%), Caryophyllene <9-epi> (3.75%), α-copaene (3.72%), cis-Calamenene (2.18%). The Essential oil of H. italicum was tested for six microorganisms. The oil showed modest effect against all the bacteria tested and it has no significant antifungal activity against the Candida albicans. The population of helichrysum italicum shows a tertraploïde chromosome number of 2n = 28 with basic number x = 7.

18. Phytochemical Screening and Larvicidal Activity of Moroccan Ammi visnaga Against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)
Ez zoubi Yassine, El-Akhal Fouad, Farah Abdellah, El Ouali Lalami Abdelhakim
Abstract
Main method to control insect pest is using synthetic insecticides but the development of insect resistance to this products, the high operational cost, environmental pollution, toxicity to humans and harmful effect on non-target organisms have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control insect pest. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission of several parasitic and viral diseases. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. In this work, the phytochemical screening and the insecticidal activity of the hydro-ethanolic extract of the Ammi visnaga, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. The hydro-ethanolic extract is screened for phytochemical constituents using simple qualitative methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The percent yield of the hydro-ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Ammi visnaga was 6.4±0.2% and the phytochemical screening of the hydro-ethanolic extract of Ammi visnaga indicates the presence of flavonoids, tannins, catechic tannins, sterols, terpenes, coumarins, mucilages and glycosides. However, gallic tannins were not detected. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The hydro-ethanolic extract of Ammi visnaga applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 (lower limit-upper limit) and LC90 (lower limit-upper limit) in the order of 0.42 (0.14 – 0.52) mg/ml and 0.68 (0.59 – 1.20) mg/ml, respectively. This investigation indicates that Ammi visnaga could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens.

19. Effects of Zygophyllum gaetulum Aqueous Extract on Erythrocytes Lipid Peroxidation and Paraoxonase 1 Activity in Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Berzou S, Krouf D, Dida N, Taleb-Senouci D, Guenzet A
Abstract
Currently, herbal medicines are experiencing a resurgence of interest and their popularity is increasing in developing and developed countries due to their natural origin and minor side effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a lyophilized aqueous extract of Zygophyllum gaetulum (Zg) on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation and paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) activity in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Twelve hypercholesterolemic male Wistar rats (cholesterolemia value > 3mmol/L) weighing 176±5g were divided into two groups fed a high cholesterol diet (1% cholesterol+0.5% cholic acid) supplemented (HC-Zg) or not (HC) with Zg aqueous extract (1%), for 4 weeks. In the HC-Zg group compared with the HC group, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL cholesterol levels were respectively 1.5- and 2.2- fold lower, whereas HDL-cholesterol was 2-fold higher. Atherogenic indexes, TC/HDL-C and TCHDL-C/HDL-C wererespectively decreased by 71% and 66%. In erythrocytes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations tended to decrease but not significantly. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased by 42% and 38%, respectively, while those of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GSSH-Red) showed no significant difference. Moreover, reduced glutathione content (GSH) was similar in both groups. Plasma PON 1 activity was 1.5-fold higher in the hypercholesterolemic group treated with Zg compared with the untreated group. In conclusion, in the hypercholesterolemic rat, the treatment with Z. gaetulum extract induced a cholesterol-lowering effect but didn’t improve erythrocytes lipid peroxidation despite stimulation of antioxidant enzymes activities. Moreover, Zg extract increased plasma PON 1 activity suggesting a possible lipoprotein protection from oxidation.

20. Determination of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Rose Extract- An In vitro Study
Devyani Bahl, Swati, Anirudh Chakravarthy, Srinivas Mutalik, Raviraj Devkar
Abstract
Background: Rose is a perennial plant of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. Various studies have been conducted to establish the anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities of rose. This in-vitro study was planned to determine the antibacterial and antifungal potential of rose against periodontal pathogens. Materials and methods: Rose petals were collected, dried and subjected to extraction with ethanol. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract was then determined against oral and periodontal bacteria and fungi. Results and conclusion: The rose extract was found to exhibit an appreciable antifungal activity and antibacterial activity against gram positive anaerobes than periodontal pathogens which are gram negative anaerobes.

21. Comprehensive Biological Activities Evaluation and Quantification of Marker Compounds of Ficus deltoiea Jack Varieties
Mohd K S, Rosli A S, Azemin A, Mat N, Zakaria A J
Abstract
Ficus deltoidea Jack (FD) is a plant belonging to the Moraceae family and found in tropical and subtropical countries. Reports indicate that 13 varieties of this plant can be found in Malaysian forest. Scientific evidences revealed that FD possesses several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. The issue on varieties raised the question on whether all variety can be utilized medicinally. In this study, we investigate several biological activities on seven FD varieties namely var. deltoidea, var. kunstleri, var. bilobata, var. angustifolia, var. motleyana, var. trengganuensis, var. intermedia and var. borneensis. We found that var. deltoidea has the highest inhibition of nitric oxide and ferric reducing power with IC50 value of 42 μg/ mL and 3.67±0.07 nm, respectively. FD var. motleyana has lowest activity on both assays. In α-glucosidase inhibition, FD var. deltoidea also showed the strongest inhibition with IC50 value of 6 μg/mL. However, all varieties did not show any cytotoxic effect on HepG2, MCF7, RAW 264.7 macrophage and NIH-3T3 cell lines. Phytochemical screening revealed that var. deltoidea contains the highest amount of total phenolic but total flavonoid content occur the most in FD var. angustifolia. Quantification of bioactive markers by HPLC indicated that FD var. deltoidea has the highest content of vitexin while FD var. borneensis has the highest amount of isovitexin. Finding from this study demonstrates that it is very important to select suitable variety in order to maximized the benefit of this plant.

22. Modulatory Potential of Corriandrum sativum on Experimentally Induced Hepatic Injury in ICR Mice: A Biochemical and Histopathological Investigation
Hewawasam R P, Jayatilaka K A P W, Mudduwa L K B, Pathirana C
Abstract
Ayurvedic medical practitioners in Sri Lanka use several locally available medicinal plants either as single drugs or in combination with other plants in the treatment of liver diseases. Corriandrum sativum, a glabrous herb emitting a strong odour when rubbed, is used for colds, influenza, bilious complaints, liver disorders and fever. It is also used as a diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of Corriandrum sativum seeds against CCl4 and acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in ICR mice. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of a single intraperitonial dose of CCl4 (0.5 mL kg-1 CCl4 in olive oil) and single oral dose of acetaminophen (300 mg/kg in saline) after a 16 h fast. Corriandrum extract (0.9 g kg-1) was used on pre and post-treatment basis. Both pre and post-treatment decreased the CCl4 mediated increase in serum enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP) and increased the reduced glutathione concentration in the liver significantly. A significant improvement was also observed in a majority of serum enzymes and reduced glutathione concentration in acetaminophen treated mice. Histopathological studies provided supportive evidence for the biochemical analysis in both CCl4 and acetaminophen treated mice. The ability of the plant extract to protect the liver against changes mediated by carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen confirmed that the plant possesses anti-hepatotoxic properties against CCl4 and acetaminophen induced liver damage in ICR mice.

23. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil and Aqueous Extract of Eucalyptus globulus Against Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
Marwa Bouras, Naffisa Boutefnouchet Abbaci, Salima Bennadja
Abstract
Objective: Our work was focused on the stady of antibacterial activity of essential oil and aqueous extract of Eucalyptus globulus leaves, plant that is widespred in the Algerian traditional pharmacology. Methods: The essential oil of this plant was obtained by hydrodistillation method and aqueous by decoction in volume of destilled water. The extracts were subjected to screening of their possible antibacterial activity in vitro against eleven strains of methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and eight strains methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated of different hospitalized patients, using agar disc diffusion method. Both minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration by agar dilution method. Results: The essential oil has demonstrated a considerable antibacterial activity against all strains tested with best inhibition zone equal to 16,0±1,41mm for methicillin sensitive Stahylococcus aureus and 15,5±0,70mm for methicillin resistance S. aureus. Studied aqueous extact showed a good antibacterial activity higher than essential oil of some plant, when the best inhibition zone was 31,0±0,70mm for methicillin sensitive S. aureus and 20,5±0,70mm for methicillin resistance S. aureusConclusion: The results obtained showed that aqueous extract and essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus may be constitute a naturel antibiotic to exploited for raising problems of infectious diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

24. Phytochemicals Screening by GC/MS and Determination of Some Flavonol in Cultivated Iraqi Eruca sativa Dried Leaves Extract and its Biological Activity as Antioxidant
Thukaa Z. Abdul-Jalil
Abstract
Eruca sativa is considered as one of the most important edible plants, which is used widely in many countries as aphrodisiac herbal medicines and as an ingredient for salad and soup, this study concentrate on extraction of bioactive constituents in cultivated Iraqi Eruca sativa dried leaves, phytochemical screening by chemical tests and GC/MS, qualitative and quantitative estimation of four biological important flavonol (Quercetin, Kampferol, Rutin and Myricetin) and evaluating the antioxidant activity of methanolic-ethanolic extract. Extraction of bioactive constituents was carried out using 90% methanol and 85% ethanol. Phytochemical screening exposes the presence of glycosides, fixed oils, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannin, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of four flavonol (Quercetin, Kampferol, Rutin and Myricetin) was done by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) reveling that Kampferol had the highest concentration followed by Myricetin, Rutin while Quercetin had the lowest, while the antioxidant activity of methanolic-ethanolic extract was evaluated by using DPPH free radical scavenging protocol which showed that the extract was more reactive in a conc. of 20 μg/ml, & less active in a conc. of 2.5  μg/ml (IC50 33 and 47 μg/ml respectively.

25. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Aerial Parts of Pituranthos battandieri Maire
Esseid Chahrazed, Mechehoud Youcef, Chalchat Jean-Claude, Figueredo Gilles, Chalard Pierre, Benayache Samir, Benayache Fadila
Abstract
The essential oil of the aerial parts of Pituranthos battandieri Maire (Apiaceae), synonym: Deverra battandieri (Maire) Chrtek., was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS.  64 components were identified constituting 94.7% of the oil. Among the identified compounds, monoterpenes represented 77.4% among which 15.3% were oxygenated.The sesquiterpene fractions represented 16.5% among which 3.1% were oxygenated. The major constituents were myrcene (8.9%), α-phellandrene (17.5%), terpinene (14%), o-cymene (11.6%), -phellandrene (3.5%), cis-linalool oxide (furanoid) (5.9%) and trans--caryophyllene (3.4%). This is the first report on the study of the chemical composition of the essential oil of this species.

26. Antioxidative and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Some Extracts from Ripe Friuts of Phoenix dactylifera L
Amir Siahpoosh, Javad Asili, Bashir Sarhangi
Abstract
Food and herbs rich in antioxidants plays an essential role in the prevention of various diseases, Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most consumed fruits worldwide containing many effective materials as well as several therapeutic and pharmacological effects. In this paper, the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract, methanol-aqueous (Met-Aqu) and methanol-chloroform (Met-Chl) fractions has been analyzed using different assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, ABTS free-radical scavenging, Iron chelation and superoxide radicals scavenging assays. In addition total phenolic, flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins compounds were also analyzed. Results of this study indicate that the amount of polyphenolic, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidin compounds in the methanol-aqueous extract is more than in the methlonic and methanol-chloroform extracts. In addition, results of antioxidative tests indicate that the antioxidative capacity of the extracts is methanol-aqueous > methanolic > methanol-aqueous, respectively. Better effect of methanol-aqueous extract can be because of more polyphenolic and polar flavonoids in it. Given the comparison of results above, this system can be considered as a method to increase the antioxidative effect.

27. Phytochemical Studies of Ficus Binnendijkii Leaf Extracts: Fractionation  and Bioactivities of Its Petroleum Ether Extract
Hanaa Mohamed El-Rafie, Amany Ameen Sleem
Abstract
Ficus binnendijkii is one of the therapeutically active plants belonging to the family Moraceae. This work was carried out to elucidate the phyto-constituents contained in different solvent-based [petroleum  ether (PtE), chloroform (ChE) & ethyl acetate (EaE)] extracts from the leaves of Ficus binnendijkii. These extracts showed positive results for the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, proteins and alkaloids. The total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, protein percentage and total carbohydrate content of the powdered leaves were (10.18%), (8.2%), (2.5%), (8.2 %) and (20.4%) respectively. Further identification of the chemical composition of PtE fractions (unsaponifiable mater and fatty acid methyl esters) were done using the GC-MS analysis which revealed the identification of forty six compounds in the unsaponifiable fraction constituting 82.54% of the total beak area, the major compounds were β-amyrin (23.52%), 23S-ethylcholest-5-en-3-β-ol (12.68%), phytol (7.76%) and moretenol (6.60%), whereas thirteen compound representing 78.28% of the total identified peak area of the fatty acid methyl esters fraction the major compounds were methyl hexadecanoate (31.24%), methyl-9,12-octadecadienoate (15.52%) and methyl tetradecanoate (7.62%). This study aimed also to evaluate the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of PtE using acetic acid-induced writhing test, Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia and carrageen hind paw oedema models in rats, respectively. The administration of mice with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of PtE reduced pain, fever and inflammation in a dose dependent manner.

 







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research