Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume8,Issue7

1. Preventive Effect of Jasmine Flower Ethanol Extract on MSG-High Fat Diet Induced in Male Wistar Rats
Adnyana IK, Safitri D, Christopher W
Abstract
Objectives: The study was conducted to determine the activity of jasmine flowers ethanol extract (JFEE) in preventing obesity and obtain its mechanism on obesity model in male Wistar rats. Methods: This study was conducted by administering 2 mg/kg bw of MSG subcutaneously. It was combined with high-fat diet in obtaining obesity model. There were five groups including normal, control, JFEE with a dose of 100 mg/kg bw, JFEE with a dose of 200 mg/kg bw, and Orlistat with a dose of 21.67 mg/kg bw. Results: Administration of JFEE 200 mg/kg bw was able to decrease significantly on parameters: gaining body weight onset, urine index, feces index, food index, serum level of triglycerides (TG), and total fat index compared to the control group. Conclusion: JFEE with a dose of 200 mg/kg bw through this study was possibly effective in preventing weight gain and fat accumulation by preventing lipid absorption, besides diuretic effect and suppressing appetite.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

2. Evaluation of Radical Scavenging Activity, Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents of Cistus Species in Syria
Alsheikh Waed, Sabbagh Ghalia, Kitaz Adawia
Abstract
There is now an expansion of interest in plants and phytochemicals as new sources of natural antioxidants, many of these plants including Cistus lack scientific reports. To support their importance, aqueous and methanolic extracts of two Cistus species from Syria (Cistus creticus and Cistus salvifolius) were evaluated for antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods respectively. The results showed that C. salvifolius methanol extract had the highest value of total phenolic content, which ranged in extracts between (65.99±1. 33 to 75.22±4.79 mg GAE/g DW). While the total flavonoid contents varied from (11.56±0.32 to17.68±0.71 mg RUE/g DW), the aqueous extracts exhibited a slightly higher flavonoids content than the methanolic ones. However, the total phenolic and flavonoids content, presents relatively high values when compared with other species of Cistus. Antioxidant activity was expressed as IC50 and the obtained results ranged from (IC50= 0.019 to 0.007 mg/ml), the results indicated that three extracts of the four examined were greater in activity compared with BHT. Based on these results of investigation, it could be concluded that the two species of Cistus in Syria are rich sources of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

3. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Bixa Orellana Linn
Prathima D, Sujitha A, Usha R
Abstract
Bixa orellana is a well known plant in Asia, including India, which has a wide range of medicinal importance. The drugs of this plant are used in India as a folk remedy in the form of decoctions and infusions to treat bacterial infections and it is also effective against different skin diseases. The present study is to examine the antibacterial properties of leaves and seed extracts of Bixa orellana with different solvents such as petroleum ether, aqueous, methanolic, ethanolic extracts on staphylococcus aureus, Escherechia coli, and klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, by disc diffusion method to study the presence of various phytochemicals in Bixa orellana. The different concentrations of leaf and seed extracts exhibited antibacterial activity and then the zone of inhibition was calculated. Among seeds and leaf extracts, methanolic seed extracts of Bixa orellana have shown better antimicrobial activity.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

4. Evaluation of the Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Some Plants Growing in Al Jabal Al-Akhdar in Libya
Seham S El Hawary, Abd El Rahman El Shabrawy, Shahira M Ezzat Fatma A A El-Shibani
Abstract
The methanolic extract of the aerial part of two Libyan medicinal plants Arbutus pavarii. Pampan (Ericaceae) and Sarcopoterium spinosium. L. (Rosaceae) growing in El-Jabal Al Akhdar area were studied for their phenolic and flavonoid content, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activitie. Total polyphenol contents ranged from 61.7±2.7to 163.6±0.85 µg gallic acid equivalent / g (A. pavarii Pampan and S. spinosium. L.)   and total flavonoid contents ranged from 126.9±2.98 to 206.1±1.09 µg rutin equivalent (A. pavarii Pampan and S. spinosium L.). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of major phenolic and flavonoids in the extracts were conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Finally, antimicrobial activities of the two plants were measured using the disc diffusion method. While, cytotoxic properties were tested against the HEPG2 and T47D cell lines. Arbutus pavarii extract proved to be the most cytotoxic extract in this study with IC50 19.7±2.8 and 19±0.65 (μg/ml) on HEPG2 and T47D respectively.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

5. Glycosides of Onopordum alexandrinum Boiss. and its Central Nervous System (CNS) and Some Biological Activities
Heba Ibrahim Abd El-Moaty, A S Wanas, M M Radwan, Samar Y Desoukey
Abstract
Two glycosides, were isolated for the first time from Onopordum alexandrinum. Their chemical structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods, including 1D, 2D and HRGSMS as well as comparing with literature values, where compound (1) was identified as β-sitoserol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside and compound (2) as Ethyl β-D-fructopyranoside. The biological activities of the isolated extracts of both the roots and aerial parts were examined for their CNS and antimicrobial activities. Methanol extract of the roots and aerial parts of the plant were examined for any CNS activity using Opioid and cannabinoid receptors binding activity assay, where the results were disappointing at this stage, showing no binding affinity to any of the tested receptors. Further biological investigations of both extracts showed no acute toxicity up to 5gm/kg body weight, also no considerable cytotoxicity was observed on Huh-7 Liver cancer or A-495 lung cancer cell lines. Concomitantly, no antibacterial or antifungal activities were observed using some selected species against Ciprofloxacin and Amphotericin B respectively, for both the total methanol extracts and their hexane and chloroform subfractions.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

6. Methanol and Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum kilimandscharicum (Karpuratulasi) Inhibits HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase in Vitro
Thayil Seema M, Thyagarajan S P
Abstract
33 Indian medicinal plants documented, in Ayurveda and Siddha literature, to have antimicrobial, blood purifying and immunomodulatory properties were subjected to solvent extraction. The extracts were tested for MMLV-RT and HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity and T cell proliferation property. In-vitro safety studies were carried out on the extracts showing anti HIV/immunomodulatory potential. The methanol and aqueous extracts of Ocimum kilimandscharicum, and methanol extract of Pterocarpus marsupium had significant MMLV -RT inhibitor activity. The methanol and aqueous extracts of Ocimum kilimandscharicum, aqueous extract of Pueraria tuberose and methanol extract of Pterocarpus marsupium inhibited HIV-1RT at an MIC range from 25-100mg/ml. The methanol and aqueous extract of Rubia cordifolia, methanol extract and aqueous extract of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and aqueous extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were immunostimulatory and non-cytotoxic at these levels.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

7. Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic Activity of Mahonia nepalensis in STZ Induced Rats Model
Anish Das, Thomraj Khati Chhetry
Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate the Anti-diabetic activity of Mahonia nepalensis in rats. Materials and Methods: The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in normal rats. Rats were divided into five groups (n = 6) as Group I control received saline (5 ml/kg p.o.). Group II and III received methanol extract of root (MNR), and Group IV and V received methanol extract of stem bark (MNB) of Mahonia nepalensis at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o., blood was withdrawn from tail vein at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min and glucose levels were measured using glucose oxidase-peroxidase reactive strips and glucometer. The STZ induced antidiabetic activity of rats was performed by dividing normal and diabetic rats into seven groups (n = 6). Group I as non diabetic rats received saline (5 ml/kg p.o.). Group II as diabetic control. Groups III and IV were received MNR (200 and 400 mg/kg. p.o.). Groups V and VI were received MNB (200 and 400 mg/kg. p.o.), and Group VII received glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg. p.o.) for 14 days. Diabetic rats were evaluated for anti-oxidant activity. Results: In oral glucose tolerance test MNR and MNB group showed significant decrease in blood glucose level. In STZ induced diabetic rats fasting blood glucose levels of the treatment group significantly reduced by the 14 days treatment with MNR and MNB extract. In antioxidant activity ferric reducing ability of the MNR and MNB showed in a dose depending manner. Conclusion: The crude extract containing methonolic extract of Mahonia nepalensis (MNR and MNB) have potent anidiabetic activity and antioxidant activity in streptozocin induced diabetic rats.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

8. Phytochemical Screening and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Flowers of Allamanda neriifolia Hook
Sumathi R, Anuradha R
Abstract
Antioxidants play the essential role in reducing the free radicals. Methanolic extract of Allamanda neriifolia hook flower was studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity using different models of screening viz. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power ability and Nitric oxide scavenging activity. The extract showed a good dose dependent free radical scavenging property in all the models. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of major phyto compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. Its antioxidant activity was estimated by IC50 value and the values are 192.0µg/ml (DPPH radical scavenging), 127.0 µg/ml (ABTS radical scavenging), and 147.0 µg/ml (nitric oxide scavenging). The antioxidant property may be related to the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. It indicates that the methanolic extract of the flower has the potency of scavenging free radicals in vitro and may provide leads in the ongoing search for natural antioxidants to be used in treating diseases related to free radical reactions.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Herbal Preparations Based on Rhizome with Roots of Rubia tinctorum L
Shmygareva A A, Kurkin V A, Sankov A N
Abstract
In the present study there were developed the methodic of qualitative analysis of phytopharmaceuticals preparations: “Rubia syrup”, “Rubia decoction” and “Rubia water-alcohol extract” by means of Infrared spectrophotometry. As a result, more in-depth study of “Rubia syrup”, “Rubia decoction” and “Rubia water-alcohol extract” conducted by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to compare and qualitative analysis of phytopharmaceuticals preparations.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

10. Hepatoprotection and Antioxidant Activity of Gazania longiscapa and G. rigens with the Isolation and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Metabolites
Samar Y Desoukey, Wafaa M El Kady, Abeer A A Salama, Eman G Hagag, Siham M El-Shenawy, M A El-Shanawany
Abstract
Gazania longiscapa and G. rigens are two species belonging to family Asteraceae. The present study aimed the isolation of the main active constituents from the methanol extracts using different chromatographic methods and their identification using different spectroscopic techniques, beside the quantitation of some biologically important active constituent as rutin using HPLC technique, together with estimation of total polyphenolic content calculated as gallic acid and estimation of total flavonoid content calculated as rutin using UV technique. Concomitantly the determination of the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the total methanol extracts of the aerial parts of G. longiscapa and G. rigens. This work resulted in the isolation of 4 flavonoids (Apigenin, Luteolin, Luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosid, Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosid), 3 phenolic acids (Caffeic acid, Chlorogenic acid and 3,5- di- O-caffeoylquinic acid) from G.  longiscapa for the first time; these 3 phenolic acids were also isolated from G. rigens, together with one flavonoid (rutin), The quantitative determination of the methanol extracts showed that G. longiscapa is a richer source of phenolic acids than G. rigens and both Gazania species are valuable sources of rutin beside having hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

11. ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) Inhibition Activity of Oven – Dried and Air – Dried Sambong Blumea balsamifera L.(dc.) Tea
See, Gerard Lee Lo, Arce, Florencio Villester Jr., Deliman, Yolanda Chua
Abstract
ACE plays important roles by catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into the potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II. The latter inactivates vasodilator nonpeptide bradykinin and results in an increase of blood pressure. Moreover, inhibition of ACE has proven to be an effective strategy in prevention and treatment of hypertension. Clinically, synthetic ACE inhibitors such as captoril, enalapril, are used for hypertension. However, these agents exert pronounced side effects such as cough, angioedema and many more. A major challenge is to search new drugs that will be more selective and thus, have lesser side effects. Sambong, Blumea balsamifera, is abundant in the Philippines and recommended by the Department of Health as a tea preparation for the treatment of kidney stones. Up to date, no published studies yet on the ACE inihibitory activity of Sambong. The study delved into the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity of Sambong tea. Specifically, the absorbance reading of FAPGG (Furylacryloyl – Phenylalanyl – Glycyl – Glycine) at 340 nm after exposition to the oven – dried and air – dried Blumea balsamifera tea and its inhibitory activity. This study employed rabbit lung ACE – induced hydrolysis of FAPGG quantified using a spectrophotometer. Quality control tests were performed on the tea samples. Study revealed that Sambong tea preparation showed inhibitory activity on rabbit lung ACE. It has been observed that the air – dried tea has a mean inhibitory activity of 211.30% while the oven – dried tea has a mean inhibitory activity of 70.42%. Flavanoids and terpenoids were attributed to the inhibition of ACE.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

12. Physico-Chemical, Elemental and Antioxidant Investigation of Boerhavia diffusa L
Kumar Puspendra, Singh Jyotshna, Patel Durgawati, Singh Mary, Shikha, Alam Sanjar, Murtuja Sheikh, Chauhan Sanjeev
Abstract
Present investigation was undertaken to determine the foreign matter, extractive values, moisture content, ash values, elemental content and anti-oxidant activity. Selected parameters were determined for the selected plant material. Physico-chemical parameters were used to standardize the plant material. Elemental study was undertaken to estimate the concentrations of elements present in B. diffusa L. root. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used for elemental analysis in the field of quality control procedures and research concerned with plant samples and concentrations of various elements present were estimated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Selected plant material contains he high levels of Ca, Fe and Mg; and the study indicates the presence of essential and potentially toxic elements are within the limit and B. diffusa L. root can be used on regular basis without any harmful effect. Antioxidant potential of the plant was studied using in vitro free radical model i.e. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and IC50 was found to be 73.132 µg/ml.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

13. Retracted by Authors. 8(7) 2016. 1142-1148

14. Antioxidant and Anti-Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Leaves and Seed Extracts of Gemor (Nothaphoebe coriacea)
Purwanto Budi Santosa, Iskandar Thalib, Eko Suhartono, and Maman Turjaman
Abstract
Gemor (Nothaphoebe coriacea) is one of non timber forest product’s (NTFPs) tree in peat swamp forest Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is well known that some parts of these plants have several medical benefits and contain some phytochemical constituents. The medical benefits and phytochemical constituents may be related to antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activity of this part of plant extracts. Thus, our present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activity of leaves and seed extracts of N. coriacea. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the leaves and seed extracts of N. coriacea, assay for superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate dependen peroxidase (AsA peroxidase), chelating effect of ferrous iron, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging, activity were performed in this study. To investigate the anti-lipid peroxidation activity, percentage of malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibition formation was performed. The results show that the leaves extracts shows a higher activity on CAT and AsA peroxidase activity, while the seeds extracts shows a higher activity in SOD activity. Seeds extracts were found to have higher activity in chelating of ferrous iron, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. The anti-lipid peroxidation activity looks slightly higher in seed than leaves extracts of N. coriacea. In conclusion, both leaves and seed extract of N. coriacea has antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

15. Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies of Tuba-tuba Jatropha curcas L. (1753) Leaf Extract on Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)
See, Gerard Lee Lo, Perez, Shemei, Tiongson, Diva, Arce, Florencio Villester Jr., Deliman, Yolanda Chua
Abstract
Herbal treatments are the most popular form of traditional medicine and it is very rampant in the Philippines since most of the Filipinos prefer to be treated the old natural way. Jatropha curcas is a plant that produces high oil content seeds used as biodiesel which is not edible because it contains toxic Phorbol ester. The leaves contain apigenin, vitexin, isovitexin which along with other factors enable them to be used against malaria, rheumatic and muscular pains. When drunk as a tea it helps with the reduction of fevers and also helps jaundice and gonorrhea. A lot of concrete evidences support the therapeutic activity of the plant. However, only little information can be provided regarding the possible toxicity of the plant. So the researchers conducted acute and chronic toxicity testing of Jatropha curcas decoction and ethanol leaf extract using rats as the test animals, grouped and administered with 200mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg dose assessed thru organ weighing and behavioral changes. Results showed that extracts were not acutely toxic with 0% mortality but lethal to the rats when taken for longer period of time marked by behavioral changes that signifies chronic toxicity such as weight loss, anorexia, reluctance to move and restlessness, there was a change in organ weight in an average of more than 10% for all the organs weighed when compared to the organs of the untreated animals and mortality. Jatropha curcas is relatively safe when administered orally for acute use but not safe when used chronically.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

16. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Parkia biglandulosa bark
Rupesh Pingale, Deepak Pokharkar, Suvarna P Phadatare, Archana Gorle
Abstract
Parkia biglandulosa, (Family: Mimosaceae), commonly known as Badminton Ball Tree, is very popular in India with a long history of traditional and folklore medicinal uses. Traditionally, different parts of the plant are used in treating ulcer, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti inflammatory activity etc. A variety of phytoconstituents like tannis, saponins, glycosides, sterols and triterpenoids have been isolated from the plant. The present study was carried out to investigate macroscopical, microscopical and physiochemical parameters of Parkia biglandulosa, bark. Some of the diagnostic features of the bark were studied. All the parameters were studied according to WHO guidelines. The determination of these characters will help future researchers in phytochemical as well as pharmacological analysis of this species.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

17. Biological Evaluation of Leaf and Fruit Extracts of Wild Snake Root (Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.)
Dipti Ranjan Behera, Rashmi Ranjan Dash, Sunita Bhatnagar
Abstract
Leaf and fruit extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla were explored for their phytochemical, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. Leaf and fruits were found to possess flavanoids and alkaloids in their extracts. Chloroform extract of leaf and acetone extract of fruits showed significant cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp assay. All the extracts showed good antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay and nitric oxide antioxidant assays except hexane extract which showed only mild antioxidant potential. Rauvolfia tetraphylla could be a good substitute for endangered plant Rauvolfia serpentina.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

18. Isolation of Sesquiterpenes  Lactone from Curcuma aeruginosa Rhizome and the Cytotoxic Activity Against Human Cancer Cell Lines
Sri Atun, Retno Arianingrum, Nurfina Aznam, Sri Nurestri Ab Malek
Abstract
The objectives of this research were to isolate bioactive compounds from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. and to study the cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. The in vitro cytotoxicity test was done on human cancer cell lines such as Breast carcinoma MCF-7 and T-47D; Cervical carcinoma Ca Ski and Hela S3 by MTT ([3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Cytotoxicity test was also conducted on Vero cells (normal cells). The isolation of bioactive compounds from this extract of C. aeruginosa rhizome was carried out by chromatographic method and the structure elucidation was performed by interpretation of spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR 1D and 2D. The study showed that n-hexane and chloroform fraction from C aeroginosa had low cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and Ca-ski (IC50<100µg/mL), but not toxic against Hela S3, T-47D, and Vero cell lines (IC50>500µg/mL). From the chloroform fraction of C. aeroginose we isolated a new sesquiterpene lacton aeruginon (1) and a known compound curcumenon (2). It can be concluded that according to the present study, C. aeruginosa can be used as a potent source of natural bioactive compounds that is rich in sesquiterpene compounds.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

19. Cytotoxic Activity Assesment of Secondary Metabolites from Tecomaria capensis v. aurea
Manal M. Hamed, Mona A. Mohamed, Magda T. Ibrahim
Abstract
Plants have been used for medical goal since the beginning of human being history; they are the basis of recent medicine. This study was conducted to determine the potential anticancer activity of bioactive compounds from Tecomaria capensis  (Thunb.) Spach var. aurea [family Bignoniaceae] leaves against brine shrimp and human colon cancer cells (HCT-116) in vitro. Eight compounds were isolated from 85% methanol leaves extract and their structures were elucidated using 1HNMR, 13CNMR, mass spectroscopy and chemical methods. The isolated compounds were: quercetin 4′-O-methyl ether (1), rutin (2), myricetin (3), kaempferol 4′-O-methyl ether (4), luteolin (5), luteolin-7-Oβ-D-glucuronopyranoside (6), apigenin (7) and apigenin-7-Oβ-D-glucuronopyranoside (8). Moreover these compounds were isolated from T. capensis var. aurea leaves for the first time. In vitro biological investigations of the extracts and pure compounds indicated that; the investigated methanol extract, 1, 2, 3 and 7 possessed a strong activity among the cytotoxic parameters against brine shrimp; whereas compounds 1, 3, 7 and 8 showed potent inhibitory activity against colon cancer cells with LC50 values of 9.5, 6.5, 14 and 14.5 µg/ml, respectively. The results thus indicate efficacy for anticancer activity of the main constituents of the crude methanol extract of the chosen plant.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

20. Chemical Profiling, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Cotinus coggygria Essential Oil from Western Himalaya
Saini Shagun, Bhattacharya Sujata, Sharma Manjul
Abstract
Cotinus coggygria is an important herbal medicine in western Himalaya which potentially contributes to the advancement of healthcare. The aim of present study was to access an extensive account of antibacterial and antioxidant properties of Cotinus coggygria essential oil in relation to chemical composition so that efficacy of the herbal drug can be reassured. Essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range 25μl-75μl. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by two different test systems (DPPH and ABTS). The essential oil composition of Cotinus coggygria was analyzed by GC/MS and a total of 19 compounds were identified. The compounds characterizing major peaks were ả -Phellandrene (7.83%), ả-Myrcene (5.36%), (+)-2-Bornanone (14.52%), Caryophyllene (7.65%), (+)-epi-Bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5.59%), ç-Elemene (9.56%), Globulol (7.95%). The composition of monoterpene hydrocarbons was observed dominant over sesquiterpene hydrocarbons.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

21. HPTLC Method for Quantitative Determination of Quercetin in a Polyherbal Compound for Urolithiasis
Barik Laxmi Dhar, Ratha Kshirod Kumar, Das Manosi, Hazra Jayram
Abstract
A sensitive and reliable high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantification of quercetin in a polyherbal compound for urolithiasis. Methanolic extract of Crataeva nurvala and Bryophyllum pinnatum was chromatographed on silica gel 60F254 Aluminum plates plates with Chloroform: Methanol: Formic acid in the ratio (7.5:1.5:1; v/v/v) as mobile phase. The Quercitin quantification was 1.82% (w/w) and 3.2 % (w/w) for Crataeva nurvala Buch. -Ham and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. respectively.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

22. Rutin a Dietary Flavonoid Protects Against Altered Neurobehavioral, Membrane Bound Enzymes and Striatal Damage Induced by 3-Nitropropionic Acid in Male Wistar Rats
Suganya S N, Sumathi T
Abstract
Phytochemicals derived from various plants are gaining more attention owing to their diverse therapeutic potential and less side effects. Rutin (RT) is one of the plant derived flavonoid from buckwheat, citrus fruits and green tea with multiple pharmacological properties. Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary choreiform movements and progressive cell damage in basal ganglia, mainly in the striatum. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a mycotoxin irreversibly inhibits Succinnate dehydrogenase (SDH) in the TCA cycle leads to energy deficient can produce various dyskinetic movements and dystonic postures associated with selective striatal degeneration. The present study investigates the potential effect of RT against 3-NP induced behavioral and neurochemical changes in the striatum. The intraperitoneal administration of 3-NP (10 mg/kg b.w.) to male wistar rats for 14 days caused reduction in motor activities, muscle coordination, non enzymatic antioxidants status, activities of Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases), increased Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity with striatal degeneration. Pretreatment with RT (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg b.w. orally) prior to the administration of 3-NP has restored the biochemical, behavioral and cellular alterations caused by 3-NP induced toxicity in the striatum. The results of the present study indicate that RT (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg b.w.) significantly reversed 3-NP induced various behavioral, biochemical parameters and cellular changes. Hence RT could be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of Huntington’s disease.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

23. A Review on the Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of two Hibiscus Species with Spectacular Flower Colour Change: H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis
Eric W.C. Chan, S.K. Wong, H.T. Chan
Abstract
Among the Hibiscus species, H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis display spectacular flower colour change. In this short review, the current knowledge on their phytochemistry and pharmacology is updated, and their botany and uses described. With phytosterols, triterpenes, triterpenoids, coumarins, amides, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins as chemical constituents, H. tiliaceus has pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, tyrosinase inhibitory, cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-tumour and anthelmintic activities. Chemical constituents of H. mutabilis include flavonoids, flavonol glycosides and anthocyanins with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepatoprotective, antiviral, anticancer, filaricidal, anti-allergy and anti-diabetic activities. Both H. tiliaceus and H. mutabilis have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-diabetic activities in common. A quick literature search showed that at least five other species of Hibiscus share these pharmacological properties. Included in the search were extracts or compounds responsible and their mechanisms of action.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

24. Qualitative and Quantitative Screening of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) and Evaluation of Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect
Md. Arifur Rahman Chowdhury, Manirujjaman, Moumita Basak, Md. Habibur Rahman, Shapna Sultana.
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to trace out the presence of phytochemicals by in -vitro qualitative and quantitative screening methods and evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) on swiss albino mice. By performing qualitative screening of Syzygium aromaticum (SAf) we confirmed the presence of phytochemicals. In quantitative screening, in vitro antioxidant potential, total antioxidant, total reducing power capacity and total phenolic content investigated and subsequent to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity. The plant extract (SAf) at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for studying anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced swiss albino mice. During 4-days of the study period in comparison with reference drug vildagliptin (50 mg/kg). In DPPH free radical scavenging assay found IC50 values of SAf 13.204 µg/ml, total antioxidant of SAf as 356.5 mg/g equivalent of ascorbic acid. %reducing power capacity (SAf)of as 239.79±.075; and total phenolic content of (SAf) as 407.69 mg/g equivalent of gallic acid, indicate potent phenolic content. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of SAf, the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, by comparing glucose level with the standard drug with SAf (8.35±2.07 and 8.77±1.71) mmol/L, the result showed that SAf able to reduce blood glucose level with prolong dose administration. The present study suggests that methanolic extract of flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (SAf) could be used in managing oxidative stress and hyperglycemic condition.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

25. Phytochemical Analysis of Bark Extract of Cinnamomum verum: A Medicinal Herb Used for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Malayali Tribes, Pachamalai Hills, Tamil Nadu, India
Rajadurai Maruthamuthu, Kumaresan Ramanathan
Abstract
The present study was carried out to characterize the bioactive constituent present in bark extract of Cinnamomum verumusing UV-VIS and FTIR analysis. The crude extract of Cinnamomumverum was scanned in the wave length ranging from 200-800 nm by using Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer system and the characteristic peaks were detected. FTIR analysis was also performed on a Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer system, which was used to detect the characteristic peak value and their functional groups. UV-Vis profile showed peaks at 286 nm, 206nm and 219 nm with observation of 0.5, 0.7 and 0.6 respectively.  FTIR analysis results proved the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkynes, alkanes, aromatic amines, alkyl halides, aliphatic amines and major functional groups observed were cinnamaldehyde and eugenol.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

26. Phytochemical Investigation and Antimicrobial Activity Study of Ornamental Plant Caladium x hortulanum
Abima Shazhni J R, Renu A, Murugan M
Abstract
Medicinal plants play a major role in all the traditional system of medicine and contain the richest source of plant metabolites. They are used for human welfare, especially to cure disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms without any side effects. This present study was carried out to determine the phytochemical components and antimicrobial activity of Caladium x hortulanum plant pars such as leaf, stem and corm. In this investigation, the leaf extracts contained more numbers of phytochemical constituents and possess good antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. These results indicate the ornamental plant Caladium x hortulanum have antimicrobial values that could be useful in the treatment microbial diseases.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

27. Pleiotrophic Garlic (Allium Sativum) in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications
Patil T. R, Patil S, Patil A, Patil ST
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is growing at alarmingly high rate globally. Currently available antidiabetic drugs mainly target the control of hyperglycemia. They rarely contribute significantly to correction or prevention of complications of diabetes probably except metformin, and glitazones which partially are cardioprotective. Garlic has pleiotrophic effects like correction of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension. It has vasculoprotective, antiathlerosclerotic and cardioprotective benefits. Its antiplatelet, fibrinolytic, antioxidant, NO and H2S generating properties contribute to various beneficial actions. Garlic has anti-inflammatory properties and it has been proved to be antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal and antiviral. By improving vascular health, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia it has been proved to be neuroprotective and nephroprotective. Its favourable action on lipogenesis, glucose metabolism and anti-inflammatory property prevents diabetic non alcoholic, fatty liver disease. Abundance of experimental data should be utilized to conduct various clinical trials on efficacy of garlic as it forms promising therapeutic tool to treat diabetes related conditions.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016

28. Antimotility and Andidiarrhoel Activity of Myrtus communis L. Leaves Essential Oil in Mice
Benchikh F, Benabdallah H, Dahamna S, Khennouf S, Flamini G, Amira S
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) leaves essential oil (MEO) and to investigate its antimotility and antidiahhroeal effects in mice. Methods: The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of myrtle was studied using GC-MS analysis. The antimotility activity was evaluated using normal gastric emptying and intestinal transit. The antidiarrhoeal and antisecretory activities of the essential oil were tested using castor oil methods in mice. Results: The results revealed that MEO characterized by its richness of α-pinene (54.1%) and 1.8-cineole (26.5%). MEO significantly decreased gastric emptying at the highest dose (500 mg/kg) and the intestinal transit at the three used doses (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg). The essential oil demonstrated also dose dependent antidiarrhoeal and antisecretory activities. Conclusion: MEO has antidiarrhoeal and antisecretory activity in mice, which may justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of diarrhea and other gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Abstract Online: 10-July-2016







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research