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1. Phytochemical Constituents and In Vitro Anti-Diabetic Properties of Ziziphus jujubа (Rhamnaceae) Fruits
Stoilova I, Trifonova D, Marchev A, Stanchev V, Angelova G, Krastanov A
In the current study the phytochemical profile of 70% ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujubа (Rhamnaceae), cultivated in Bulgaria has been investigated. The fruit extract contained numerous phytochemicals, such as triterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Five triterpenes, 11 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids have been identified. The fruit extract had a total phenolic content of 21.62 ± 0.0265 mg/g and total flavonoid content 1.34 ± 0.017 mg/g dried extract. Among the triterpenes with the highest concentration was the betulinic acid 20943.17±527.06 µg/g dried extract, rosmarinic acid (1174.26±29.55 µg/g) among the phenolic acids, followed by myricetin (214.61±5.40 µg/g) as a representative of flavonoids and rutin 3 046.89±76.68 among the quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effect of Z. jujubа fruit extract has been investigated on the key enzymes linked to diabetes – α-glucosidase and α-amylase. In order to evaluate the type of inhibition a Lineweaver-Burk plot was produced. The results obtained from the enzyme kinetic studies exhibited a mixed noncompetitive-uncompetitive type of inhibition on α-glucosidase and mixed competitive-non-competitive type of inhibition on α-amylase. Besides that the obtained results proved high inhibition of α-glucosidase (79.46% at 1.33 extract) and moderate inhibition of α-amylase (39.10% at 0.666 extract concentration). These results suggest the possible use of fruits of Z. jujubа in the management of diabetes mellitus.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8056

2. Comparison of the Total Phenol, Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Roots Extracts of Asphodelus microcarpus and Asphodeline lutea Growing in Syria
Kitaz Adawia
Medicinal plants are a source for a wide variety of natural antioxidants. In the study reported here, we have conducted a comparative study between two medicinal plants roots having the same geographic origin and growing in the same natural conditions. The present study is designed to evaluate the radical scavenging activity, total phenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of the MeOH roots extracts of Asphodelus microcarpus and Asphodeline lutea. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was examined by DPPH method. Total phenol and total flavonoid quantities of the samples were determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 reagents respectively. The roots in both plants exhibited the free radical scavenging property (IC50= 0.30, 0.54 mg/ml) for A. microcarpus and A. lutea, respectively compared to that of the positive control BHT (IC50= 0.017 mg/ml).  As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was (17.90, 13.02 mg GAE/ g dry weight for A. microcarpus and A. lutea root extracts, respectively. Roots extract of Asphodelus microcarpus were the richest in total phenolic compounds and also it has been found to be rich in flavonoids (14.60 mg rutinoside/g dry weight). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antioxidant activity of A. microcarpus and A. lutea root from Syrian origin and our findings suggest the possibility of using the roots as a novel source of natural antioxidant agent for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.80567

3. Preliminary Study and Phytochemical Screening of Arum dioscorides Sibth. in Syria
Ayoubi Ahmad Mohieddin, Al-Kurdi Khalil, Kattah Abdullah, Trefi Saleh
Raphides (calcium oxalate needles) were detected in both of Arum dioscorides Sibth. et Sm. leaves and rhizomes. The extraction method of the leaves was optimized, in order to choose the most suitable solvent and method. The best solvent was the following mixture: ethanol, water, hexane, chloroform, acetone 38:16:25:9:12 v/v respectively. In addition, the second best solvent was aqueous ethanol 65%. While for the extraction method itself, sonication aided extraction at room temperature gave significantly better yields than maceration for 72 hours. Moreover, and the suitable time for sonication-aided extraction is 20 minutes. Because there was no significant yield increase through time prolongation after 20 min. Qualitative phytochemical screening of both the leaves and rhizomes was carried out indicating the presence of these phytochemicals in both of leaves and rhizomes: alkaloids, amino acids, phenolic acids, carbohydrates, coumarines, flavonoids, lignans, saponins, sterols, tannins, triterpinoids, pro anthocyanidin, catchins and traces of cyanogenic glycosides. While it has shown the absence of anthranoids and cardiac glycosides.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.80568

4. Protective Potential of Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract in Diabetic Rat Liver
Gupta N K, Srivastva N, Bubber P, Garg S, Mohammad O
Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating metabolic disorder and emerged as a major complication nowadays. The role of plants and their derivatives is indispensable in the treatment of various diseases. Azadirachta indica is a medicinal plant and holds a potential to attenuate the pathological changes associated with diabetes. In the present study streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats received the Azadirachta indica leaf extracts (ALE) treatment for a period of seven consecutive days (600 mg/Kg body weight) and then evaluated for changes in the liver tissue. The diabetic rats exhibited significant (p≤0.001) increase in the lipid peroxidation levels, decrease in GSH levels and modulation in the activities of various antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, following ALE treatment to diabetic rats reported decrease in the blood glucose levels, lipid peroxidation levels, improved GSH levels and restored the activities of various antioxidant enzymes towards control levels. Besides this, light microscopic and ultramicroscopic examination of liver tissue also demonstrated less fragmentation, inflammation and decreased tissue level damage after ALE treatment, and corroborated the results of biochemical parameters. Thus, the results of present study revealed the hepatoprotective potential of Azadirachta indica in diabetes

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.80569

5. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Polyherbal Formulation Consisting of Ficus glomerata Roxb. and Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Stem Bark Assessed in Free Radical Scavenging Assays
Mradu Gupta, Nandita Karmakar, Saswati Sasmal
In vitro antioxidant free radical scavenging capacities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of herbal drug containing stem bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. and Symplocos racemosa Roxb. were evaluated. IC50 (µg/ml) of alcoholic, aqueous extract and Ascorbic Acid was found to be 41.529 ±10.135, 39.654 ±4.022and 17.511 ±1.17 in Hydrogen Peroxide Radical Scavenging, 1825 ±122, 1035 ±090 and 207 ±006 in DPPH radical scavenging, and 42.024 ±16.816, 49.926 ±16.240 and 5.503 ±0.545 during FRAP essay. Similarly, during ABTS radical scavenging, IC50 (µg/ml) was assessed as 28.088 ±5.618, 23.731 ±4.870 and 6.728 ±0.213 for alcoholic, aqueous extract and Trolox respectively. Alcoholic & Aqueous extracts exhibit high antioxidant activity possibly due to higher phenolic & flavonoid content

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8060

6. In Vitro Anti Acne Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Stem of Berberis aristata
Shyam Baboo Prasad, Darshpreet Kaur

Current research work is intended to study the impact of herbal approach to treat acne, an extremely common cutaneous inflammatory disorder of multifactorial origin with prevalence in adolescents. Acne is common disease of skin and is usually treatable. An attempt had been taken to investigate the in vitro antiacne activity of ethanolic extract of stem of Berberis aristata. The MIC value of the B. aristata extract against S. epidermidis, P. acnes and M. furfur were found to be 600 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml respectively. In vitro antimicrobial screening using erythromycin as a positive control clearly indicated that ethanolic extract of B. aristata is promising antimicrobial against the test microorganisms.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8061

7. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Analysis of Chloroform Extract of Novel Poly Herbal Formulation
S Selvakumar, Barnali Sarkar
Objective:  It is of interest to investigate the in vitro cyto toxicity effects of chloroformic extract of Novel polyherbal formulation were studied. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of the crude extract of polyherbal formulation was evaluated on LLCMK2 monkey kidney epithelial cells and Cell viability was determined by using MTT assay. Results and Discussion: Our results indicate that the non toxic nature of a poly herbal formulation of Novel polyherbal formulation on control and experimental cell lines. Conclusion: The current mode of treatment for various diseases including cancer is based on synthetic drugs. These drugs are effective but they show serious adverse effects and also alter the genetic and metabolic activity of the patient. Furthermore, in vivo activity of   the   active compounds of a poly herbal formulation Novel polyherbal formulation needs to be determined in animal models and human subjects, so as to determine their efficacy in a metabolic environment.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8062

8. Antimutagenic Activities of Anisosciadium lanatum Extracts Could Predict the Anticancer Potential in Different Cell Lines
Wael M El-Sayed, Warda A Hussin, Ahmad A Mahmoud, Mohamed A AlFredan
In spite of the tremendous progress in the development of anticancer drugs yet the cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide in addition to the economic and social burdens it causes. The high cost of chemotherapy, the resistance development and the severe adverse effects mandate the continuous screening for novel, cheap, and safe anticancer drugs. In our efforts to expedite the screening process in botanical extracts, we analyzed the flavonoid, lycopene, β-carotene, and chlorophyll a and b in four different extracts from Anisosciadium lanatum with different polarities in addition to the essential oil. In addition, we have also measured the antioxidant, peroxide and superoxide scavenging activities of the extracts and oil. We have also estimated the antimutagenic activities of these extracts in Salmonella typhimurium using Ames test against two mutagens; sodium azide (NaN3) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). All these features and measurements of the extracts were correlated with their anticancer activities in 5 cell lines; liver, lung, colon, breast, and prostate. The phytochemical and antioxidants studies did not precisely predict the potential anticancer activity of extracts or at least what is performed in the current study. Collectively, the antimutagenic activities of the extracts along with the reductions in mutant frequency reported correlates well with the anticancer activities. Therefore, we believe that the antimutagenic activity along with phytochemical analysis could serve as a plausible surrogate in the prediction of potential anticancer activity in the process of screening botanical extracts.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8063

9. Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Potential of the Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaf, Stem and Root of Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae)
Ugwoke C E C, Orji J, Anze S P G, Ilodibia C V
Background: Plants contain secondary metabolites or phytochemicals, which when consumed by humans give therapeutic effect. This study therefore analyzed the phytochemical composition of Chromolaena odorata so as to give an idea of its possible pharmacological potentials. An antimicrobial assay was also carried out to verify claims on its use in the treatment of infectious diseases. Methods: The experimental procedure involved collection of the leaf, stem and root of the plant from the wild, authenticating the samples and drying under shade to facilitate pulverization. Preliminary qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were done using standard methods to reveal the presence and percentage composition of basic phytochemicals. The powder was also macerated in ethanol and water to produce ethanol and aqueous crude extracts that were reconstituted in normal saline to concentrations (mg/ml) of 150, 100, 75 and 50. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were screened for sensitivity to the extracts using the agar well diffusion method. Results: The plant parts contain alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, phenols, cardiac glycosides, and sterols at varying concentrations. The leaf however had highest concentration of almost all phytochemicals present. The antimicrobial activity of the plant was concentration-dependent in all parts of the plant and both extracts. Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were most susceptible while Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli were least susceptible with an average Inhibition Zone Diameter (IZD) of about 8 – 10 mm. Conclusion: The substantial quantity of the basic phytochemicals in Chromolaena odorata could render it a utility plant in therapeutic use. Due to the profound antimicrobial effect as revealed by the IZDs, the plant could be classified as a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. Thus, the claim on its potency in treatment of infectious diseases by traditional medical practitioners could be said to be justified.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8064

10. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Effect of Achillea biebersteinii Afan., Growing in Syria, in Induced Diabetic Rats
Karzoon Ahmad,  Abdelwahed Wassim,  Nayal Ream
Supported by many studies and botanical surveys, the potential role of medicinal plants as antidiabetic agents has dramatically raised. The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of A. biebersteinii Afan. ethanolic extract in both types of diabetes, using blood glucose and insulin levels as markers for its efficacy, morphological changes of pancreatic β-cell islets as a potential marker for a protective role, and high fat diet-streptozocin (HFD-STZ) induced diabetic rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats as diabetic models. Aerial part ethanolic extract was administered by oral gavage for 16 days at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Glibenclamide at a dose of 3 mg/kg, and metformin at a dose of 300 mg/kg were used as reference standards.  A. biebersteinii Afan. reduced significantly fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, improved oral glucose tolerance, tended to raise serum insulin levels, enhanced regeneration of β cells, and seemed to be more effective than the reference standards. It is assumed that A. biebersteinii Afan. increases utilization of glucose by tissues and/or enhances insulin release from remanent and/or regenerated β-cells. In conclusion, A. biebersteinii Afan. possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity and it may prove to be effective for the treatment of both types of diabetes.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8065

11. Pumpkin Seed Oil: An Alternative Medicine
Ahmed Shaban, Ravi P Sahu
Pumpkin seed oil has long been considered as an ingredient for its nutritional and medicinal values for the prevention of various ailments, especially for prostate diseases. In addition, several studies have suggested the crucial roles and effectiveness of pumpkin seed oil in the treatment of diabetes, anxiety and even cancer. Pumpkin seed oil is being used in several countries worldwide including North America, Mexico, India and China. This review highlights the characterization, properties and use of pumpkin seed oil from various pumpkin species against several diseases pathophysiologies. We strongly believe that this review will provide overall insights to the chemists, biologists and researchers on the roles of pumpkin seed oil extracts that possess promising biological activities.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8066

12.Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Fruit Essential Oil of Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf. (Rhamnaceae)
Ourzeddine Widad, Fadel Hamza, Mechehoud Youcef, Chalchat Jean-claude, Figueredo Gilles, Chalard Pierre, Benayache Fadila, Benayache Samir
The essential oil of the fruit of Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf. belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.  38 components were identified corresponding to 92% of the total oil. Fatty acids represented the major fraction (78.9%), followed by hydrocarbons (10.8%) while terpenic fraction constituted only 1.1% of the oil (a- and β-eudesmol). The fatty acids fraction contained 23 saturated and unsaturated compounds (67.8 and 11%, respectively) from C8 to C18. The major constituents are in decreasing order: ethyl hexadecanoate (12%), decanoic acid (11%), ethyl dodecanoate (9.4%), ethyl hexadec-9-enoate (7.9%), dodecanoic acid (6.5%), ethyl tetradecanoate (6.1%) and tetradecanoic acid (5%). Several studies described the fatty acid composition of different parts of Zizyphus species in the fixed oil. Our study is the first report devoted to the chemical composition of the essential oil of the fruit of this species. The antioxidant property of this oil was evaluated using β-carotene bleaching method.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8067

13. Pharmacognostical, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Standardization of Petiveria alliacea L.
Sathiyabalan G, Paulpriya K, Tresina P S, Muthukumarasamy S, Mohan V R
There are the vast varieties of medicinal plants in the world with therapeutic properties. With increasing popularity of herbal medicine as a curative measure, the need for correct identification and standardization of the plant is also increased.  Present work was performed to study the pharmacognostic and phytochemical characters of whole plant of Petiveria alliacea. The whole plant of Petiveria alliacea was investigated for its pharmacognostic parameters viz, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical attributes, fluorescence analysis and phytochemical screening and the salient diagnostic features were also documented. The preliminary phyochemical screening of methanol and ethanol extracts of P.alliacea whole plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides and xanthoproteins. These studies provided referential information for identification of this crude drug.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8068

14. The Standardization of Crataegus sanguinea Fruits Growing on the Territory of Orenburg Region
Shmygareva A A, Sankov A N, Dudarenkova M R, Kochukova A A, Dorokhina O A, Nigmatulina Yu U, Gorbunova E S
For standardization of Crataegus sanguinea fruits the method of differential spectrophotometry at analytical wavelength 412 nm was used1. The optimal extraction conditions of flavonoids from fruits of Crataegus sanguinea Pall. – extractant is 70% ethyl alcohol; the ratio of “raw-extractant” – 1:30; extraction time -60 min1. The relative degree of the determination of the  total flavonoids in fruits of Crataegus sanguinea Pall. in used method  with confidence probability 0,95  is no more than ±3,5%. The content of total flavonoids in fruits of Crataegus sanguinea Pall. varied from 0,18±0,001% to 0,22±0,002% (calculated on hyperoside).

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8069

15. Evaluation of Antiinflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Barleria courtallica Nees (Acanthaceae)
Ponmathi Sujatha A, Michael Evanjaline R, Muthukumarasamy S, Mohan V R
Ethanol extracts of Barleria courtallica stem, root and leaf were evaluated for its antiinflammatory activity at the dose levels of 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight using a carrageenan induced paw edema method (acute inflammation). Results showed that all the studied ethanol extracts had potent and significant antiinflammatory activity. These results were also comparable with reference drug indomethacin.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8070

16. Triterpenes from Plumeria rubra L. Flowers
Jariel Naomi B Bacar, Maria Carmen S Tan, Chien-Chang Shen, Consolacion Y Ragasa
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of the white flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (syn. Plumeria acuminata W.T.Aiton) afforded a mixture of lupeol (1), -amyrin (2) and β-amyrin (3) in about 8:2:1 ratio. The structures of 13 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8071

17. In vitro Propagation and Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Wild Plant and Micropropagated Cleome rutidosperma DC.
Deventhiran M, John Wyson W, Sheik Noor Mohamed M, Jaikumar K, Saravanan P, Anand D
Plants are widely used by all sections of the society either as folk medicines or as pharmaceutical preparation of modern medicine. In vitro propagation of plants holds great promise for conservation and enhancement of valuable medicinal plants. Cleome rutidosperma has been used in indian ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of a wide number of health disorders. The present study deals with the influence of different plant growth regulators (PGR) including kinetin (Kin), 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the growth of plant and the identification and comparison of bioactive constituents of wild and in situ propagated C. rutidosperma plant using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). Nodal segments used as explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s medium (MS) supplied with different concentrations of PGRs. Multiple shoot generation was achieved after 28 days of incubation. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of ten compounds of micropropagated and seven compounds of wild plants were identified. The result concluded that various concentration of PGR had a significant role in in vitro regeneration of plant and showed that the phytoconstituents of micropropagated plant is comparatively higher than that of wild plant.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8072

18. Evaluation of Aphrodisiac Activity of Buchanania axillaris (Linn.) Leaves
Neeruganti Dora Babu, Battu Ganga Rao, Devarakonda Ramadevi
The study was aimed at investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Buchanania axillaris  linn. (Anacardiaceae) on general mating behaviour, libido, and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats.  Methanolic extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 8) once a day for 14 days. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and anogenital sniffing when compared to normal. The methanolic extract of Buchanania axillaris leaves at higher concentration (400 mg/kg body weight) showed significant aphrodisiac activity on male Wister albino rats as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts and mating performance. Thus, in experimental rats, the results of the present study suggest that the methanolic extracts of Buchanania axillaris exert significant aphrodisiac activity.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8073

19.Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Grown in Egypt
Amel M Kamal, Zeinab T Abdel Shakour, Sherif R Abdel All, Amany A Sleem Eman G Haggag
Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the leaves and flowers of Ipomoea carnea Jacq.  were carried out using Folin-Ciocalteu’s and aluminum chloride assays, respectively. Resulted in 6.59 and 9.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g. dry wt. and 1.336% and 0.885% rutin equivalent (RE)/g for leaves and flowers, respectively. The concentration of rutin and β-sitosterol in leaves and flowers extracts of I. carnea were also estimated by HPLC analysis resulting in  9.174 and 2.733 mg/g dry wt. (rutin) and 0.463, 17.085 mg/g dry wt. (β-sitosterol) for leaves and flowers, respectively. Chromatographic separation of the leaves and flowers ethanol extracts led to the isolation of a new biflavonoid compound: 3ꞌ, 3ꞌꞌꞌꞌ, 5, 5ꞌꞌꞌ, 7, 7ꞌꞌꞌ-O-β-D-glucosyl-4ꞌ, 4ꞌꞌꞌꞌ-biflavonoyl ether [4ꞌ-O-4ꞌꞌꞌꞌ Bis-isoquercetin] (Ipomoeflavoside) from leaves and other four known compounds namely; caffeoyl ethyl ester, caffeic acid, rutin, lycopene isolated for the first time from leaves and β-sitosterol from flowers. The leaves and flowers ethanol extracts showed antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities. They were also evaluated for their anticancer and antimicrobial activities. The ethanol leaves extract showed the highest cytotoxic activity against the breast cancer cell line, with (IC50: 7.4 µg/ml) while it showed weak cytotoxic effect on liver and colon cancer cell lines (IC50:23 and 35 µg/ml) respectively, The ethanol flowers extract showed weak or no anticancer cytotoxic activity against the tested cancer cell lines. The leaves and flowers ethanol extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumonia, Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus while showing no activity against Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeurginosa.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8074

20. Biopesticidal and Larvicidal Effects of Chukrasia tabularis A Juss Extracts on Third Instar Larva of Helicoverpa armigera
G Sabjan, T Ramamohan Reddy, G Sudarsanam, D Muralidhara Rao
Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss plant belongs to Meliaceae family. Limonoids are such compounds abundantly present in C.tabularis and being tetranotriterpenoid in nature .The present paper deals with biopesticidal effect of C.tabularis  seed oil and seed various extract on Helicoverpa armigera. Highest mean percent reduction over control was highest with methanol (43.07 to 85.94%), followed by ethanol (41.15 to 68.85%) and petroleum ether (39.18 to 66.14%) at all the three concentrations tested. Among the different concentrations tested, mean percent reduction in population over control increased as the concentration of the extracts increased with maximum reduction at 500 ppm. For seed oil methanol at 500 ppm (85.9%) followed by ethanol (68.85%) and petroleum ether (66.14%) recorded highest percent reduction over control, aqueous extract and benzene at 125 ppm found least effective, however effectiveness increased at 500 ppm.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8075

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research