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Volume9,Issue3

1. GC-MS Analysis of Extract of Rubia tinctorum having Anticancer Properties
Raghad D H Abdul Jalill
Abstract
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry determined the percentage of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mn, K, Fe, Co, Ti and N. Their amounts were: (0.002281, 0.004115, 0.000205, 0.007772, 0.833, 0.093952, 0.000332, 0.043 and 1.02) %. There was no Phos­phorus. Total Crude protein was 5.8125 %.  Thirty-five compounds identified in methanol extract of R. tinctorum using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrum analysis (GC-MS) in a single run. The major three components present were 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (29.75 %); 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, hexadecyl ester (26.1 %) and 1,3-Propanediol, 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)- (10.09 %).  The results of cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines showed reduction in cell viability of Human Glioblastoma cell line (AMGM) treating with all concentrations of extract with IC50 reached to 76.44 mg/ml. Inhibition rate ranged between (28.54- 66.1) %. In Ahmed-Mohammed-Nahi-2003 (AMN3) cell line, the lower concentration (50 µg/ml-5 mg/ml), reduced cell viably while the higher concentrations (50-100) mg/ml induced it.  IC50 is 21 mg/ml, the best Inhibition rate is 93.693% at 50 µg/ml.  The extraction was less effect in cell viability of Human Larynx Epidermoid Carcinoma (HEp-2) cell Line, the maximum Inhibition rat was 22.12 % at 10 mg/ml. All other concentrations were not significant compared with control. Previous results of cytogenetic effects of plant extract on human lymphocytes showed non-significant changing in mitotic index, blast index, cell cycle progression and replication index but the extract induced chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange. These inductions in chromosomal aberration were structural. They were: addition, deletion and ring chromosome. The deletions were the most common abnormalities. There were more than two chromosomal aberrations in the same cell.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8076

2. Chemical Constituents of Medicinal Plants, Gardenia elata, G. gjellerupii, and G. volkensii
Kittiya S Suwannakud, Arunrat Chaveerach, Runglawan Sudmoon, Tawatchai Tanee
Abstract
Many native Thailand Gardenia species have been reported to possess chemicals with properties effective in treating a variety of human illnesses. The present study examined chemical constituents in three species including one native G. elata, and two introduced species G. gjellerupii and G. volkensii. Crude hexane leaf extracts of the species were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Gardenia elata contained monoterpene, α-pinene; terpinenes, β-pinene, palmitic acid; diterpene, neophytadiene; stearic acid; (6E,10E,14E,18E)-2,6,10,14,18-pentamethylicosa-2,6,10,14,18-pentaene. Gardenia gjellerupii and G. volkensii composed of identical compounds, however in different amount, including diterpene, neophytadiene; terpinene, palmitic acid; squalene; linolenyl alcohol. These chemicals have been reported for their valuable medicinal properties. In addition to traditional knowledge that these plants are edible, this finding ensures that the plants are useful and should be consumed as healthy foods.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8077

3. Development of TLC and HPTLC Method for Determination α-Mangostin in Mangosteen Peels (Garcinia Mangostana L.,)
Liza Pratiwi, Achmad Fudholi, Ronny Martien, Suwidjiyo Pramono
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate quantitative estimation of α-mangostin in the fruit pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. Five samples from mangosteen peels are named ethyl acetate extract, ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, n-hexane fraction, and residue. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) method was developed for quantitative estimation of α-mangostin in the five samples. Then, samples with the highest levels of α-mangostin were tested by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) method. Ethyl acetate fraction gave the highest content of α-mangostin. TLC method α-mangostin content for ethyl acetate fraction, ethyl acetate extract, ethanol extract, n-hexane fraction, and residue were 33,61; 10,25; 8,73; 7,72; 7,50 % respectively. α-mangostin content for α-mangostin standard and ethyl acetate fraction with HPTLC method were 97,59; 34,17 % respectively. The result of the present study indicates that screening of extract and fraction of different solvents toward α-mangostin shows ethyl acetate fraction as the choice for future development.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8078

4. Screening of Variables Influencing Extraction Yield of Cotyledon orbiculata: 23 Full Factorial Design
Terblanche U, S Semakalu C C, Mtunzi F, Pillay M
Abstract
Various ethnobotanical studies, carried out in different parts of the world, have emphasized the critical role played by plant-based compounds in the prevention and/or treatment of many health conditions. Investigations into the ethnopharmacological properties of any given plant require an effective extraction procedure. The aim of this study was to use 23 factorial designs to assess the effect of different variables and their interactions on the percentage yield of extracts from Cotyledon orbiculata L. using aqueous and methanol extraction processes. Eight experimental runs were carried out for each solvent.  In each case, three varying parameters were used.  For the aqueous design, extraction temperature, pH and extraction time were selected while for the methanol design, solvent composition, technique and extraction time were selected as the primary design variables.  The extraction yield in both cases were used as the driver for optimal output. The results showed that only pH and extraction time had a significant influence on the percentage yield for the aqueous extraction and that their second-order interaction [pH x extraction time] did not produce a statistically significant increase in yield. The optimum conditions for the aqueous extraction design were extraction temperature 30°C, pH 8.99 and extraction time 240 minutes. On the other hand, the methanol design indicated that both extraction technique and extraction time contributed to an increase in yield and that two interactions, namely [methanol composition x extraction time] and [technique x extraction time] also influenced extraction yield significantly. The low percentage yields and the lower than expected predicted R2 values for the regression models using methanol suggests that perhaps other variables should be considered to achieve a greater yield.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8079

5. Assessment of Acute Oral Toxicity of Synergistic Formulation Extract of Traditional Contraceptive Plants
A B Kadam, B M Gaykar
Abstract
Some plants are used in folk medicine for prevention of pregnancy. The study aimed to assess the acute toxicity of synergistic formulation of traditional contraceptive plants. Acute toxicity means adverse change occurring immediately on exposure to a substance. Acute toxicity of crude petroleum and aqueous extract was evaluated by oral route administration to female mice by using OECD-423 guidelines. It was a single high extract dose of 2000mg/kg administered and the effects on mortality, behavioral pattern as well as spontaneous locomotors activity were evaluated. The limit dose of 2000 mg/kg did not cause any mortality. The findings suggested that the LD50 value of aqueous and petroleum ether was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. Hence, synergistic extract of plants is nontoxic. This work is useful to find out the dose structure for further experimental work on evaluation of traditional contraceptive plants and their activity.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8080

6. Phytochemical Analysis and In Vitro Antifungal Studies of Medicinal Plants Elephantopus scaber, Cyclea peltata and Artemisia japonica
V Vijeesh, Pillai Usha N, Mathew Manju K
Abstract
Introduction: The traditional folk knowledge of treatment have great role in the modern medicine. Based on the folk knowledge, the present work was under taken to study the antifungal activity of three plants Elephantopus scaber, Cyclea peltata and Artemisia japonica in our locality. Objective: To gave scientific validation to folk knowledge and propose the extract with promising antifungal activity for further identification of active molecules for the development of new therapeutics in future. Methodology: Disc diffusion method using various solvent extracts of each plant was utilized. The zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration were calculated. Results: The plants Cyclea peltata and Artemisia japonica posses better antifungal activity. Conclusion: The plant extract with antifungal activity used for further purification, identification and toxicity studies of active plant constituents may be used as lead compounds for the development of new therapeutic agents with good efficacy and least side effect in modern medicines against fungal infections.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8081

7. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti Cataleptic Effect of Herbal Formulation Consisting of Various Indigenous Plants in Experimental Animals
Dongre P R, Doifode C A, Chilate V V, Bhujbal S S
Abstract
We had investigated the effect of Antiasthmatic Herbal Formulation (AHF) on Clonidine induced catalepsy in mice and Passive paw anaphylaxis in rats. The protective effect of AHF containing an extracts of Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga were studied at the doses of 62.5, 125, 250 mg/kg, showed significant inhibition (*p<0.05, **p<0.01) of clonidine induced catalepsy in the animals. And significantly reduced (*p<0.05, ** p<0.01) the paw volume at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hr time interval and also showed significant percentage inhibition. The findings of the current study revealed that AHF exhibits significant dose dependant anti-inflammatory and anticataleptic activity in in-vivo animal model suggesting its potential in prophylaxis and treatment of asthma.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8082

8. Pharmacognostical and Physio-Chemical Evaluation of Indian Asparagus officinalis Linn Family Lamiaceae
Asia Begum, K Sindhu, K Giri, Fathima Umera, G Gauthami, J Vinod Kumar, N Naveen, K N V Rao, Syed Shaffath Ali, Karuna Sri, Rajeshwar Dutt
Abstract
Asparagus officinalis is an erect, unarmed, branched herbaceous perennial herb. It is considered one of the most important vegetable crops in some Asian, African, European and American countries.  Asparagus is one of the most nutritionally well balanced vegetables in existence, which is high in folic acid, thiamin, vitamin B6, rutin. Traditionally, the plant is used for the Prevention of kidney and bladder stones, Dropsy, Rheumatic conditions, Liver disease, Bronchial asthma and gout. The pharmacognostic parameters were studied for identification of species through macro and microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical screening. The plant is characterized by scale-like leaves; scales are very minute, the cladodes fascicled, 0.5 to 1.5 centimeters long and rudimentary, rootstock creeping, thick, tuberously swollen, and short-jointed. Stems (ferns) are with much branched feathery foliage. The anatomy of the root shows presence of covering trichomes and stem showed glandular trichomes. The trichomes which were present on the surface are sessile, quadricellular heads, unicellular stalk with 2 to 4 celler glandular head. The preliminary phytochemical chemical tests showed the presence of, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, amino acids and proteins. Powdered microscopy shows the presence of large number of vessel elements either entire or fragments.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8083

9. Physicochemical, Antioxidative and Cytotoxic Properties of Entoloma lividoalbum
Acharya K, Biswas M C, Dasgupta A
Abstract
Recent investigations are establishing Entoloma lividoalbum as an important medicinal mushroom which is found in the hilly regions of West Bengal, India, that makes it extremely important to authenticate the crude mushroom samples before processing for drugs in the modern times, providing quality and health assurance for both the developers and thousands of unaware consumers. The present study attempts to standardize Entoloma lividoalbum based on physico-chemical and chromatographic features and to partially screen its antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on human alveolar adenocarcinomic cell line A549. The physico-chemical parameters included loss on drying, ash value, fluorescence analysis which were determined by standard methods. Chromatographic parameters entailed the HPLC profile of methanolic extract of E. lividoalbum, the chromatographic peaks were noted as signature parameters for identification of the mushroom. Preliminary mycochemical analysis of the methanol extract indicated presence of flavonoids and phenols. Quantitatively the major bioactive components in the extract were present in the following order: phenol> flavonoid> β-carotene~ lycopene in the methanolic extract. In terms of partially screening the antioxidant potential of the extract, DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50 value 0.978 mg/ml) and total antioxidant capacity (70.96 µg AAE/mg of extract) were determined. The distinctive features established in this work are steps in identification, standardization and quality control of the medicinal mushroom.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8084

10. A Green Approach to Phyto-Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Eugenia uniflora L. Fruit Extract and Their Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities
Guru Kumar Dugganaboyana, Patel Sunil Kumar T L
Abstract
In recent years, researchers are interested in rapid development of nanotechnology processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has been evolving into an important branch of green nanotechnology deals with the safe and eco-friendly methods uses in biomedicine, industry and agriculture field. A green approach to phyto-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Eugenia uniflora L. (E. uniflora) fruit extract and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The present study describe the synthesis of AgNPs using the fruit extract of E.uniflora followed by characterization of AgNPs was done using different methods, which include; AgNPs synthesis was confirmed by UV/visible spectra and characterized by XRD, DLS and SEM analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were also tested for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The results clearly indicate that, the UV-Visible spectroscopy was employed to understand the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by E. uniflora. This analysis showed the sharp absorbance at around 440 nm, which was specific for AgNPs. Zeta potential analysis shows the positive polarity of the particle favoring the drug targeting. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the average particle size is around 85nm. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images showed that AgNPs have been formed and Ag+ ions have been completely consumed and they are crystalline in nature. The synthesized AgNPs were also tested for antioxidant therein the particles could scavenge the stable free radical DPPH of about 85% to that of positive control BHT. The value of the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of Standard BHT: 65.55µg/ml and E. uniflora: 52.15µg/ml. The antibacterial studies indicated its bactericidal efficacy against clinical pathogens. It could be concluded that E. uniflora fruit extract can be used efficiently in the production of potential antioxidant and antibacterial AgNPs for commercial application.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8085

11. Antiinflammatory Effect of The Fractions of Ethanol Extract of Jatropa curcas L Leaves
Warsinah, Hanif Nasiatul Baroroh Dan Harwoko
Abstract
Jatropha curcas leaf extract is reported to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice induced albumin, as well as in mice induced antiarthritis Freud’s Complete Adjuvant. Bioassay-guided fractionation with fractionation method is known potency active fraction of the ethanol extract of leaves Jatropha are anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, J. curcas leaves were maserated with ethanol, then fractionated by the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The fractions were tested in vivo using male Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups (n = 5), consisting of normal group (aquadest), the control group (karagenan), Na-diclofenac group with a dose of 4.5 mg / kg (per oral), and those fractions of ethanol extract of J. curcas leaves with a dose of 150 mg / kg, 300 mg / kg and 600 mg / kg (per oral). Oedema volume was determined every one hour during six hours. The neutrophil counts at hours six th. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by LSD test. The results showed that the fractions of J. curcas leaves had anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate fraction was the best anti-inflammatory potency with inhibitory effect of  74.83 ± 3.40% at a dose of 300 mg / kg. histophatologically, Ethyl acetate fraction was also able to reduce the recruitment of neutrophils in inflamed foot tissue.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8086

12. Phytochemical and Biological Studies on Crotalaria madurensis (Family Fabaceae)
Magda Tohamy Ibrahim, Mona A Mohamed, Hala Sh Mohamed, Madiha R Mahmoud
Abstract
Two new triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from leaves and flowers of Crotalaria madurensis Wight&Arn named; sophradiol 3-O-β-D-4C1-glucopyranosyl-(1”→4′)-O-β-D-4C1 glucuronopyranoside (3) and sophradiol 3-O- α-L-1C4– rhamnopyranosyl (1”’→4”)-OD-4C1 glucopranosyl-(1”→6′)-OD-4C1glucopyranoside (4) beside myo-inositol (1) and  three other triterpene saponin their structures were established as sophradiol 3-O-ß-D-4C1glucuronopyranoside (2) 3, 23-di- hydroxyl olean 12-en 28-oic acid 3-O– α-L-1C4– rhamnopyranoside (1”→6′)- O-β-D-4C1– glucopyranoside (5)  23-hydroxy-3α-[Oα-L-1C4-rhamnopyranosyl-(1”→4′) – Oα-L-4C1-arabinopyranosyl-oxy] olean-12-en-28-oic acid Oα-L-1C4-rhamnopyranosyl- (1””’→4””)-Oβ-D-4C1-glucopyranosyl-(1””→6”’)-Oβ-D-4C1-glucopyranosyl ester (6).  In addition to six flavonoids identified as Quercetin 3-O-α-L-1C4-rhamnopyranosyl-(1”’→2”)-O-ß-D-4C1-glucopyranoside (7), rutin (8), isoquercitrin (9), quercetrin (10), 8-Hydroxy quercetin 3-O-ß-D-arabinopyranoside (11), and quercetin (12). The structures elucidated by chemical evidences and spectroscopic analysis (1 & 2D-NMR, ESIMS/MS and UV). Aqueous alcoholic extract; total saponins fraction and certain pure compounds have significant antischistosomal activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and improve the liver function. Anti-bacterial studies of different extracts on both gram negative and gram positive bacteria showed inhibition of the growth of certain microorganism.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8087

13. Antimalarial Activity, Mechanism of Action and Drug Interaction Study of Active Constituent Isolated from The Dried Seeds of Psoralea corylifolia
Cheema H S, Singh A, Pal A, Bhakuni R S, Darokar M P
Abstract
Malaria eradication still an enormous global health challenge and getting worse after developing resistance against most of the antimalarial drugs. Plants possess various phytoconstituents that will be a good source for developing novel antimalarial leads. Bakuchiol, a meroterpene was isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia possess many different biological activities. However, its antimalarial potential is unexplored till now. In this study, we first time demonstrated that the hexane extract of P corylifolia seeds showed good anti-plasmodial activity (IC50 18.3 ± 0.38 µg/ml). The purified product from the hexane extract, bakuchiol showed improved anti-plasmodial activity with IC50 3.1 ± 0.35 µg/ml (12.1 ± 0.92 µM) in dose dependent manner. Bakuchiol did not shows hemolytic activity at higher concentration (3900 µM). The blood stage specific study showed that late trophozoite and early schizont parasite stages were found to be most sensitive to bakuchiol treatment. The mode of action study revealed that bakuchiol induced oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Bakuchiol prompts depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and causes DNA fragmentation after the treatment in concentration dependent manner. Bakuchiol showed synergistic interaction with the two most clinically used antimalarial drugs (chloroquine and quinine). The results of this study indicated that bakuchiol inhibits P. falciparum growth, inducing oxidative stress lead to mitochondrial membrane depolarization, DNA fragmentation and also act synergistically. Considering the need of new therapeutic alternative options, results showed that bakuchiol can be a potential lead phytomolecule for combination therapy against multidrug resistant malaria.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8088

14. Volatile Constituents, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Citrus reticulata Blanco Cultivar Murcott
Al-Gendy A A, El-Sayed M A, Hamdan D I, El-Shazly A M
Abstract
Hydrodistilled essential oils isolated from the leaf, ripe and unripe rinds as well as flower hexane extract of Murcott mandarin were analysed by GLC-MS to identify their constituents. The identified compounds were 48, 41, 40 and 46 from the mentioned organs, respectively. Monoterpenes represented the highest percentage for the identified components of ripe rind (94.76%), unripe rind (97.05%) and flower hexane fraction (50.97%) while oxygenated monoterpenes (45.94%) were the highest for leaf oil. Limonene was the major components in all samples followed by terpinene-4-ol and linalool in leaf oil, geranial, γ-terpinen and neral in flower hexane extract. Myrcene represented 2.43% and 2.69% for the ripe and unripe rind, respectively. Moreover, the major constituents were quantified by GLC-FID using a calibration curve of limonene. All tested samples showed high concentration of limonene which reached its highest concentration in flower hexane fraction (527.54 µg/ml). The tested samples were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by using agar well diffusion assay and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using gentamicin, ampicillin and amphotricin B as positive controls. Flower hexane extract showed the best activity against Enterococcus faecalis while leaf oil exhibited its highest activity against Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus subtilis.  Additionally, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspragillus fumigatus were the most sensitive to ripe rind oil while Saccharomyces cerevisiae was greatly inhibited by unripe rind (MIC = 1.95 µg /ml for all). Escherichia coli showed equal responses towards ripe and unripe rind oils (MIC=3.9 µg/ml). Also, ripe rind and leaf oils exhibited equal inhibitory effect against B. subtilis. MTT assay was used to evaluate cytotoxic activity compared to doxorubicin. Leaf oil showed the most potent effect on  human lung carcinoma (A-549) cell line with IC50 = 2.5 μg,  while unripe rind oil exhibited the highest activity on human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) cell lines with IC50 = 2.98 and 3.62 μg, respectively. The results recommend the use of Murcott mandarin oils as food preservatives and need further studies for the possible use as anticancer agents.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8089

15. Screening of Antioxidant Compounds from Ricinus communis Leaves for Oxidative Stress Treatment in Jaundice Condition
Jacob Jolly, Shetye S
Abstract
Oxidative stress is causing irreplaceable damage to the liver. In Jaundice, the above effect will be severe and supplementation of antioxidants in the form of food is highly required.  This will increase the speed of recovery from Jaundice. For the same, in the present study has focused on Ricinus communis plant that showed beneficial properties like antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. This study is mainly focused on Ricinus communis leaves extract and analysis of prepared extract for flavonoid compounds. For the same, first flavonoids presence is confirmed by Shinoda test and total flavonoids are extracted. Further, Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) was performed to know the quantification and recovery of total flavonoids. Followed by characterization of flavanoids are performed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. Anti-oxidant property of the isolated compound was confirmed with DPPH assay procedure. From the results Ricinus communis leaves extract showed maximum antioxidant properties for N-dimethyl ricinine and Quercitin, it has compared with available standards. Hence, the results have concluded that the identified compound from this study can serve as antioxidant compound to reduce oxidative stress in Jaundice condition.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8090

16. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Two New Lignans from Methanolic Extract of Bark of Zanthoxylum armatum
Arun Satyadev Siddhanadham, Rajendra Prasad Yejella, Rajkumar Prava, Jayapal Reddy Sama, Aparna Koduru
Abstract
Two new amides (Za-04, Za-05) were isolated from methanolic extract of bark of Zanthoxylum armatum along with Lupeol, Campesterol, β-Sitosterol, Stigmasterol. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated through a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as IR spectroscopy, Mass spectroscopy, and H1 NMR spectra. Compound Za-04 was found to be N-(31,41-Methylenedioxyphenyl ethyl)-3,4-methylenedioxycinnamoyl amide and Compound Za-05 was found to be N-(31,41-dimethoxyphenylethyl)-3,4-methylenedioxydihydrocinnamoyl amide. The compounds were identified as lignans, as they gave positive result for labat test. The two compounds were screened for antimicrobial and antimycobacterial activity. The compounds exhibited moderate to potent activity when compared to their respective standards.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8091

17. Phytochemical Evaluation, GC-MS Analysis of Bioactive Compounds and Antibacterial Activity Studies from Justicia gendarussa Burm.F. Leaf
Murugesan S
Abstract
Justicia gendarussa Burm F. (family Acanthaceae) known as Willow-leaved justicia in English, it is native to china. It is commonly found throughout the greater part of India and Andaman islands. J. gendarussa is one of the important herbal being used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Most herbal medicines and their derivative products were often prepared from crude plant extracts, which comprise a complex mixture of different extracts. The aim of this study was to carry out for analysed phytochemical constituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates from methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether extract of Justicia gendarussa and identification of bioactive compounds from different extracts of Justicia gendarussa by Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The bioactive principles were described with their molecular formula, retention time, molecular Weight, peak area (%). Physico – chemical values were analysed such as foreign organic matter, Moisture content, Total ash. Florescence analysed in leaf for Visible light condition under the UV rays (254nm, 366nm). The antimicrobial study was also carried out against two micro organisms such as Pseudomonas vulgaris and Pseudomonas pneumonia. Our results confer the utility of this plant extract in developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial agent.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8092

18. Total Phenolic Content, Total Flavonoid Content and Essential Oil Analysis of Inula Vulgaris Species Growing in Lebanon
Assi M, Aboul-Ela M, El-lakany A
Abstract
Introduction: Recent studies have revealed that Inula species have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-diabetic and many other activities. The activities of these species are correlated to the secondary metabolites that are biologically active components. Familiarity with the different types of these components offers wide insight to the different pharmacological effects of these species. Due to the lack of phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Inula vulgaris (I. vul) species, it is essential to investigate and study the different extracts contents, including the phenolic content, the flavonoid content and the volatile oils content. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using spectrophotometric Folin-Ciocalteau assay at 750 nm. The TPC of the dry extracts were expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100g dry weight (mg GAE/100g dw). Aluminum chloride colorimetric assay is used to determine the total flavonoid content (TFC) at 510 nm. The results for the TFC of dry extracts were expressed in milligrams of (+)-catechin equivalents (CE) per 100 g dry weight (mg CE/100g dw). The identification of essential oil components was determined using GC/MS technique. The relative percentage amounts of separated compounds were calculated from total ion chromatogram by a computerized integrator. Results and discussion: Data clearly shows a considerable amount of TPC and TFC in  I. vul species. The TPC content was found to be 163.41 ± 0.168 mg GAE/g dry extract, while The TFC of I. vul was 26.61 ± 0.002 mg/g CE. The essential oil of this species has shown a relatively important amount of phenolic compounds (about 18.22%). But the most interesting components were the sesquiterpenes whether oxygenated or not. The total percentage of sesquiterpenes in the oil was about 39.29%,. Most of the remaining terpene hydrocarbons were monoterpenes and represented 10.41% in all their forms. Conclusion: The TPC, TFC, and the essential oil contents were significant to impact great and considerable biological activities.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8093

19. Potential Hepato- and Reno-Protective Effect of Artichoke Callus Culture and Its Alcohol Extract in Galactosamine Hydrochloride Treated Rats
Al-Okbi S Y, Mohamed D A, Gabr A M M, Mabrok H B, Hamed T E
Abstract
Plant cell culture provides an alternative source of valuable secondary products which can be used as food supplements and nutraceuticals. The aim of the current work was to study the protective effect of artichoke callus culture and its alcohol extract towards hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) model in rats. Total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanin, antioxidant capacity, chlorogenic acid and cynarin contents were determined in the callus. The safety of the extract was studied through application of acute toxicity test. For HRS experiment, two weeks accommodation period for rats was followed by assigning four groups. Group one and two served as control normal and control HRS, respectively. Group three and four were treated by daily oral dose of artichoke callus (200 mg/kg) and its alcohol extract (100 mg/kg), respectively for three weeks. Rats of the four groups were fed on balanced diet all over the experiment. At the 20th day of experiment rats of group 2, 3 and 4 were treated intraperitoneally by D-(+)-Galactosamine hydrochloride for induction of HRS. In HRS control; plasma creatinine, urea and endotheline 1 were significantly elevated. In the same group plasma transaminases activity, total and direct bilirubin, and ammonia showed significant increase with reduction in albumin compared to control normal. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha were increased significantly in HRS control. Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase was significantly elevated along with reduction of creatinine clearance in HRS control compared to control normal. Administration of either artichoke callus or its alcohol extract improved all biochemical parameters significantly; the callus was superior in improving plasma albumin and MDA. SDS-PAGE technique applied on liver tissue showed variation in protein bands among the different experimental groups. The callus showed higher contents of total phenolic and flavonoids compared to different parts of artichoke head, however anthocyanin of the inner purple artichoke petals was higher than that of the callus. Chlorogenic acid level was 252 µg/g dry callus while cynarin was 60 µg/g.  The callus alcohol extract showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity % of 46.35 and was very safe up to the highest tested dose (12 g/kg mice).

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8094

20. Phycocyanin Ameliorate Trophoblast Apoptosis 1n Il-6-Induced Preeclamptic Rat Models
Gondo H K, Kusworini H, Arsana W, Sarjono T W
Abstract
Preeclampsia/eclampsia is the leading causes in maternal death. At the molecular study, pre-eclampsia caused by inadequate trophoblast invasion to endometrium. However, until now, it has no adequate medical preventive for preeclampsia. It is disease sometimes called as “disease of theory” for lack knowledge in basic molecular pathomechanism. Some study report trophoblast apoptosis is pivotal role in preeclampsia which increased lead to insufficiency trophoblast cell invasion into endometrium. Spirulina arthrospira plant or also called blue-green algae which is in the historical record has been consumed since the days of the Aztec tribe. Several studies have proven that Spirulina have the immunomodulation properties stimulate various immune functions such as production of cytokines, chemokines and other anti-inflammatory mediators. Its active bioactive Phycocyanin (PC) has been shown have an effect as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant and prevent preeclampsia occurrence in rat models through reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines However, there are no information its role in apoptotic trophoblast. Hence, this study aim to answer PC role in apoptotic trophoblast in preeclampsia rat. Methods. This research is an experimental laboratory research with post test only group design. We used rat models with preeclampsia pregnant condition induced by IL-6. To get the same rat ‎ gestational age (homogeneous) then as many as 30 female white rats do estrusnya cycle synchronization. To make a model of preeclampsia of pregnant rats, IL-6 is used in10 days post mating for 5 days at dose 5 ng/100 g/day body weight intra tail vein Result. PC has proved reducing preeclamptic trophoblast apoptosis in pregnant rats models induced by IL-6 at dose of 40 n/100 kg weight. Conclusion. This study confirm that PC has a protective effect on pregnant rats preeclampsia through its inhibiton of trophoblast apoptosis.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8095

21. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes in Purple Rice Bran Supplement Type 2 Diabetic Rats by Proteomics
EI EI Hlaing, Pichapat Piamrojanaphat, Narissara Lailerd, Narumon Phaonakrop, Sittiruk Roytrakul
Abstract
Purple rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) has been shown to have anti-hyperglycemic activity. However, the underlying mechanism of the anti-hyperglycemic activity of purple rice is still unknown. To explore this mechanism, we studied the protein profiling of the liver tissues of normal rats, normal rats with purple rice bran supplementation, type 2 diabetic rats, type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice bran supplementation, and type 2 diabetic rats with metformin treatment by using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis. Eight proteins and five proteins were solely expressed in type 2 diabetic rats and type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice bran supplementation respectively. The unique proteins in the diabetic rats correlated with the fatty acid synthesis, supporting the view that abnormal lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia are complications of diabetes. The unique proteins in the diabetic rats with purple rice bran supplementation correlated with the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that purple rice bran might improve insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, 11 proteins co-expressed in both normal control rats and type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice bran supplementation involved in oxidative stress response and autophagy. Our study might help to unveil the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-diabetic activity of purple rice.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8096

22. In Vitro Pharmacological Evaluation of the Keratosid Sponge Spongia officinalis var. Ceylonensis (Dendy) for Anti-Cancer Activity
Winson Sam, Sudhakaran Nair C R, Rajesh Ramachandran
Abstract
Marine sponges belonging to the phylum porifera have been subject to anti-cancer studies which have yielded anticancer agents like spongothymidine and spongouridine. The present work is the in vitro pharmacological evaluation of the extract of the keratosid sponge Spongia officinalis var. Ceylonensis (Dendy) for anti-cancer activity. Purified fractions of Spongia officinalis induced anti-proliferative effects on A549, lung carcinoma cells with an IC 50 values of  1.24µg/µl, whereas it was relatively nontoxic to normal cell lines L929 at the mentioned concentrations. Flow cytometric analysis depicts inhibition at G2/M phase which can be considered significant. Overall results suggests potent anticancer effect of the extract which can find applications in therapeutic interventions. The flow cytometric analysis was performed using the MUSE cell cycle kit on Muse™ flow cytometer (Millipore, USA). The extract showed cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells by causing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8097

23. Dielectric Properties of Atlas Cedar Wood at its Early Stage of Decay
Hakam A, Alami Chantoufi N, El Imame N, Guelzim M, Ziani M, Famiri A, Drissi-Bakhkhat S, Ghailane F, Hachmi M, Sesbou A, Merlin A
Abstract
The dielectric constant (ε’) and dielectric loss factor (ε’’) were measured for sound and decayed heartwood specimens of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti) wood (ACW) at its early stage of decay in longitudinal direction using frequencies between 10 Hz and 1 MHz  at 12% moisture content and room temperature (22 – 24 °C). The changes observed in dielectric properties due to brown-rot decay of ACW showed loss in wood density (the mean densities of the sound and decayed heartwood specimens of 12% moisture content were 595 and 531 kg.cm-3, respectively). The results obtained indicated a direct relationship between dielectric constants decrease and density loss over the whole frequency range. The effect of thickness is also observed. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss factor showed an important increase with the increase of the thickness, especially at low frequencies. Therefore the decrease in the values of the dielectric constants could be used as a good indicator of early wood decay. The changes in the dielectric properties were significant enough to distinguish between the samples from sound and decayed ACW.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i3.8098






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research