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1. Pharmacological & Phytochemical Evaluation Of Gastric Anti-Ulcer Activity of Parthenium hysterophorus In Different Models
Ananda Kumar. Chettupalli, Vasudha. B, Krishna Sanka
The cause of ulceration in patients is mainly due to hyper secretion of gastric juice and also due to hyper secretion of pepsin. In traditional system of medicine a number of herbal preparations have been used for the treatment of peptic ulcers. There are various medicinal plants has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In view of this, in present study we have to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of parathenium hysterophorus. Study was carried out, by using three methods i.e., alcohol, paracetamol and stress induced ulcers in rats pretreated with the doses of 250 mg/kg AQPH and ALPH, 20mg/kg Omeoprazole and 50 mg/kg Ranitidine. To evaluate the antiulcer activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of parathenium hysterophorus leaves (AQPH and ALPH) at 250 doses using different experimentally induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by 80% alcohol, paracetamol and forced immersion stress induced methods. In alcohol induced ulcer model, paracetamol induced ulcer model and stress induced model the ulcer index was determined. Where as in stress induced ulcers stress plays an important role in ulcerogenesis. In alcohol-induced ulcers, AQPH and ALPH were effective in reducing lesion index and increasing the gastric mucus content. It was also effective in decreasing ulcer index in paracetamol-induced ulcers. All the results obtained with parathenium hysterophorus were dose dependent.  The results suggest that AQPH and ALPH possesses significant and dose dependent antiulcer activity. The antiulcer activity of AQPH and ALPH can be attributed to its cytoprotective and antisecretory action.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8114

2. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antihyperhipidemic Activity of Pterospermum acerifolium (Sterculiaceae) In Vitro
Hemlata, Asija Rajesh, Singh Charanjeet, Kumawat Radhey Shyam
The objective of present research work was to determine the antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity in the leaves of Pterospermum acerifolium belonging to family Sterculiaceae. The phytochemical analysis of leaves of Pterospermum acerifolium showed the presence of anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and tannins etc. Oxidative compounds are responsible for prognosis of many diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, ischemic heart disease, Parkinson disease, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Antioxidants are the compounds responsible for curing such ailments that are formed by oxidative stress to the cells. Antioxidant activity of bark of Pterospermum acerifolium was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Ascorbic acid and finofibrate was used as standard drug and antihyperlipidemic activity was determine by computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography and determine the various types of lipoprotein like LDL, VLDL and HDL.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8115

3. A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Ricinus communis L. Plant
Manoj Kumar
The medicinal plants have a vital role to take care of the healthy human life. The large family Euphorbiaceae contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, Ricinus communis L. or castor bean plant has high traditional and medicinal values towards a disease free community. The castor bean plant is effective as antifertility activity, antiimplantation activity, antinociceptive activity, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, immunomodulatory activity, hepatoprotective activity, antidiabetic activity, antiulcer activity, antimicrobial activity, insecticidal activity, molluscicidal and larvicidal activity, bone regeneration activity, central analgesic activity, antihistaminic activity, antiasthmatic activity, cytotoxic activity, lipolytic activity, antiinflammatory activity, and wound healing activity. In addition, the constituents present in this plant are beneficial for the purpose of contraception, leaving no detrimental effects on the body. The objective of the present review focuses on the phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities and future perspectives of the R. communis L. plant.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8116

4. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanol Extract and Fractions from Alchemilla kiwuensis Engl. on LPS Activated Macrophages
Kamtchueng M O, Balyan R, Mouokeu R S, Tume C, Banerjee C, Singh Chawla A, Oumar M, Kuiate J R
Medicinal plants have been used to treat different diseases over the world and they constitute an inexhaustible source of bioactive metabolites. Alchemilla kiwuensis is a Cameroonian medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases. The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory properties of the methanol extract and fractions on LPS activated macrophages. The extract was prepared by maceration of dry whole plant powder in methanol, following by fractioning using hexane and ethyl acetate. The activity was evaluated on RAW 246.7 cell and bone marrow differentiated macrophages by measuring their effect on nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, cytokine production and cell surface markers. The crude extract and its fractions significantly (P<0.05) inhibited nitric oxide production by LPS activated macrophages. As shown by RT-PCR, iNOS enzyme was inhibited in the presence of extract and its fractions. They also significantly (P<0.05) inhibited phagocytosis of E. coli and production of TNF-α and IL-6 by LPS activated macrophages. The extracts reduced the expression of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD80. The findings indicate that Alchemilla kiwuensis has potent anti-inflammatory properties.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8117

5. Immunological and Molecular Study of Toxoplasma gondii in Al- Najaf Governorate – Iraq
Saleem Khteer Al-Hadraawy, Fedhil Abbas Hadi
The study was conducted on 350 aborted women and thirty healthy women, whom have visited Central public Health Laboratory in Al-Najaf Governorate during the period from November 2014 to May, 2015.  This study was designed to investigate of some tests which determine the infection with T.gondii in clinical suspected women in an- Najaf governorate by using two methods, detected specific IgG and IgM by VIDAS technique and PCR technique to indicate Toxoplasma gondii. Furthermore, it is designed to determine the effects of T.gondii infection on some parameters such as blood cells, cytokine and immunoglobulins besides, the results indicate that PCR were the best methods that can be used in diagnosis and to determine the prevalence of T.gondii. Yet the blood parameters gave a clear understanding to physicians to cure patients. Whereas the numbers, percentage, sensitivity and specificity of infected women vary with different tests were 67 (19.14%) (93.05) (98.31), while PCR gave the highest numbers, percentage, sensitivity and specificity were 71 (20.28%) (98.61) (99, 64) respectively for each test. DNA of T.gondii parasite was determined by PCR was using three specific primers (B1, 18S and P30) whereas the number, percentage and sensitivity of infected women of these primers were 71 (20.28%) (98, 61%), 66 (18.85%) (91.66%), and 62 (17.71%) (87.32%) respectively. By comparing these primers to evaluate the efficiency in diagnostic of T.gondii. The results indicated that B1, 18S are the highest primers and P30 is the lowest primers in diagnostic efficiency. The results showed a significant elevation (P<0.05) in serum concentration of pro inflammatory cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin -27 (IL-27) and immunoglobulin M, while no significant (P>0.05) in level of immunoglobulin G in T.gondii infection patients compared to control group.  However, the total Leukocyte count showed significant increase (P< 0.05) in infected women compared to the control group due to elevation percentage of neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocytes while the number of Basophil, remain normal. There were positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-27 (IL-27) and neutrophil, lymphocytes and IgM levels. The current study has also revealed positive correlation between lymphocytes and immunoglobulin M. The results have also exhibited a negative correlation between Il-5, IL-27 and IgG. Also, revealed a negative correlation between neutrophil, lymphocyte and IgG. The current study has concluded that the infection with T.gondii effect on blood cells, immunity of the body and the PCR test are the best methods and B1is the best primer used in the diagnosis of T.gondii parasite.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8118

6. Radical Scavenging Activity of Edible Fungal Sporocarp Extracts from the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
Ita B N, Eduok S I
The radical scavenging activity of acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts from Agaricus placomyces, Cantharellus cibarius and Pleurotus ostreatus from the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was determined with their metal chelating and reducing power. The extracts exhibited significant free radical scavenging activities in the DPPH assay (IC50 = 2.11 to 4.37 mg/mL) with the aqueous extract from P. ostreatus being the most potent. Also, the aqueous extracts exhibited better metal chelating abilities and reducing power than the ethanol and acetone extracts. In addition, higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids was found in the aqueous extract of A. placomyces (55.63mg GAE/g) and P. ostreatus (15.55 mgQE/g) respectively, whereas ascorbic acid ranged from 0.33 to 1.22 mgAAE/ in all the extracts. Overall, our results indicate that mushrooms particularly Agaricus placomyces, and Pleurotus ostreatus contain high amount of polyphenolic compounds with significant free radical scavenging abilities,  notable metal chelating activities and promising reducing power. These properties indicate that the mushrooms are functional foods with the potential to attenuate oxidative stress associated with free radical damage in biological systems.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8119

7. HPTLC: A Tool for Determination of Curcumin in Mammalian Samples
Jigni Mishra, Ankit Tripathi, Kshipra Misra, Sarada S K S
Curcumin, an important phytoconstituent obtained from Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) is used traditionally in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases like arthritis, stroke and bowel diseases, etc. Despite its many health benefits, instability of curcumin in plasma is a major issue. The retention of curcumin in plasma must be properly evaluated in order to establish its stability in biological systems. The current study presents an HPTLC method undertaken for detection of curcumin and determination of its stability in plasma and different tissues of rats. The plasma and tissue samples were appropriately processed to render them suitable for HPTLC analysis. The method employed HPTLC glass plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase. The mobile phase developed consisted of chloroform, methanol and glacial acetic acid which successfully gave distinct bands for curcumin with a Rf value of 0.95. This newly developed HPTLC method was found to be reproducible and accurate in quantifying curcumin in mammalian samples. This method was further utilized to efficiently estimate the time for which curcumin is retained in its native form in mammalian tissues and plasma alike.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8120

8. Cytoprotective Effects of Lepidium Sativum Seed Extract on Liver and Pancreas of HFD/STZ Induced Type 2 Diabetic Mice
Desai S S, Walvekar M V, Shaikh N H
Type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM) is the world’s largest endocrine disorder. Obesity is one of the leading causes for type II diabetes. In the present study antihyperglycemic and cytoprotective role of Lepidium sativum seed extract (LSE) for obesity associated diabetes in normal and high fat diet (HFD)-streptozotocin induced mice was investigated. Blood glucose, histology of liver and pancreas and body weight in obese diabetic mice was evaluated. Administration of LSE for 28 days significantly lowered blood glucose while increased body weight and recovered degenerative changes in liver and pancreas. These findings suggest that LSE possess antihyperglycemic and cytoprotective action and might be a good candidate for obesity associated diabetes.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8121

9. Detection of Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Crude Extracts of Tribulus terrestris Collected from Tribal Regions of Baglan (M.S.), India
Vasait Rajendrabhai D
Nature is rich source of medicinal plants and herbal remedies but due to inadequacy of information about their chemical and therapeutic properties some of these sources are still remained unrevealed. Herbal drugs are the potential source of therapeutic aid for the treatment and prevention of various infections and diseases. Naturally occurring shrub Tribulus terrestris was collected from tribal area of Baglan Region (Nashik District). The extracts of plant parts such as leaves and fruits were prepared in water, acetone and chloroform. The detection of important phytochemicals of plant Tribulus terrestris was attempted. Each crude extract of leaves and fruit of plant Tribulus terrestris was comparatively analyzed for presence of phytoconstituents. Phytochemical analysis of crude extracts of Tribulus terrestris showed presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, phenols, alkaloids and saponins.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8122

10. Standardization of Orthoshiphon Stamineus Raw Material and Extracts for Anti-Uterine Fibroid
Halim N H, Pauzi N, Hamil S H R, Shafaei A, Ismail Z, Mohd K S
This study aim to evaluate gravimetric parameters and physicochemical of raw materials of Orthosiphon stamineus in order to ascertain the quality of plant materials and achieved standardized material. Anti-uterine fibroid potential was investigated by cytotoxicity test on uterine leiomyosarcoma cell SK-UT-1. Gravimetric analysis showed that all parameters adhered to the standard according to Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Primary and secondary metabolites screening revealed that aqueous extract have highest total glycosaponins, total phenolics and total phospholipids with the amounts of 27.38%, 18.75% and 3.17%, respectively. Meanwhile, 50% ethanolic extract have highest total proteins, total polysaccharides and total flavonoid with amounts of 9.2%, 19.79%, 8.13%, respectively. Evaluation of cytotoxic potency showed that aqueous extract was more cytotoxic compared to 50% ethanolic extract with the IC50 18µg/mL and 34µg/mL, respectively.  Mode of cell death analysis by AO/PI double staining substantiated apoptosis induction by water extract. The results of this study can serve as reference data for standardization of O. stamineus extracts for development as anti-uterine fibroid.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8123

11. HPTLC Analysis and Standardization of Linum usitatissimum L
Manimaran S, Chandrasekar R, Sivagami B
The main objective of the study was to formulate the herbal tablets and standardizing the same for quality and purity of the formulation. In the present investigation flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L) extract was used for preparation of tablets. From the available literatures it’s evident that there is a need for development of proper medication and dosage form for the treatment of constipation. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, and WIN CATS-4 software were used. HPTLC finger printing of crude drug, extract and formulation of linseed seed was carried out with mobile phase, which showed different Rf values. HPTLC finger printing of crude drug, extract and formulation of linseed in the aqueous extract of L. usitatissimum showed 7 peaks by HPTLC analysis. The Rf values of standard arginine, glutamic acid and glycine were found to be 0.15, 0.62 and 0.73 respectively. The Rf values of arginine, glutamic acid and glycine of L. usitatissimum was, 0.15, 0.63 and 0.75 and mached with the standard peaks which confirmed the presence of arginine, glutamic acid and glycine in L. usitatissimum. The content of amino acid was estimated by comparing the peak area of standard and those present in the formulation. Each 10 ml of L. usitatissimum was found to contain 0.05 mg, 1.4 mg and 1.82 mg of arginine, glutamic acid and glycine respectively. Linum usitatissimum seed has a tremendous scope on further studies mainly in the area of Nutraceutical and dietary supplements.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8124

12. Phytochemical Screening and TLC profiling of various extracts of Reinwardtia indica
Mehta Sonam, Rana Pawan Singh, Saklani Pooja
Reinwardtia indica, belongs to family Linaceae known as yellow flax or pyoli commonly found in the Himalaya. The plant has varied ethno medicinal importance such as aerial parts are used to prevent bleeding of cuts and as mouthwash; leaves are used in the treatment of paralysis and as natural antibiotic. Qualitative phytochemical screening of chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts was performed to explore scientific basis of ethno medicinal potential. It confirmed the presence of many phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavanoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, phlobatanins etc. in various extracts. Most of the phytochemicals were found in methanol and ethanol extracts. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) of the acetone, methanol, chloroform and aqueous extract was performed for four important phytochemicals alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and phenol. Flavanoids showed their presence in all extracts with one spot in each (Rf 0.8 for acetone, 0.918 for methanol, 0.816 for chloroform and 0.737 for aqueous extract). Alkaloids and tannins were found in acetone and methanol extract while phenol was present only in methanol extract (Rf 0.8). These findings provided the evidence that Reinwardtia indica is a potent source for some medicinally important phytochemicals and it justifies its use as a medicinal plant. This can be further investigated for the isolation and identification of active biochemical compound of medicinal utilities.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8125

13. Acetylcholinesterase, Alpha-Glucosidase and Tyrosinase Inhibitors from Egyptian Propolis
Nesma M Salah, Ahmed M A Souleman, Kamel H Shaker, Seham El Hawary, Zeinab A El-Shahid, Faten K Abd El-Hady
Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of eight compounds from Egyptian Propolis. Hexacosanoic acid; 3,4-dimethoxy-cinnamic acid; 3-methyl-3-butenyl-trans-caffeate ester; together with four flavonoids (Chrysin; Pinostrobin; Tectochrysin and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy isoflavone). 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methyl-octanoic acid; was  isolated for the first time from Egyptian propolis. Their acetylcholinesterase (AChE), alpha-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibition potential were evaluated.  Pinostorbin showed the highest AChE inhibitory activity followed by 3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid; 3-methyl-3-butenyl-trans-caffeate ester. Tectochrysin is the only compound had alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity higher than that of the drug acarabose. Pinostrobin is the only compound had mild tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8126

14. Phytochemical Screening of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Malva sylvestris
Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye, Ashwak Falih Kaizal, Imad Hadi Hameed
The objectives of this study were analysis of the secondary metabolite products and evaluation antibacterial activity. Bioactives are chemical compounds often referred to as secondary metabolites. Thirty six bioactive compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Malva sylvestris. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight and molecular formula. GC-MS analysis of Malva sylvestris revealed the existence of the1-Propanamine , 2-methyl-N-(2-methylpropyldene)- , Pyrrolidine,1-(1-oxo-2,5-octadecadienyl)- , Dimethyl sulfoxide , Cyclohexylamine ,N-ethyl- , N-(2-Methylbutylidene)isobutylamine , 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolideethanol , 2-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperidine , 1-Butanamine , 2-methyl-N-(2-methylbutylidene)- ,  4-(Pyrrolidin-2-ylcarbonyl)morpholine , Dithiocarbamate , S-methyl-,N-(2-methyl-3-oxobutyl)- , l-Gala-l-ido-octonic lactone , 1-(5′-methylfurfuryl)pyrrolidine , 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol , Pyrrolizin-1,7-dione-6-carboxylic acid , methyl(ester) , 1-Naphthaienol , 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,5,8-trimethyl- , Pterin-6-carboxylic acid , N-(2-Acetamido)iminodiacetic acid ,  N-(1-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1-phenylperhydroquinolizin-3-yl)carbamic , Cyclopropanedodecanoic acid , 2-octyl-,methyl ester , Cholestan-3-ol,2-methylene-,(3β,5α)- , 3-(N,N-Dimethyllaurylammonio)propanesulfonate ,  Pyrazole[4,5-b]imidazole , 1-formyl-3-ethyl-6-β-d-ribofuranosyl- , Octahydrobenzo[b]pyran , 4a-acetoxy-5,5,8a-trimethyl- , Tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile , 4,6-Heptadien-3-one,1,7-diphenyl- , Pentanoic acid ,2,2,4-trimethyl-3-carboxyisopropyl , isobutyl ester , D-Fructose , diethyl mercaptal, pentaacetate , Phytol , Hexadecanamide , Tributyl acetylcitrate , Cholestan-3-one,cyclic 1,2-ethanediyl aetal , (5β)- , Dasycarpidan-1-methanol, acetate ( ester)- , 9-Desoxo-9-x-acetoxy-3,8,12-tri-O-acetylingol , (+)-y-Tocopherol, O-methyl- , Campesterol and Stigmasterol.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8127

15. Rotula Aquatica Lour Aqueous Extract as Anti-Urolithiatic Agent in Experimentally Induced Urolithiatic Rat Model
Bhavaniamma Vijayakumari, Venkatachalam Sasikala, Singanallur Ramu Radha, Hiranmai Yadav Rameshwar
Rotula aquatica Lour is traditionally used to regulate the kidney and bladder stones and root decoction is used for diuretic activity. The present study was carried out to assess the antiurolithiatic activity of the aqueous root extract of the plant in urolithiatic rats.The extract was administered to the calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiatic rats orally at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight along with ethylene glycol (EG) for 28 days. On 28 day, 24 h urine was collected from individual rats and urine was analysed for protein, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, uric acid, oxalate and creatinine. On same day the serum protein, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, uric acid, oxalate, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were also estimated in each animal. The kidney homogenate was used for the estimation of calcium, oxalate and phosphate. The paraffin kidney sections were prepared to observe the CaOx deposits. The paraffin kidney sections showed significant histopathological changes. The treatment with aqueous root extract of Rotula aquatica at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight  doses significantly decreased the urine protein, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, creatinine and oxalate, serum protein, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and oxalate and renal tissues calcium, phosphate and oxalate, in EG induced urolithiasis after 28 days.The present study indicated aqueous root extract of Rotula aquatica at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight as more effective in decreasing the urolithiasis and regeneration of renal tissues in male rats. The extract has a potential to cure the urolithiasis.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8128

16. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of a Polar Extract from Pituranthos battandieri Maire
Esseid Chahrazed, Hamadou Meriem Hadjer, Ameddah Souad, Ahmed Menad, León Francisco, Brouard Ignacio, Marchioni Eric, Benayache Samir, Benayache Fadila
Phytochemical investigation of the n-butanol soluble part of the aqueous-MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Pituranthos battandieri Maire collected from the region of Bechar in the south-west of Algeria, led to the isolation and structural elucidation of mannitol 1, xanthotoxol 2, 8-(6’,7’-dihydroxygeranyloxy)-psoralen 3 and isorhamnetin 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (cacticin) 4. The structures were established by spectral analyses, mainly ESI-HRMS, UV and NMR experiments (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with literature data.  All these compounds were described for the first time from this endemic species. The free radical scavenging activity of this extract was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity models. Antihemolytic property was performed using H2O2 induced red blood cell hemolysis model. Antiperoxidative effect was evaluated using lipid peroxidation-ammonium thiocyanate model. Both DPPH and H2O2 assays indicated antioxidant ability of n-BuOH extract of P. battandieri (BEPB), that were reflected by IC50 values 876.16±7.96 µg/mL and 603.8±71.06 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the results of the present study clearly indicated that BEPB inhibited rat erythrocytes hemolysis induced by H2O2 in a dose dependent way with IC50 value 782.38±89.97 μg/mL. The inhibition of lipid peroxides generated from linoleic acid was recorded at IC50: 496.04±117.06 µg/mL. The antiperoxidative and the antihemolytic activities of P. battandieri appear as a consequence of synergistic interactions between active constituents among them mannitol 1, the furanocoumarins 2 and 3, and the flavonoid 4.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8129

17. Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Toxicity of Fruit Methanolic Extract from Citrullus colocynthis in male Albino rats
S Soufane, A. Bouzidi, N Mahdeb, S Krache
In this study, we investigated the effects of acute and subacute administration of the methanolic fruit extract of  Citrullus colocynthis (CCT) in male Albino Wistar rats. The acute toxicity study was undertaken firstly to determine the acute median lethal dose (LD50) of the fruit extract. Then, the second step aimed to evaluate its toxic effects when administered at single daily oral dose 440mg/kg (1/3 of the LD50) after one, three, five, seven, ten and fourteen days on liver function indices (AST, ALT, ALP, total proteins), kidney function parameters (uric acid, urea and creatinine), haematological parameters and electrolyte concentrations (Na+, K+, P, Ca+2) using standard methods. The sub-chronic toxicity was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effects of the same extract and the target organs after its oral administration for six weeks (265 mg/kg) to male rats. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was found to be 1311.45 mg/kg. After acute oral administration of the methanolic extract a dose of 440mg/kg (1/3 of the LD50), there were remarked a loss in body weight and a significant reduction in the relative weights of liver, kidney, lungs, spleen and testis of treated rats. The RBC, WBC count, HCT and HGB concentration were also significantly lower in treated groups than control one. The liver enzymes ALT and AST activities were higher for the main treated groups and significantly elevated in the group sacrificed after three days of the treatment. The ALP has enregistered a significant elevation for the majority of the tested groups. The analysis of kidney function parameters revealed a significantly high creatinine levels for all treatment group (exceptely for the group sacrificed after 14 days), a significant increase in urea level for the group sacrificed after three days of treatment with no remarkable changes in uric acid concentrations. Electrolyte concentrations (Na+, K+, Ca+2) were not significantly affected by CCT alcoholic extract, but the levels of PO4 have shown a significant reduction for the main treatment groups. Histo-pathological examination revealed a discreetly congestion in hepatic and renal parenchyma in groups sacrificed after one and five days of treatment. The present study showed that the intake of extract of ripe Citrullus colocynthis fruit induced a characteristic signs of poisoning: diarrhea, ruffled hair, loss in organ weight and feed intake. The effects on the functions of the liver, kidney and bone marrow in rats resulted in alterations in serum AST, ALT and ALP activities, in the levels of total proteins, urea, uric acid, creatinine and electrolytes as well as in organ lesions.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8130

18. Antifungal Activity of Geraniol on Candida albicans Isolates of Pediatric Clinical Importance
Lima A L A, Pérez A L A L, Sousa J P, Pinheiro L S, Oliveira-Filho A A, Siqueira-Júnir J P, Lima E O
Geraniol is a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol that has antifungal effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the geraniol for antifungal activity against Candida albicans isolates of pediatric clinical importance. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined by the broth microdilution techniques. We also investigated possible geraniol action on cell walls (0.8M sorbitol) and cell membranes (Geraniol to ergosterol binding). For 90% of isolates, the MIC and MFC of the phytochemical was 64 𝜇g/ml. Involvement with the cell wall and ergosterol binding were excluded as possible mechanisms of action. Thus, geraniol showed in vitro antifungal potential against strains of C. albicans, but did not involve action on the cell wall or ergosterol and further study is needed to completely describe its mechanism of action.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8131

19. Evaluation of Phytochemicals of Cassia tora Linn. and it’s Cytotoxicity Assay using Brine Shrimp
Ansari Asba, Bhot Meeta
Cassia tora Linn. is a well known medicinal herb found as a rainy season weed throughout India. Various studies have been conducted in order to find out the applications of Cassia tora since many years and found various phytochemical present in the plant, contribute to the use of traditional medicine. Cytotoxicity of the plant is found due to some phytochemical present in the plant and thus this plant has found numerous applications in the medical field. Research Objective: The main aim of the research was to assess the effect of cytotoxicity of the plant extracts against Artemia salina. Brine shrimp lethality assay was used in this study to carry out the cytotoxicity assay. Thus, this research paper emphasizes on the screening of phytochemicals present in the various parts of the plant along with the cytotoxicity assay against Artemia salina. Results and Conclusion: The present study showed that the presence of phytochemicals vary with the plant parts and the effect of cytotoxicity on Brine shrimp was also observed with the LD50 value less than 100 µg/ mL which can be beneficial in the treatment of various cancers and tumors.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8132

20. Eugenol and Isoeugenol In Association with Antifungal Against Cryptococcus Neoformans
Pinheiro L S, Sousa J P, Barreto N A, Dantas T B, Menezes C P, Lima A L A, Silva A C L, Santos J M C G, Oliveira-Filho A A, Lima E O
The antifungal therapy combined is used in clinical practice of several mycoses as it may increase the efficacy of the treatment. The use of natural products (phytochemicals) in combination with conventional antifungal drugs has been related to beneficial effects, mainly synergistic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined use of eugenol / isoeugenol, compounds with recognized antimicrobial activity, in association with antifungal amphotericin B against strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. The combined antifungal effect were be determined from the Fraction Inhibitory Concentration index – checkerboard technique. The results obtained in this study showed that eugenol in combination with amphotericin B had antagonistic effect against the strains of C. neoformans, LM 615 and INCQS 40221 (FIC index 6.0 and 4.0), respectively. The combination of the isoeugenol and amphotericin B also showed antagonistic effects for both the LM 615 strain and INCQS 40221 (FIC index 6.0 and 5.0), respectively. This study contributed to the understanding of the antifungal effects of the association of phenylpropanoids (eugenol / isoeugenol) with amphotericin B. Further studies are needed to evaluate and compare the effects of the association of these phytochemicals with other conventional antifungal drugs used against C. neoformans.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8133

21. Characterization and Comparison of Three Species of the Genus Salacia
Harinarayanan M K, Jayanthy A, Lubna S, Deepak M
Some of the plant species of the genus Salacia are considered as an important anti-diabetic drug in ayurveda. Among them S. chinensis, S. fruticosa and S. oblonga possess great medicinal importance, mostly because of its promising anti-diabetic activity. The increasing demand of this drug, resulted in a huge decline in its availability and it is replaced by spurious ones mainly because of lack of adequate quality standards. There is now a felt need to develop a systematic approach for the authentication of these plants and to develop well-designed methodologies for its standardization. The present study focused on the Pharmacopoeial parameters like pharmacognostical characterization and preliminary phytochemical screening of these three species. which were found to be sufficient to evaluate the raw material and can also be used as reference standards for the quality control/quality assurance purposes. The pharmacognostic study revealed that there are specific diagnostic features for distinguishing these three species among themselves and also from other related species. The external morphology of these three species are also shows variation in their colour, odour and taste. Both the species of Salacia ie, S. chinensis is having bitter taste and S. fruticose is with astringent taste whereas S. oblonga has no characteristic taste of its own. The TLC profile showed similar pattern in S. chinensis and S. fruiticosa  where as S. oblonga showed more band in the profile than that of the other two. This reveals that the S. chinensis and S. fruiticosa having similar compounds responsible for therapeutic efficacy, whereas S. oblonga has more chemical constituents.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i4.8134


International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research