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1. Physicochemical Stability Studies of Tablet Containing A Mixture of Sonchus Arvensis L Leaves Extract and Lumbricus rubellus Powder
Syukri Y, Anshory H, Romadhonsyah F
The aim of this study was to determine the physical and chemical stabilities of tablets containing Sonchus arvensis L leaves extract and Lumbricus rubellus. The tablets were produced by wet granulation process. The stability test was observed during a 3-month accelerated stability under 40 ± 2ºC and 75 ± 5% RH storage conditions. The tablets were evaluated every month for the physical properties include organoleptic, weight variation, friability, hardness, and disintegration time, while the chemical properties of the tablets include Rf value, and spotting profile was examined using TLC-Densitometry. The result of the physical stability test up to the third month showed that the tablets of Sonchus arvensis leaves extract and Lumbricus rubellus met the requirements of Indonesian Pharmacopeia 5th and United State Pharmacopeia 32. The qualitative chemical property stability test on the tablets also demonstrated that luteolin as a marker compound remained stable in the tablets after three months of storage in an accelerated condition. Conclusion, the formulation of a tablet containing Sonchus arvensis leaves extract and Lumbricus rubellus stable after this stability studies.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8135

2. Spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. Spelta)– from Field to Cosmetics
Georgieva-Krasteva L, Hristova I, Mihaylova D, Dobreva K
Plants have been intensively used as sources of biologically active compounds. Recently, the attention was directed to spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) as a promising source of antioxidant compounds. In the present study, the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Triticum spelta glycerin extracts were determined. Three different extraction techniques were performed – conventional, microwave- and ultrasound- assisted extractions. Best polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were resulted when heat reflux extraction was applied. Moreover, nourishing and regenerating cream (NRC) formulation was prepared by incorporating 1 % glycerin spelt extract. The physicochemical stability of this formulation was assessed as well as sensory and skin penetration caracteristics.The cosmetic preparation exhibited good emulsion and colour stability at all temperature tested (-10 °C; 25 °C and 40 °C) during 90 days. 85 % of volunteers assessed the skin penetration of NRC as good. The same percentage claimed pleasant odor caracteristic after application on skin. Based on these results it can be concluded that spelt is a promissing source of biologically active substances with various applications.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8136

3. The Standardization of Aronia melanocarpa Fruits Growing on the Territory of Orenburg Region
Shmygareva A A, Sankov A N, Dudarenkova M R, Kochukova A A, Dorokhina O A, Nigmatulina Yu U, Gorbunova E S
For standardization of Aronia melanocarpa fruits the method of direct spectrophotometry at analytical wavelength 534 nm was used1. The optimal extraction conditions of flavonoids from fruits of Aronia melanocarpa Elliot. – extractant is 96% ethyl alcohol; the ratio of “raw-extractant” – 1:30; extraction time -30 min1. The relative degree of the determination of the  total flavonoids in fruits of Aronia melanocarpa Elliot. in used method  with confidence probability 0,95  is no more than ±3,64%. The content of total flavonoids in fruits of Aronia melanocarpa Elliot. varied from 1,6% to 7,5% (calculated on cyanidin-3-O-glikozid).

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8137

4. The Effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet on Cancer Cell Prolifertion and Cytokine Production
Twilley D, Kishore N, Meyer D, Moodley I, Kumar V, Lall N
The cytotoxicity of Helichrysum odoratissimum against human epidermoid carcinoma (A431), malignant melanoma (A375), cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa) and human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells was investigated. The cytokine production and antioxidant activity was also determined. H odoratissimum was selected based on its traditional usage as a dressing for wounds. In this study the cytotoxicity was performed on skin and cervical cancer which are associated with the presence of wounds. H. odoratissimum showed inhibitory activity against A431 cells, with a fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 15.5±0.2 µg/ml, and a high DPPH inhibition with an IC50 of 5.13±0.07 µg/ml. A431 cells treated with the extract showed an increase in morphological characteristics associated with apoptosis. The extract induced IL-12 in U937 cells and inhibited IL-8 at the tested concentrations, with the highest levels being 12.4±7 pg/ml and 103±6.1 pg/ml respectively. IL-2 was inhibited by 56 % and 52 % in naive and PHA induced murine splenocytes respectively. Furthermore, 2 lipophilic fractions and 3 compounds were isolated from the extract. The lipophilic fractions showed relative cytotoxicity on A431 cells with IC50 values of 175±13.5 µg/ml and 61.3±0.16 µg/ml. The extract showed significant hepatoprotection at 25 µg/ml on HepG2 cells exposed to D-Galactosamine. This is the first report of the activity of H. odoratissimum ethanolic leaf stem extract on A431, A375, HeLa and HEK-293 cell lines as well as the isolation of two promising lipophilic fractions.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8138

5. Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Methonolic Extract of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and Pistia stratiotes L.
Tyagi Tulika, Parashar Puneet, Agarwal Mala
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) solms and Pistia stratiotes (L.) are two invasive weed aquatic plants that have been traditionally known as “water hyacinth” and “Jalkumbhi” respectively. They are commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine which possesses diuretic, antidiabetic, antidermatophytic, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties. The present study was carried out to estimate the total phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acids and antioxidant activity. The presence of various phytochemicals in the plants reveals that these plants may be good source for the production of new drugs for various ailments.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8139

6. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil from the Seeds of Plectranthus hadiensis
Raju Sripathi, Subban Ravi
Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus of Lamiaceae family with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine, the juice of stem and leaves of Plectranthus hadiensis which is mixed with honey is taken as a remedy for diarrhea. The aim of the present study is to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil from the seed of P. hadiensis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the seeds from P. hadiensis is  obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). It results in the identification of 25 compounds representing 99.3%,  of the total oil.  The main compound is Piperitone oxide (33.33%).  Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of P. hadiensis  is tested against two Gram-positive  and two Gram-negative bacteria, using zone of inhibition method. The essential oils inhibit the organisms and shows the zone of inhibition in the range of 20-35mm. The essential oil can serve as an antibacterial agent.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8140

7. The Actual Aspects of Analysis of Medicinal Plants, Growing on the Territory of Orenburg Region
Shmygareva A A, Kurkin V A, Sankov A N, Nikandrova M A
The favorable climatic and geographic conditions for vegetation of medicinal plants of Orenburg region were described. Present information was confirmed by the results of qualitative and quantitative analysis of biologically active substances in different raw material, which grows on the territory of Orenburg region. The research’s results allow saying that the content of biologically active substances in raw material of studied plants corresponds to normative parameters, and in some cases exceeds them. The optimal extraction conditions for medical raw material were developed. Non-officinal plant was compared with officinal medical raw material and showed impressive results. The domestic raw material was compared with similar import one and proved its effectiveness in preclinical results. New medicinal drugs were developed on the bare of current results.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8141

8. Comparative Study of Three Varieties of Cannabis sativa L. Cultivate in Different Region of Morocco
Bouayoun Taoufik, Stambouli Hamid, El Bouri Aziz, Farah Abdellah, Saidi Seddik, Ez zoubi Yassine, Fadil Mouhcine, Charrouf Zoubida, Tabyaoui Mohamed
In this study, an experiment of hemp crops was conducted between in four different regions of the country, and concerned three varieties Santhica 27, Epsilon 68 and Futura 75. The tests were conducted in areas with geographical, climatic and soil characteristics different than European cultures, that’s why it was necessary to verify the behavior of these plants by controlling their Δ-9-THC content. Sampling, drying and Δ-9-THC evaluation in these crops were performed according to procedure B of European Regulation, and using a simplified method based on the determination of the ratio α = Δ-9-THC/CBD. The best dry matter yields, plant height and density are obtained with the variety Futura 75 in the four sites, followed by Epsilon 68 and Santhica 27. The average contents of these crops in Δ-9-THC were ranged from 0.013% to 0.027% for the variety Epsilon 68, between 0.023% and 0.035% for the variety Futura 75. Analysis of this latter variety by GC / MS SIM mode and LC/MS/MS allowed the identification of traces of Δ-9-THC. In the other hand, the ratio α has been evaluated to 0.042 and 0.047 respectively for Epsilon 68 and Futura 75 varieties which is similar to those usually obtained for hemp fiber crops and stays much lower than 0.2. The Principal Component Analysis confirms the existence of possible correlations for each variety separately. Overall, the results reveal the existence of correlations between different parameters including the one between the dry matter yield, plant height and density.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8142

9. Evaluation of Anti-Acne and Anti-Dandruff Activity of Seed Protein Extracts
Seema J Patel, Komal B Harihar, Sagar Hugar, Vanditha M G
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne and Malassezia spp, are the causative agent of dandruff in people who have over active sebaceous glands. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of seed protein extracts from the seeds like flax seeds, soap nuts and pierre against the acne and dandruff causing organisms. The seed proteins were extracted by homogenizing the seeds powder with phosphate buffer followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis for purification of protein. These proteins are used to assess the anti-acne and anti-dandruff activity using well diffusion method. MIC of the effective protein extract is determined.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8143

10. Pharmacognostical Studies on Sarcostemma brevistigma, Wight. & Arn. – An Ethnomedicinal Plant
S M Dhivya, K.Kalaichelvi, S Sharmila
The genus Sarcostemma finds a prominent place in different Indian systems of medicine. The different ethnic communities in India have used different species of Sarcostemma in the treatment of various human ailments. The plant Sarcostemma brevistigma is a perennial leafless, twining trailing shrub, with green cylindrical, fleshy, glabrous, green pendulous stems, exhibiting longitudinal ridges and nodes and exuding milky white latex. Plant shows circular vascular bundles in stem, absence of pith in root and anomocytic type of stomata on stem bark. The powder is fibrous, light greenish brown in colour and bitter in taste. It shows the presence of rosettes of calcium oxalate crystals, fragments of pitted, spiral vessels and laticifers. Laticiferous canals are wide, thick walled and non septate. The macroscopic, microscopic, histological identification and microscopic constants of Sarcostemma brevistigma can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and botanical identification technique which would be of immense value in standardization and authentication of this plant.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8144

11. Study on Plant Extract Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Combination of Cardiospermum Halicacabum and Butea Monosperma & Screening of Its Antibacterial Activity
Abirami M, Sudharameshwari K
Objective: To synthesis silver nanoparticles from aqueous leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Butea monosperma and analyze the phytochemical constituent and evaluate the antibacterial activity using this silver nanoparticle. Materials and methods: For the synthesis of silver nanoparticle, 1mM silver nitrate is used. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of silver nanoparticle was analyzed using standard procedures. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using agar diffusion method. Results: The phytochemical analysis of the silver nanoparticle exhibited the presence of alkaloids, Tannin, phenol, carbohydrate, terpenoid. The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle against Pseudomonas, Bacillus cereus, citrobacter and E.coli,  The whole plant of Cardiosperm halicacabum and Butea monsperma leaf parts have prominent antimicrobial properties. Conclusion: The silver nanoparticle of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Butea monosperma were found to be a powerful antimicrobial agent and this study can be continued for their structural elucidation and pharmacological activity.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8145

12. Methanolic Extract of Mucuna pruriens Seed Acts for Neuroprotection and Antioxidant Defense in A Fish Model
Mukherjee Debosree, Ghosal Indranath, Moniruzzaman Mahammed, Chakraborty Suman Bhusan
The anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects of Mucuna pruriens seeds and L-Dopa were evaluated in Nile tilapia. Fish were divided into five groups (n=30, 2 replicates). One group was fed control diet, one with diet containing methanolic M. pruriens seed extract (0.2 g/kg feed) and one with diet containing L-Dopa (0.034gm/kg) for 30 days. The 4th and 5th group of fish were fed control diet but injected with Mucuna extract (0.015gm/mL) and L-Dopa (0.0008gm/mL), respectively, once daily for three days from 27th to 30th day of the feeding period. After 30 days, levels of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase (MAO), nitric oxide (NO), H2O2 protection, hydroxyl radical scavenging, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were measured in brain tissue and serum. There was significant (P<0.05) increase in AChE, H2O2 protection, MAO, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione and glutathione reductase activities in all four treatment groups compared to those in control fish. Glutathione peroxidase, ALP and GPT levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all treatment groups than those in control.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8146

13. Potentiating Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole or Nystatin with Methanol Bark Extract of Harungana madagascariensis Stem Bark
Ebelle R E, Mouokeu R S, Assam J PA, Hopogap M L, Masoohe A M, Hiol M C, Tientcheu R, Ngono N R A, Etoa F X
The therapeutic failures and the increasingly high costs of treating resistant bacterial infections calls for alternative means of care. The present study was initiated to evaluate the antifungal properties of the Harungana madagascariensis methanol barks extract and potent interactions with some usual drugs. The extract was prepared by maceration of the dry stem bark powder in methanol. Phytochemical analysis was carried out by colorimetric assays. Antifungal activity as well as interactions between extract, Nystatin or Fluconazole was evaluated by broth microdilution method. The therapeutic efficacies of H. madagascariensis extract and Fluconazole – extract mixture as compared to Fluconazole extract was studied in experimental models of oral and vulvovaginal candidiasis in rats by oral route. Results showed that methanol extract of H. madagascariensis stem barks had antifungal activity ranging from 128 to 1024 µg/ml. This extract also had a fungicidal activity on all of the tested yeasts. Moreover, the extract presented in vitro synergetic and additive interactions with Nystatin and Fluconazole. In both oral and vaginal infection model, all the treatment significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the number of colony formant unit (UFC) of C. albicans compared with untreated control. Moreover, significant decrease in the percentage of animals showing positive cultures was observed in rats treated with Fluconazole-extract mixture. In both therapeutic efficacy studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The results of this study constitute a base for the usage of H. madagascariensis stem barks in association with Fluconazole to overcome yeast infection.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8147

14. Thin Layer Chromatographic Characterization of Carotenoid Isolates in Sugar Date Palm (Phoenix sylvestris) Fruit Epicarp and Inflorescence Axis
Susmita Das, Poulami Gupta, Bratati De
Plant carotenoids are one of the most important classes of plant pigments and play a crucial role in defining the quality parameter of fruits and vegetables. They possess a large numbers of important biological activities such as antioxidant properties, anti – carcinogenic, precursor of vitamin A and preventive in a large number of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to characterize the carotenoids present in Phoenix sylvestris fruits and their inflorescence axis which are orange red in colour. So, in this study we isolated carotenoids from both the epicarp and the extensively large inflorescence axis by preparative TLC and also characterized some of the major components like β-carotene and lutein using HPTLC analytical techniques. The present findings suggest that the consumption of β-carotene and lutein from this fruit crop can be helpful in providing potential targets for combating vitamin A deficiency in countries where vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8148

15. GC-MS Analysis of the Ethanolic Extract of the whole Plant Drosera indica L.
K R Asha, S Priyanga, S Hemmalakshmi, K Devaki
Aim: The present study is carried out to explore the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic extract of the whole plant Drosera indica L. by GC-MS analysis. Methods: The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Drosera indica  L. is used for  the GC-MS analysis. JEOL GCMATE II GC-MS (Agilent Technologies 6890 N Network GC system for gas chromatography) is used for the analysis. The compounds are identified by the gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometry. The molecular weight and structure of the compounds of test materials are ascertained by interpretation of the mass spectrum of GC-MS using the database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST). Results: GC-MS analysis of Drosera indica L. reveal the presence of the nine biological active compounds which include phytol, 4 methyl-4-nonadecene, 4,5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone,1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, bis [2-methyl propyl] ester, Tetra decanoic acid, Eicosane, 2,6,10,14,18–pentamethyl, Tetracosane, Lochnerine and methyl–n-hexadecylketone. Conclusion: The results specify that the ethanolic extract of the whole plant, Drosera indica contains various bioactive compounds and therefore has various medicinal properties which can be used for the treatment of various diseases.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8149

16. Anti-Hyperglycemic and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Potential of the Leaves of Maesobotrya dusenii Hutchinson
Suleiman Mikailu, Kio Anthony Abo
Objective: To investigate the ethnomedicinal use of the leaves of Maesobotrya dusenii Hutchinson (Euphorbiaceae) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Methods: Powdered leaves were successively extracted with n-hexane, chloroform and 70% ethanol for three consecutive days respectively and the obtained extracts were assessed for phytochemicals, acute toxicity, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity on albino rats. The acute toxicity was assessed by Lorke’s method. Hyperglycemia was achieved by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg). Blood glucose was determined daily for seven days using a glucometer. On the seventh day of   treatment, blood samples were obtained and the serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glycosylated heamoglobin (GH), urea and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were determined. The active hexane fraction was further fractionated by column chromatography. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. Death was not recorded at 5000mg/kg in the toxicity study. The n-hexane extract showed the highest significant (p<0.05) reduction of 74.1% in blood glucose which was comparable to Glibenclamide (79.7%). Further fractionation yielded six fractions (F1-F6) in which fraction F4, F5 and F6 were the most active with 83, 80 and 79% reduction of blood glucose. The lipid profile of the active fractions also exhibited decrease in TG, TC, GH, Urea and increase in HDL. Conclusion: This study reports for the first time, the acute toxicity, anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of leaves of Maesobotrya dusenii. This study also justifies its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Rivers State, Nigeria.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8150

17. Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate Mediated Synthesis of Curcumin Loaded Chitosan-Carboxymethyl Cellulose Microparticles for Drug Delivery
Antony V Samrot, SenthilKumar P, Shashi Bhushan, Rishi Kurup, Ujjala Burman, Sheryl Ann Philip, Padmanaban S
In this study, curcumin (CUR) was encapsulated into chitosan (CS) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) microparticles using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as chelator. Here, different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%) of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were utilised to synthesise microparticles. Microparticles were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Microscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). All the CUR encapsulated microparticles were analysed for their drug encapsulation efficiency and the drug release kinetics. Microparticles were studied for the invitro controlled drug release against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8151

18. Neuroprotective Effect of Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Convolvulus Pluricaulis Plant in The Management of Alzheimer’s Disease
Lakshmi Pravallika Poka, Krishna Mohan G, Venkateswara Rao K, Shanker K
To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of green synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles using aqueous extract of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis (CPIO) in scopolamine induced amnesia model. CPIO were orally tested at the dose of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for neuroprotective effect in scopolamine induced amnesia mice. In addition, neurobehavioral studies were carried out using elevated plus maze, Morris water maze to evaluate learning and memory in mice in normal and scopolamine induced amnesia mice. CPIO 400 mg/kg showed a significant improvement in learning and memory in the normal and scopolamine induced amnesia mice in exteroceptive models. Significant differences were observed in lipid peroxidation, catalase and acetylcholinesterase by 400 mg/kg of CPIO treated amnesic animals, when compared with untreated and scopolamine group animals. The highest dose of CPIO exhibited significant neuroprotective effect in normal and scopolamine induced amnesia mice. They also showed significant improvement in learning and memory in exteroceptive and interoceptive models and so might be of value in Alzheimer’s treatment.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8152

19. Antioxidant and Anti-Glycation Activity of Ethanol Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Leaves Extract
Dian Mutia Sari, Trilianty Lestarisa, Fransisca Diana Alexandra, Helena Jelita, Iskandar Thalib
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant and anti-glycation activity of lemongrass (C. Citratus) leaves extract. The antioxidant activity was measured by hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and chelating effect of ferrous iron. The anti-glycation activity was determined by inhibition of hemoglobin glycation method. The results of this present studies showed that the C. Citratus leaves extract to have hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and chelating effect of ferrous iron activity. The results also showed that the C. Citratus leaves extract to have anti-glycation activity. The result showed that C. Citratus leaves extract more effective in all activity, except for hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. The present study indicated that C. Citratus leaves extract showed a potential antioxidant and anti-glycation activity.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8153

20. Study of Polyphenol Content and Anti- Oxidative Potential of Tribulus terrestris Dry Fruit Extract
Durgawale P P, Datkhile K D
The dry fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris has been used in traditional medicine for various therapeutic applications. This study was intended to investigate its anti- oxidant potential using in-vitro assays. Initially, the total polyphenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content of the ethanolic extract of its dry fruit were tested since these compounds confer majority of the reducing power to plant extracts. The anti- oxidant potential of the extract was investigated using radical scavenging assays such as DPPH and ABTS, superoxide radical scavenging assay, and ferric reducing anti-oxidant power assay. The polyphenol content was found to be 6.65 + 0.64 (Mean + S.E.M.; n = 3) mg GAE/ g of extract, flavonoid content was 0.40 + 0.02 (Mean + S.E.M.; n = 3) mg RE/ g of extract, and tannin content was 4.09 + 0.67 (Mean + S.E.M.; n = 3) mg TAE/ g of extract. The results for anti- oxidant assay obtained were found to be comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene standards. The results indicate presence of polyphenol compounds which confer majority of anti- oxidant properties to plant extracts. Further in-vitro and in-vivo investigations would reveal the efficacy of the extract as a dietary source of anti- oxidants.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8154

21. Protective Activity of Esculetin Against 3-Nitropropionic Acid Induced Neurotoxicity Via Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species in Male Wistar Rats
Arpita Karandikar, Sumathi Thangarajan
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with no cure till date. Many genetic or chemically induced models have been developed in rodents to study the disease. 3-Nitropropionic (3-NP) acid is a well-known neurotoxin to induce Huntington’s disease (HD) in rodents. It replicates the pathology of HD by causing oxidative stress. Esculetin is a natural compound, a coumarin, known to have neuroprotective effect in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease.  In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of esculetin on 3-NP induced oxidative stress in rat striatum was determined by behavioral and biochemical parameters. Rats were induced with 3-NP (10mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 14 days and rats induced with 3-NP were treated with esculetin (25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) for 14 days. Esculetin attenuated the behaviour of rats in morris water maze, open field, forced swim, narrow beam walk and grip strength test. Biochemical effect of esculetin was also studied on oxidative stress markers, SDH and acetylcholinesterase. Esculetin treatment alleviated the increased values of acetylcholinesterase, protein carbonyls and lipid peroxidation. On treatment with esculetin, we observed that the levels of SOD, GSH, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, SDH were increased.  The present study shows that the antioxidant activity of esculetin may be responsible for its neuroprotective activity against 3-nitropropionic acid induced neurotoxicity in rats.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8155

22. Pharmacognostic Evaluation, Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Stem Bark of Ficus Krishnae
Amarvani P Kanjikar, Ramesh L Londonkar
Ficus krishnae is a perennial plant, used in number of folklore medicine, to treat ulcer, vomiting, fever, inflammation, diabetes, dysentery, leprosy and cancer etc. The present research deals with the study of pharmacognostic, phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of stem bark of Ficus krishnae. The pharmacognostic parameters for the study were physicochemical, fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical screening along with mineral analysis. In physicochemical evaluation the ash value and extract value were studied. The antimicrobial activity of the stem bark extract against pathogenic strains was evaluated based on the inhibition zone using well diffusion assay; minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) is studied using micro dilution method.  The powder of Ficus krishnae was successively extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous by hot soxhlet extraction. The preliminary screening was carried out for different extract. Fluorescence analysis has showed the normal ranges of fluorescence colour for the crude powder. The preliminary phytochemical screening resat also indicated the presence of principle active compounds of Ficus krishnae which include phenols, flavonoids, saponin, alkaloids, glycosides, oils, fats, steroids, proteins and carbohydrates. The inorganic element analysis study indicated the presence of calcium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, vanadium, titanium and cadmium. In the present study we have tested antimicrobial activity of Petroleum ether, chloroform,  methanol and Aqueous  extractions of stem bark of  Ficus krishnae plant against six bacteria (E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, ENT, Enterococcus fecalis, salmonella typhi,) and one fungi (Aspergillus niger). These studies gives information of physicochemical character and preliminary property of stem bark of Ficus krisnae for the identification of crude drug and it promote the search for isolation of medicinally valuable active compounds.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8156

23. Comparative HPTLC Analysis of Leaves of Allium cepa L., Ficus carica L. and Ziziphus mauritiana L. with Standard Quercetin
Une H D, Khan D, Mohammed M
Flavonols aglycones are well established in plant extracts with omnipresence of common flavonols like kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin. Quercetin has been reported for various pharmacological activities with major ones in the field of inflammation, cancer, arthritis, diabetes and its complications. Leaves of plants selected for this study viz. Allium cepa L., Ficus carica L. and Ziziphus mauritiana L. reported to have antioxidant, anticancer, hypoglycemic activities. It is hypothetised thisactivities are due to flavonoids present in these plants. Hence the ethylacetate fraction of methanolic extract of these leaves was obtained as it provides flavanoid rich fraction and the samples were prepared and HPTLC analysis was performed against standard quercetin and their quantitative analysis was performed, the solvent system toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (9: 1: 0.5) was selected. It was observed that these plants shows presence of quercetin where A. cepa has highest concentration with F. carica and Z. mauritiana having quercetin in declining order. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1 to 0.7 μg for quercetin. Further a correlation coefficient of 0.999 indicates good linearity between concentration and area. Thus, it was proved that the plants used in the study has presence of quercetin which is possibly the reason having the pharmacological uses.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8157

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research