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Volume9,Issue6

1. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Opuntia ficus Indica L. Cladodes Related to Extraction Method
Kechebar M S A, Karoune S, Laroussi K, Djellouli A
Abstract
We studied the richness of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activities of Opuntia ficus indica L. cladodes by comparing two types of extraction, maceration and soxhlet made with methanol / water (8 : 2, v/v). The results showed that the extraction by maceration is better than that by soxhlet with a total polyphenol concentration of 36.7 mg GAE/ g DW, a total antioxidant activity of 18.5 mg GAE/ g DW and an IC50 of 77.5 μg/ml against DPPH radical scavenging. These results are very vaforable for a sustainable valorisation of the prickly pear cladodes for medicinal, pharmacological and alimentary fields.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8171

2. Antioxidant and Anticancer Potential of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Moringa concanensis Nimmo Against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7
S Vijayakumar, V Bhuvaneshwari, A Sumathi
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the major health problems among women in both developed and developing countries.  The objective of the present investigation is focused on the DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity and anticancer effect of the methanolic extract of Moringa concanensis Nimmo leaves against Breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. The study was facilitated by collecting the plant sample and subjected to crude extraction. The anticancer activity of the crude methanolic leaf extract of M. concanensis against MCF- 7 cell line was examined by MTT assay. The present study confirms that the crude leaf extract of M. concanensis has potential anticancer activity against MCF- 7 cell lines while compared to the control. M. concanensis leaves possess remarkable anticancer property which may lead to development of novel compounds as natural phytomedicine.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8172

3. DPPH Scavenging Activities and Phytochemical Content of Four Asteraceae Plants
Raden Bayu Indradi, Irda Fidrianny, Komar Ruslan Wirasutisna
Abstract
Free radicals are atoms or molecules that have one or more unpaired electrons on its outer orbital, highly reactive, and could damage cell inside human body. Human body produce antioxidant to neutralize free radicals, but human ageing and stress oxidative conditions would increase the formation of free radicals, therefore an exogenous antioxidant are needed. Asteraceae family is the largest family among the plant kingdom therefore it has great potential as source of exogeneous antioxidants. The objectives of this research were to determine antioxidant activities of aerial part of elephant’s foot (Elephantopus scaber L.), false daisy (Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.), Indian pluchea (Pluchea indica (L.) Less), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H Wigg.) using DPPH method, determine total flavonoid and total phenolic content, and analyze correlation between total flavonoid content and total phenolic content with antioxidant activity. Extraction was carried out by reflux with increasing polarity using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method. Total flavonoid content was determined using Chang’s method and total phenolic content evaluated using Folin—Ciocalteu reagent. Correlation of total flavonoid content and total phenolic content was analyzed by Pearson’s method. Ethanolic extract of Indian pluchea showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 DPPH 16.66 ± 0.08 µg/mL. The highest total phenolic content (23.49 ± 0,56 g QE (Quercetin Equivalent)/100 g) was given by ethyl acetate extract of Indian pluchea, while the highest flavonoid content (16.48 ± 0.25 g GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent)/100 g) was showed by ethanolic extract of Indian pluchea. Total phenolic content of elephant’s foot, false daisy and Indian pluchea herbs extracts showed significantly negative correlation with their IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities. Indian pluchea herbs extract had the highest antioxidant activity using DPPH method compared to elephant’s foot, false daisy and dandelion herbs. Phenolic compounds were the major contributor in antioxidant activities of elephant’s foot, false daisy and dandelion herbs extracts by DPPH method.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8173

4. Pharmacognostical Studies and Evaluation of Quality Parameters of Spinacia oleracea
Mariyan R Patel, Harsha V Patel, Sangita Shukla
Abstract
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia. Its leaves are eaten as a vegetable. Spinach has a high nutritional value because it is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, magnesium, manganese, iron , riboflavin vitamin B6, vitamin E, calcium, potassium, and dietary fiber. Pharmacognostic standardization, physicochemical evaluation of the Leaves of Spinacia oleracea was carried out to determine its macro-and microscopical characters and also total ash, insoluble ash, alcohol- and water-soluble extractive values were determined for phytochemical evaluations. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. The Proximate analysis of powder was also carried out in which extractive value, ash value, foreign matter, loss on drying were determined and also successive solvent extraction was carried out using soxhlet extractor in which ethanol was used. Aqueous extract was also carried out by maceration method. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various successive extracts of leaves was done qualitatively which revealed the presence of phytosterol, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins and amino acids.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8174

5. Pharmacognostical, Physicochemical and Preliminary Phytochemical Standardization of Aerial Parts of Onosma bracteatum Wall
Patel V G, Patel K G, Patel K V, Gandhi T R
Abstract
Objective: The present study was undertaken to develop the standardization parameters of powdered aerial parts of Onosma bracteatum Wall, family Boraginaceae. Methods: Different parameters such as pharmacognostical, physicochemical, preliminary phytochemical evaluation along with thin layer chromatography for identification of phytoconstituents were studied. Results: On microscopical examination of the aerial parts it showed the presence of oval to polygonal thin walled straight epidermal cells; spiral vessels, a few fibres elongated with blunt tips, long warty, tubercle based unicellular hairs and paracytic stomata. On physicochemical evaluation it was found to contain more amount of polar constituents as the ethanol extractive value was found to be more. Total ash value and acid insoluble ash indicated the presence of inorganic acids and silicaceous matter respectively. Foaming index and swelling index were indicative of saponins and mucilaginous matter present in the aerial parts. On preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatographic studies it revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and mucilage. Conclusion: The present work carried out can serve as a purpose for identification, authentication and standardization of the crude drug.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8175

6. Physico-Chemical Analysis of the Aerial Parts of Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) SW. (Family: Athyriaceae)
Gouri Kumar Dash, Siti Khadijah Jusof Khadidi, Ahmad Fuad Shamsuddin
Abstract
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. (Family: Athyriaceae) is one of the very popular edible ferns, a common pteridophytes usually included in one of the major ingredients in the traditional ‘Ulam’ (salads) preparations in Malaysia. The plant is highly valued for its several medicinal attributes. The present paper reports the physicochemical studies of the aerial parts. Diagnostic characteristics of the aerial parts powder showed presence of lignified xylem fibres and non-lignified phloem fibres, fragments of epidermal cells containing anomocytic stomata, mesophyll, palisade cells, parenchyma and collenchyma tissues, covering trichomes and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Preliminary phytochemical screening of different extracts showed presence of steroids, triterpenoids, tannins and phenolic substances, flavonoids, carbohydrates, gum and mucilage. The findings of the study will provide substantial information for the proper identification of the plant drug to the future investigators.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8176

7. Phytochemical Analysis of Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. Leaf Extract Using GC-MS Analysis
Babu A, Anand D, Saravanan P
Abstract
The medically important plant Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. belongs to the family ‘Moraceae’ have been used extensively by ayurvedic practitioners in India to treat various ailments. The plant was investigated for GC MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy) analysis to identify the chemical composition present in chloroform and ethanol leaf extract of F. arnottiana. A total of twelve and sixteen bioactive compound, were observed in chloroform and ethanol leaf extract respectively. Maximum peak area was observed for Tritetracontane (24.29%), 2, 6-lutidine 3,5-dichloro-4-dodecylthio (12.78%).All the components identified possess various degrees of pharmacological properties. Further these compounds need investigation on toxicological properties before the development of potential lead molecule for therapeutic importance.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8177

8. Antiulcer Activity of Chloroform Extract of Cyperus rotundus
Atul Kumar Gangwar, Ashoke K Ghosh
Abstract
Cyperous rotundus Linn. belonging to family Graminae, commonly known as “Nut Grass”, contains number of chemical constituents, mainly cyperenone, cyperol, cyperolone, cyperone camphene, limonene, oleanolic acid and sitosterol etc.. Chloroform extract of Cyperous rotundus two doses, viz., 200 and 400 mg /kg were evaluated by ethanol induced method using Ranitidine (50mg/kg) as standards. The standard drugs and the test drugs were administered orally for 14 days in ethanol induced method. The results of the present study showed that the chloroform extract of Cyperous rotundus possessed gastro protective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition of mean ulcer score and ulcer index. The present experimental findings suggest that Cyperous rotundus may be useful for treating peptic ulcers. Preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds, such as alkaloids, anthroquinones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, steroids and tannins. The study revealed specific identities for Cyperous rotundus linn.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8178

9. GC-MS Analysis of Phytocomponents in the Various Extracts of Shorea robusta Gaertn F.
Vashisht Sushma, Singh Manish Pal, Chawla Viney
Abstract
The current investigation was carried out to determine the possible phytocomponents present in the different extracts of Shorea robusta using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dried powdered resin of Shorea robusta was extracted exhaustively by Soxhlet apparatus with different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and chloroform. The prepared extracts were analyzed by GC-MS to identify and characterize the phytocomponents present in the crude extracts. Qualitative determination of different phytocomponents from crude extracts of Shorea robusta using GC-MS revealed different types of high and low molecular weight phytoconstituents with varying quantities present in each of the extracts. The GC-MS analysis provided a variety of peaks determining the presence of different compounds in various extracts of Shorea robusta namely Caryophyllene (1.50%), Caryophylline oxide (6.65%), Ledene oxide (11.17%), Calarene epoxide (5.15%), Alloaromadendrene oxide-(1) (8.72%), Beta-amyrin (7.99%), Alpha-amyrin (1.40%), Cycloisolongifolene (2.54%), Isolongifolene (4.73%), Silane (2.64%). The three extracts possess major phytoconstituents that were identified and characterized spectroscopically. The abundance of phytoconstituents was found to decrease in the order: methanol extract>ethanol extract>chloroform extract.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8179

10. Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Costus pictus D. Don Leaf Extracts
Naik A, Krishnamurthy R, Pathak J
Abstract
The occurrence of chronic diseases is rapidly growing worldwide. Diet and nutrition are significant aspects in the promotion and maintenance of good quality health throughout the whole life span. Overproduction of liberated radicals occurred due to physiological and biochemical changes in our body and then can cause oxidative damage to biocompounds of human body (e.g. lipids, proteins, DNA). Medicinal plant based products exert beneficial properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activities so their utilization is increased recently. This study includes preliminary phytochemical screening and quantification of phenol and flavonoid of Costus pictus aqueous (CPAQ) and methanolic (CPME) extracts. DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and superoxide scavenging assay were used for the estimation of antioxidant potential of leaf extracts CPAQ and CPME. CPME gave the elevated amount of phenol and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity of Costus pictus extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with the phenolic content. Ascorbic acid used as standard compound and showed maximum antioxidant power in this study.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8180

11. Phytochemical Screening, HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis of Leaf Extract of Bridelia montana (Roxb) Willd
B VinathaVaishali Kute, Vijaya Kuchana, J Shreelekha, K Sreeharshini, I Anvesh Reddy
Abstract
This research analyzed the major chemical constituents present in the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Bridelia montana (ROXB) WILLD. The leaves of Bridelia montana were collected, powdered, de-fatted with n-hexane and then extracted with 90%ethyl alcohol. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanolic leaf extract of Bridelia montana showed the presence of chemical constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins and resins. HPTLC fingerprint analysis of the extract was carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat 5 sample applicator, UV cabinet and WIN-CATS-4 software. The results from HPTLC fingerprint analysis of the ethanolic leaf extract of Bridelia montana revealed the presence of 6 polyvalent constituents.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8181

12. A Review on Traditional Ayurvedic Preparations Containing Gold
Karri SravaniHatware Ketan, Sharma Sanjay
Abstract
The gold and its preparations are used from the ancient time throughout the world for many purposes. In Ayurveda gold is having great importance for its utilization in many pathological conditions as a therapeutic remedy. The present review enlightens some of the gold preparations were practised in Ayurveda like Swarna lehan, Swarna bhasma, Suvarna bindu, Suvarna Vacha, Kumarabharana Rasa and Swarnamrita prashana. We focused on their traditional method of preparations, therapeutic potential and limitations along with the future prospectus. There is a need of further studies for paying attention towards the use of gold and its preparations in the modern era.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8182

13. GC-MS Analysis of Momordica charantia and Momordica dioica Fruit and Root Methanolic  Extracts
Anjamma M, Lakshmi Bhavani N
Abstract
The present paper reports the GC-MS analysis studies of Momordica charantia and Momordica dioica Fruit and Root methanolic extracts. An attempt is made to analyze comparatively for the presence of similar compounds with biological activity in both the plants, to assess the chemotaxonomic relationship between these two plants. These two plants are  perennial, rhizomatous, climbers belonging to cucurbitaceae family. These are seasonal vegetables of high demand and medicinal plants in Asian countries. Momordica charantia is indigenous and because of its higher medicinal importance it is also cultivated throughout the world. There is a growing demand for fruit and roots of Momordica charantia and Momordica dioica in the pharmaceutical trade due to their usage as medicinal agents for anti-inflammation, degenerative diseases including atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, ageing, diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and others. In the present study fruit and roots of Momordica charantia and Momordica dioica were sequentially extracted by methanol and  GC-MS analysis is carried for the extracts separately. The extracts showed the presence of  many phytoconstituents reported in these plants. The GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract revealed the presence of many similar major compound like plamictic acid with antidiabetic property is identified in both fruit and root methanolic extracts of Momordica charantia and Momordica dioica . This study forms a basis for the biological characterization and importance of the compounds identified.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8183

14. Determination of Total Phenolic, Tannin, Flavonoid Contents and Evaluation of Antioxidant Property of Amaranthus tricolor (L)
Sowjanya Pulipati, P Srinivasa Babu, U Naveena, S K Rafeeka Parveen, S K Sumaya Nausheen, M Tanmai Naga Sai
Abstract
Free radicals or reactive oxygen species are involved in various pharmacological conditions. As synthetic antioxidants possess numerous adverse health effects, the medicinal plants possessing antioxidant components can be used to prevent harmful effects of reactive oxygen species. In the present study leaves of Amaranthus tricolor Linn were used to prepare chloroform (CEAT), methanolic (MEAT) and aqueous (AEAT) extracts, analyze the presence of phytochemicals and evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant property. Quantitative determination of phenols, tannins and flavonoids in leaves A.tricolor was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH, p-NDA radical scavenging methods for different extracts of the plant. The plant species showed that methanolic extract (MEAT) on higher concentration possess better antioxidant potential when compared with reference standard ascorbic acid. The plant extracts exhibited strong antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with the IC50 values 290, 657, 830 & 130μg/ml of MEAT, CEAT, AEAT & ASA respectively. In scavenging hydroxyl radical by p-NDA method the MEAT showed maximum activity, CEAT showed moderate and AEAT showed minimum activity. The strongest antioxidant activity of MEAT could be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenols.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8184

15. Phytochemical and Phytotherapeutic Properties of Celosia species- A Review
Vanitha Varadharaj, Jayalakshmi Muniyappan
Abstract
Medicinal plants have been used basically in all cultures as a source of medicine. Medicinal plants play an important role in public health, especially in developed and developing countries and leads to examination for therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Medicinal Plants have been used for thousands of years to flavor and conserve food, to treat different health issues and to prevent diseases including epidemics. Active compounds produced during secondary metabolism are usually posses the biological properties of plant species used throughout the globe for various purposes, including treatment of infectious diseases. Based on the medicinal values, the Celosia species has been chosen for this study. Celosia species plays an important role in traditional medicine to cure several disorders such as fever, diarrohea, mouth sores, itching, wounds, jaundice, gonorrhea, and inflammation. A variety of phytoconstituents are isolated from the Celosia species which includes triterpenoids, saponins, alkaloids,  phenols, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, phytosterols, and phlobatannins. The plant having potential pharmacological values screened for its various pharmacological activities, namely, anti-inflammatory, immune-stimulating, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, wound healing, antidiabetic, antinociceptive effect and antibacterial activities which are reported in the extracts of different parts of the plant. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the ecology, phytoconstituents, pharmacology of Celosia species and to confess their therapeutic potentials and secure an evidence base for further research works on Celosia.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8185

16. Phytochemical Analysis of Muntingia calabura  Extracts Possessing Anti-Microbial and Anti-Fouling Activities
Singh R, Iye S, Prasad S, Deshmukh N,  Gupta U, Zanje A, Patil S, Joshi S
Abstract
The present study was carried out to determine the possible antifouling and anti microbial activity of plant extracts prepared from Muntingia calabura and phytochemical screening was demonstrated. The extracts from the following plant parts like stem, leaves, fruits, flower and stems were prepared in different aqueous solvents like ethanol, methanol, acetone, acetonitrile and water. The highest antimicrobial potentials were observed for the methanolic extracts against K. pneumonia, B. subtilis, B. megaterium and P. aeruginosa. Its efficacy was comparable to the standard drug, ampicillin. Significant amount of tannins, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids were found.  Interestingly, the present study showed anti fouling effect against pathogenic biofilm forming bacteria. These extracts also contain high hemagglutination activity. The present study provides evidence that solvent extract of M. calabura contains medicinally important bioactive compounds and this justifies the use of plant species as traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8186

17. Studies on Analysis of Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Vitex negundo Linn.
Ved Prakash, Shelly Rana, Anand Sagar
Abstract
The current study was designed to investigate the leaf extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory (α-amylae and urease) activity. The antioxidant capacity of the different extracts (methanol, acetone and aqueous) of this plant was evaluated by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and reducing power tests. The plant exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity and moderate reducing power potential Further, all the extracts of V. negundo were reported to possess good anti-alpha amylase and anti-urease activity of greater than 50% in all the solvents used at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Thus the study provided scientific evidence to the traditional uses of this plant in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, ulcers, kidney stones etc. Therefore, the leaf extracts of this plant can be selected for further investigation to determine their therapeutic potential.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8187

18. Development of Quality Control Parameters for Standardization of Cyperus scariosus R.Br. Roots
Nidhi Sharma, Sumitra Singh, Shailendra Kumar Singh
Abstract
Cyperus scariosus R.Br. (Family: Cyperaceae) is perennial and delicate slender sedge found wildly in damp or marshy areas. The present study was undertaken for the development of quality control parameters of Cyperus scariosus R.Br. roots. The study includes determination of various standardization parameters like morphological characters, microscopic studies, histochemical detection and physicochemical evaluation of Cyperus scariosus R.Br. roots. The morphological studies exhibited the organoleptic and surface characteristics of the roots. The microscopic study showed the presence of various characteristic features of roots like cortex, lignified endodermis, pericycle, scalariform xylem vessels, tracheids and phloem. Physicochemical constants such as moisture content, ash values, extractive values, swelling index and foaming index were established. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of root extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinone glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids and terpenoids. These pharmacognostic features established in this study would helpful for the establishment of  pharmacopoeial standards to facilitate quality control and correct identification of Cyperus scariosus R.Br. roots, also to minimize adulteration and substitution.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8188

19. In-Vitro Antidiabetic Activity of Clinacanthus nutans Extracts
Abdullah N, Kasim K F
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent disease which characterized by hyperglycemia. It is a condition in which blood glucose levels are elevated due to decrease in cellular glucose uptake and metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is critical in the treatment of this disease and this had been offered by α-amylase inhibitors. The present study was designed to determine the in vitro antidiabetic of Clinacanthus nutans extracts. The antidiabetic action was observed by the inhibition effects of the C. nutans extracts on α-amylase activity and glucose diffusion across the dialysis tube. It was found that the antidiabetic action of the C. nutans extracts was not related to glucose diffusion as they did not show any significant glucose entrapment ability. The ethanolic leaves extract of C. nutans exhibited the most significant inhibition effect on α-amylase activity (64.25%) compared to other extracts. However, its inhibitory activity was moderate when compared to the commercial drugs (captopril & acarbose). The ethanolic leaves extract (the best extract) was tested for the presence for flavonoids, saponins and tannin (most reported antidiabetic compounds). Its antidiabetic action might be due to the presence of flavonoids and tannins. However, the absence of saponins might be responsible for its moderate inhibition effect comparable to control. This study suggested the in vivo studies of this plant should be carried out to confirm its antidiabetic mechanism.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8189

20. Antidiabetic Activity of Essential Oil of Hedychium spicatum
Harleen Kaur, Richa
Abstract
A Himalayan plant Hedychium spicatum is medicinally very important as its rhizomes are quite aromatic in nature. In our study the antidiabetic activity of the oil was studied after extracting the oil from rhizomes using Clevenger apparatus. The antidiabetic activity was studied in vivo in diabetic male Wistar rats. The reference drug used was glibenclemide. After administring the rats with plant oil at 0.3ml per rat for 14 days, the blood sample was taken on the last day to check blood glucose level and various renal function parameters. The histopathological study of pancreas was done for each group. Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results revealed that the main component in the oil was 1,8 cineole. The results on animal model showed that the oral dose of Hedychium spicatum Essential Oil (HEO) reduced the blood glucose and urea level of the rats of group 3 and were statistically significant when compared with normal control. The islets of langerhans of rat pancreas provided with HEO regained normal shape when compared with diabetic control group, emphasizing the antidiabetic potential of the plant essential oil.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8190

21. A Study of the Physico-Chemical and Phytochemical Parameters of Leaves of Mallotus rhamnifolius
Loganathan V, Devi Kaniakumari M, Selvakumar P
Abstract
India being a rich and varied collection of medicinal plants since the Vedic age. The present study deals with the phytochemical screening of Mallotus rhamnifolius leaves of extraction belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. This study includes preparedness of different extracts by successive solvent extraction of varying polarity of Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and Ethanol: water (95:5) extracts for detailed analysis. Phytochemical screening determinate by some chemical tests study was carried out for different solvent extracts. Phytochemical screening reflects existence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, phenolic compounds, tannins, phytosterols, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, quinones and terpenoids which may be responsible for their therapeutic effects.  Different physicochemical parameters such as Loss on drying, Total ash, Acid insoluble ash and Water soluble ash   were carried out as per WHO recommended physicochemical determinations and authentic phytochemical procedures. The results obtained in present study indicated Mallotus rhamnifolius leaves as a rich source of medicinally compounds and provides evidences that solvent extracts of Mallotus rhamnifolius contains medicinally important bioactive compounds and this justifies the use of plant species as medicine for treatment of various diseases.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8191

22. Isolation and Characterization of Phytol from Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.-An Anti-Inflammatory Compound
Phatangare N D, Deshmukh K K, Murade V D, Hase G J, Gaje T R
Abstract

Justicia gendarussa burm.f. 
has become important source of Phytol which is associated with other phenolic,terpenoids,alkaloids. Diterpenes shows anti-inflammatory activity. Phytol is a acyclic diterpene alcohol found as essential oil in aromatic plants.oil is obtained by Keshav-Naren apparatus (patent no:2343/Mum/2013/A).Phytol separated from other oil part by fractional distillation. It separated at 204-2080C.Characterization of Phytol carried out by IR,NMR,and mass spectrometry. Phytol shows potent as Anti-inflammatory activity by releasing histamine (26.92%), serotin and bradykinin (49.90%), and prostaglandin (68.03%) as compared to standard (Dicolfenac 5mg/kg).

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8192

23. Inhibition of Alpha-Amylase Activity by Gymnocarpos decandrus Forssk. Constituents
Amal Sallam, Amal A Galala
Abstract
The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gymnocarpos decandrus, the plant growing wildly in the middle east area and north Africa, showed a promising a-amylase inhibitory activity. The ethyl acetate fraction of the plant showed the highest inhibitory activity followed by the methylene chloride fraction. Phytochemical investigation of both fractions led to the isolation of 10 compounds; oleanolic acid  (1), maslinic acid (2), apigenin (3), β-sitosterol glucoside (4), luteolin (5),  afzelechin (6), epiafzelechin (7), catechin (8), epicatechin (9) and gallocatechin (10). The structures of compounds 110 were established on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques. This is the first report for the isolation of these compounds from G. decandrus. The phenolic compounds (6-10) isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest a-amylase inhibitory activity. The more the hydroxylation pattern of the isolated phenolic compounds (689 and 10), the higher the ability to inhibit the a-amylase activity. This was confirmed through the molecular docking experiment. The wild plant G. decandrus is a promising a-amylase inhibitor that can be used in the management of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8193

24. Sea Buckthorn Juice: Nutritional Therapeutic Properties and Economic Considerations
Kapoor Pallavee, Mathur Ashwani
Abstract
In recent years sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) juice has become a commercially desirable product due to inevitable nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The juice extracted from the fresh berries of the plant had an extraordinary amount of vitamin C and carotenoids and is also rich in other bioactive nutrients components like amino acids, sugars, volatile compounds, phenolics and antioxidants. Variations in these components are highly influenced by factors like origin of the subspecies, population, genetic background and individuals. The existence of such vital constituents in the sea buckthorn berries has made sea buckthorn juice a popular demanded product in the international market. It effectively adds to the economic growth of a country. However, low awareness about these benefits, restrict wide acceptance of Sea buckthorn juice. Current review emphasize on the nutritional benefits and production strategies of Sea buckthorn juice with a broader perspective of its acceptance as a nutritional and therapeutic supplement world over and to explore the commercialization strategies of the juice and derived products.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8194

25. Phytochemical Studies on Nerium oleander L. Using GC-MS
Goraksh J Hase, Keshav K Deshmukh, Raghunath D Pokharkar, Tukaram R Gaje, Narendra D Phatanagre
Abstract
Phytoconstituents are chemical compounds often referred to as secondary metabolites. Fifty eight bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the solvent free extract of Nerium Oleander L. root using Keshav Narean Apparatus[IP no. 2343/MUM/2013A] .The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time, molecular weight and molecular formula. A wide range of fatty acids, heterocyclic compound which are having anticancer, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic activity were identified so that it can be recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. The GCMS analyse Fifty eight phytochemical compounds in Nerium oleander L. root extract. The major phytoconstituents were 2-methoxy-5-methyl phenol and isomers (2.92%), 2, 6-dimethoxyphenyl ester (4.47%), trans-Isogenol (4.89%),5-ter-butylpyrogallol(2.25%),2-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-7 methoxytropone (3.72%),l-(+)-ascorbic-acid-2,6-dihexadecanoate,(4.47%),trans-Isogenol(4.89%),2,3,5-trimetho oxyamphetamine (2.25%), 2-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-7-methoxytropone (3.72 %), Oleic acid(1.09 %), 2-( 9,12- octadecadienyloxy)-,(Z,Z)- ethanol (9.48 %), 9-hexadecenoic acid (2.24%), 9-octadecenamide (3.13%), α-amyrin (10.85 %).

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8195

26. Evaluation of Anti-Tumour Potential of Acanthus ilicifolius (Linn.) in HepG2 Cell Line Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice
R Vijayaraj, N Sri Kumaran, Swarnakala
Abstract
Acanthus ilicifolius has long history of medicinal plant belong to the family Acanthaceae. In the present study, ethanolic extract of A. ilicifolius showed antitumour potential against HepG2 cell line induced hepatocarcinoma in mice. The phytochemical analysis were studied by using strandard methods. The heptocarcinoma mice were orally treated with extract of A.ilicifolius (500 mg/kg B.W). The result indicates the presence of phytoconstituents such as Protein (2.5%), Carbohydrates (0.16%) , alkaloids (0.42%), flavonoids (0.62%), saponins (4.5%), tannins (1.0%) and terpenoids (0.20%). In FTIR spectrum of test sample, the strong absorbance were showed at peak 678.94 cm-1, 1514.12 cm-1,1741.72 cm-1, 2304.94 cm-1, 3597.24 cm-1, 3728.40 cm-1 which are associated with presence of functional groups such as Mono substituted benzene, aromatic (c=c), aldehyde (c=o), disubstituted alkynes(c=c), alcohols with free hydroxyl group (O-H), alcohols, phenols (O-H). Treatment effectively suppressed HepG2 cells induced mice as revealed by decrease in the levels and extend of Alanine transaminase (84.3±1.86), Aspartate transaminase (41.6±2.15), Alkaline phosphatase (224.9±6.3), Urea (64.3±1.20) and creatinine (1.36±0.155). Histopathological analysis of liver and kidney was also evaluated. This study demonstrates that the A. ilicofolius have a potent anticancer Properties.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8196

27. Molecular Modeling and Docking Analysis Of Callosobruchus maculates Cytochrome B Proteins with Bio Active Compound Phytolfrom Glinus lotoides and Synthetic Pesticide Pirimiphos-Methyl Adline
Jennefa Daniel, Gunasekaran C
Abstract
Cytochrome b is a component of respiratory chain complex III, also known as bc1 complex or ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase. These complexes are involved in electron transport and generation of ATP and thus play a vital role in electron transport chain.  Phytol is a phytochemical derived from ethyl acetate extract of Glinus lotoides. Cytochrome b modeled and the structure was used for In-silico binding efficiency and comparative analysis of cytochrome b with Phytol and synthetic pesticide were showed good docking score and binding affinity when compared to control. This study will be used in broad screening of the protein in the respiratory process and can be further implemented in designing pest control.

DOI number =10.25258/phyto.v9i6.8197

 







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research