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Volume9,Issue7

1. Chemoprotective Potential of Helianthemum confertum Against the Loss of Molecular and Functional Integrity of the Liver Cell in Doxorubicin-Treated Rats
Radja Djebbari, Yasmine Chemam, Nassima Boubekri, Zohra Lakroun, Mohammed Kebieche, Amel Amrani, Fadila Benayache, Samir Benayache, Djamila Zama
Abstract
The objective of the current study was led to reveal the possible protective effects of n-butanol extract of Helianthemum confertum (H. confertum) against doxorubicin (DOX) induced liver damage and its implication on the integrity of liver cells. Adult male rats were randomly divided into groups treated with plant extract (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) for 10 days and/or injected with a single dose of DOX (10 mg/kg). Liver function as well as oxidative stress parameters and histological study were estimated. DOX treated rat’s induced hepatic dysfunction revealed by a significant increase in biochemical parameters (serum transaminases, cholesterol and triglycerides) and disturbance in oxidative stress parameters described by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, providing information on the loss of cellular integrity. This later elicited histopathological changes in the liver which was confirmed on histological section chowing necrotic cells. Altghout the DOX-treatment reduced significantly the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The pretreatment of the animals with n-butanol extract of H. confertumat 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by DOX. The results showed a considerable decrease in serum markers of liver function and lipid peroxides. There was significant increase in the GSH level and the activity of antioxidant enzyme (GPx), which allowed the normalization of redox status in liver cells. Data suggest that DOX-induced an oxidative stress in rat’s liver and n-butanol extract of H. confertum exerted antioxidant properties.

2.Comparative Quantitative Analysis of Diterpene Acids in Raw Material of Salvia officinalis, Salvia tesquicola and Salvia nutans
Kurkin V A, Ryzhov V M, Shmygareva A A, Nikandrova M A
Abstract
The quantitative analysis of diterpene acids in raw materials of closely related species of genus Salvia was carried out.  The objects of present research were Salvia officinalis L., Salvia tesquicola Klokov & Pobed., Salvia nutans L., which grow in neighboring south (Samara and Orenburg) regions. During analysis different raw materials, such as herbs and leaves, were studied. It was determined that total amount of diterpene acids varies from 1,04% to 1,32% in leaves of different species of Salvia and from 1,13% to 1,67% in herbs of different species of Salvia. The raw material of Salvia nutans contains minimal amount of diterpene acids, but in the raw material of Salvia tesquicola the quantitative analysis shows different results, which depend on the region. The medical raw material of Salvia officinalis, which is cultivated in Samara region, includes sufficient amount of diterpene acids.

3. Phytochemical Analysis, Antibacterial Activity, FTIR and GCMS Analysis of Ceropegia juncea Roxb.
Visveshwari M, Subbaiyan  B, Thangapandian V
Abstract
The present study was focused on the preliminary phytochemical, antibacterial activity, FTIR and GC-MS analysis of aerial parts of C. juncea. Phytochemical analysis of three extracts showed that the presence of alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The methanol extract of aerial parts were found to be exhibit highest zone of inhibition against S. aureus (19.3mm), P. florescence (17.6mm) and K. pneumonia (17.0mm). FTIR analysis of the methanol extract given the major peak observed was at wavenumber 3354.08cm-1 that indicates the presence of O-H Alcohol functional group. 29 components were identified through the GCMS analysis of methanol extract. From results to confirm the fact that C. juncea possesses potential of bioactive compounds which are responsible for the biological activities that is useful for natural health.

4. Studies on Hypocholesterolemic and Antidiabetic Activity of Capsicum annuum Linn on Diet Induced Obese Rats
Sandhya P, Trupti N
Abstract
Introduction: Herbal drugs constitute a major part in all traditional system of medicine. Researchers have no doubt that nature is still the preeminent synthetic chemist and that in plants, particularly; there are almost infinite reserves of chemical constituents with actual and potential effects on human body. The herb Capsicum annuum is a culinary herb and its two pharmacological properties i.e. lipid lowering and antidiabetic activity are unexplored. This research paper focuses on hypocholesterolemic and antidiabetic property of capsaicinoids and its further use as an antiobese drug. Experimental Work: Wister strain of albino rats were divided into four groups comprising of six rats each. Group I served as normal control fed with normal pellet chow, group II served as disease control fed with high fat diet /diabetogenic diet, group III and IV animals, received capsaicinoids and standard drug (Atorvastatin / metformin) respectively. The study was carried out for a period of  9 weeks for hypocholesterolemic and 11weeks for antidiabetic activity. Results: Administration of HFD or diabetogenic diet for stipulated days to rats significantly increased the body weight, serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels; and decreased HDL cholesterol as compared to normal control. Treatment with capsaicinoids/ atorvastatin showed a significant reduction in the body weight gain, and the levels of serum triglycerides, total, LDL, VLDL cholesterol and increase in HDL cholesterol . However capsaicinoids not only significantly reduced the cholesterol levels but also reduced the glucose levels which were due to dyslipidemia when compared with the standard. This was true with antidiabetic activity where the blood serum profiles reduced along with glucose levels

5. Screening and Isolation of Lipase Producing Fungi from Marine Water Obtained from Machilipatnam Costal Region
Suseela Lanka, Tabitha Trinkle B
Abstract
The marine environment is highly susceptible to pollution by oil spillages and hence become an importance source for screening potential lipolytic microorganisms capable of degrading hydrocarbons. In addition to their salt tolerance, enzymes from halophiles can withstand and carry out reactions very much efficiently under extreme operational conditions encountered in industrial processes. In the present investigation, an extracellular lipase producing fungal organisms were screened and isolated from marine water samples collected from Manginapudi beach at Machilipatnam, Krishna district, A.P. India. Among 15 species of fungi isolated, 5 dominant fungi were selected to study their lipase producing activity. The extracellular lipase secreted in to the minimal salt broth was assayed both by qualitative screening method such as phenol red agar plate method and quantitative titrimetric method. Of the 5 dominant fungal isolates, Engyodontium sp. was found to produce maximum lipase, 7.2 U/mL compared to other fungal members. Since there is growing demand for lipases, rapid and persistent screening for microorganisms will open new insights for novel enzymes to be used for various synthetic processes and as well provides faster ways to solve many environmental problems. The present study gains its importance in view of this.

6. Phytochemical Constituents, Antioxidant Activity and FT-IR Analysis of Pisonia grandis Leaf Extracts
Murugesh S, Vino P
Abstract
Pisonia grandis is a traditional medicinal plant. It is commonly known as Leeachai kottai keerai. The present investigation focus on screening of phytochemical constituents, antioxidant   activity and FT-IR analysis of Pisonia grandis leaf extracts. The leaf extracts were prepared using three different solvents (Aqueous, Methanol, Ethanol). The antioxidant potential of the extracts was assessed by employing different assays such as DDPH and ABTS. The screening tests also were performed for the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, steroids, saponins and tannins in the extracts. The results of FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohols, alkenes, Phenols, aromatic carboxylic acid, esters, aliphatic amines, and primary secondary amines in the ethanolic extract. It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of leaves of Pisonia grandis  has potential bioactive compounds. The results of the present study suggest that the leaves of Pisonia grandis may be used as a herbal alternative  to cure various diseases after various scientific validation studies.

7. Anti-Cancerous Potentiality of Coumarins of Mesua assamica (King & Prain) Kosterm. – An Endemic Plant of Assam
Gogoi B
Abstract
Plants are part of our daily diet, and the phytochemicals and their nutritional value have been intensively studied for decades. Besides producing essential primary metabolites (e.g. carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids), higher plants also synthesize a wide variety of secondary metabolites which has therapeutic value. The present review aims to aggregate the scientific research data available on anti-cancerous activity of coumarins isolated from Mesua assamica plant which is endemic to Assam in India. It is a slow growing tall evergreen tree belonging to family Clusiaceace. The bark of the plant has been valued in traditional medicine for anti-malarial activity and treating fevers. It has been examined for the cytotoxic activity based on a panel of human cancer cell lines, and for the anti-malarial activity against chloroquine sensitive and resistant clones of Plasmodium falciparum. Coumarins and coumarin-derivatives have been isolated and characterised from root barks and fruit peels, which serves as potent anti-cancer agents. There needs more extensive study to understand the biosynthesis pathway of the bio-molecules so that bio-technological tools can be used for exploitation and drug development. Besides that, the plant needs attention for conservation of the habitat which is limited to the unique physico-geographical conditions of Assam.

8. Nephroprotective Effect of Jatropha curcas Fruit Extracts Against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats
Komail M, Narendra Babu A
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to explore the nephroprotective potential of Jatrophacurcas fruit extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced by CCl4 (3ml/kg body weight) in animals. Blood biochemical parameters, urine analysis and histopathological studies were carried out to assess the nephroprotective effect. CCl4 administration induced significant nephrotoxicity in rats, which was evident from enhanced levels of albumin, potassium.From the obtained results it may be concluded that pretreatment of silymarin (50mg/kg dose orally) significantly reversed carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicitywhere asJatrophacurcas methanol extract (250mg/kg body weight) showed significant effect against CCl4 induced nephrotoxicity in rats thanJatrophacurcas aqueous extract (p<0.001) for most of the blood biochemical parameters, hematological parameters as well in attenuation of pathological changes in kidney tissues.

9. Plant-Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles – A Critical Review
Sneha Thakur, Krishna Mohan G, Sandhya Rani M
Abstract
Nanomedicine is a revolutionary science nanoparticles of size 1 – 100nm designed for the utilization in disease diagnostics and therapeutics, targeted drug delivery of drugs which have difficulty in solubility and bioavailability and also to be applied in numerous fields.  The present critical review aims at enumerating the advantages, synthesis and characterization methods, as well as diversified applications of green silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles is an attractive proposition due to their distinctive physical, chemical and biological properties including a high electrical as well as thermal conductivity, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, chemical stability, catalytic activity and non linear optical behavior which enables them of potential value in inks, microelectronics, and medical imaging. Plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is now-a-day’s gaining enormous interest as it is cost effective, ecofriendly and has less side effects since there is no addition of external stabilizing or capping agents as the plant itself acts as stabilizing or capping agent. The secondary metabolites and other plant products like proteins, metabolites like alkaloids, terpinoids, saponins, glycosides etc are known to act as external stabilizing or capping agents. The plant mediated silver nanoparticles are known to show uniform particles characteristics and morphology. The bottom to top end approach of synthesis is effective to achieve desired particles size, shape and morphology. The synthesized green silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM/TEM analysis, EDAX/EDS, FTIR and other methods zeta potential measurement, thermo gravimetric analysis, Raman scattering. The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles (green silver nanoparticles) are effective in delivering pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, anticancer, larvicidal etc. Also green Silver nanoparticles have diverse applications acting as biosensors, as targeted drug delivery candidates, in diagnostics and therapeutics, in medical and consumer products, as anti pollutant and in agriculture. The future perspective holds promising results in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles involving plants. This review projects a collective sequence of information for synthesizing and evaluation of green silver nanoparticles and scope of its pharmacological actions.

10. Phytochemical Screening of the Hydro Ethanolic Extract of Brassica oleracea Var. Italica Plant Extract
Shah M A, Himanshu, Sarker M M R, Banu Afreen
Abstract
Objective: This study was designed elucidate the Phytochemicals of the widely-used plant Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Method: Hydroethanolic extracts of Brassica oleracea var. Italica plant extract was investigated. A small portion of the hydroethanolic extracts of Brassica oleracea var. Italica was subjected to the phytochemical test using Trease and Evans and Harbourne methods to test for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, reducing sugars, saponins, terpenoids, phenols, flavonoids and Anthraquionones. Result: The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins, quinines, cardiac glycosides, Xanthoproteins, glycosides, steroids, phenols, resins, carboxylic acid group in varying concentrations. The present study provides evidence that Hydro ethanolic extracts of Brassica oleracea var. Italica contains medicinally important bioactive compounds and this justifies the use of plant species as traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases. Conclusion: Thus, from the present study the plant leaf extracts of Brassica oleracea var. Italica showed an abundant production of Phytochemicals as secondary metabolites and they can be used in the pharmaceutical industries for producing a potent drug. The studies result of the above two plants gives a basis of its use in traditional medicine to manage ailments and disorders.

11. Evaluation of Antioxidant Status in Cold Brewed Tea with Respect to Hot Decoction: Comparative Study Between Green and Black Varieties
Chandrima Das, Sirshendu Chatterjee
Abstract
Tea is known as nature low calorie wonder drink. Consumption of hot tea decoction became popular from the ancient times. Currently researchers observed that many secondary metabolites that are heat sensitive might get destroyed on heating. Moreover people, who are permanently live at higher altitude or the members of high altitude expedition team, are deprived of various tea brewing facilities like electricity, fuel etc and hence they have to depend on brewing tea at cold condition only for consumption. In this backdrop present study aims at analysis of antioxidants like polyphenols, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity of cold brewed tea and compared with its hot decoction. The study highlighted that cold brewed green tea harbour more polyphenolics and flavonoids with respect to its hot decoction. However no significant change being observed between hot and cold decoction of black tea. It is also observed that mg Ascorbic Acid Equivalent per cup of cold and hot tea brew has no significant difference and hence both the brews can be consumed for replenishment of antioxidant requirements.

12. Comparative  HPTLC Estimation   and  Antibactrial  Effect of  Ellagic Acid, Gallic Acid and Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium cumini Seeds Under Accelerated Storage Condition
Dalavi N B, Gawali V B, Bhalsing M D
Abstract
Syzygium cumini seed  (L.) Skeels (myrtaceae) commonly known as “jamun” is widely used in Ayurveda. The main active constituents present in syzygium cumini seed is Ellagic  and Ellagic acid. Syzygium cumini seed is official in Indian Ayurvedic pharmacopia. The comparative study of assay by HPTLC method and antibacterial activity was done for the Ellagic and Gallic acid and S.cumini extract at accelerated storage condition for a period of 6 months.The antibacterial activity of Ellagic acid, Gallic acid and  ethanolic extract of dried seeds of s.cumini  was determined by cup plate technique against gram-positive bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacterial strain (Escherichia coli). For HPTLC method Ellagic acid, Gallic acid  and extract was spotted on the plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 and developed using toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid, (6:6:1.5v/v/v) as mobile phase. Densitometry analysis was carried out at 271 nm. The method showed high sensitivity with good linearity over the concentration range of 200-1000ng/spot. The peak for Ellagic acid  and Gallic acid  were observed at Rf of 0.47 ±0.02 and 0.57±0.02 resp. The aim of our study was to observe the effect of accelerated storage on markers and extract. The analysis was carried out at 1,2,3,6 months study as per ICH guidelines for stability testing of drug at storage condition of 40ºC ± 2ºC/75% RH ± 5% RH. A decrease in antibacterial potential of the extract was observed with the simultaneous reduction in the % assay after a 6 month study. This method can be used for the quality control of the extract as well as markers.

13. In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Carrot Peel
Sheila John, Priyadarshini S, Sarah Jane Monica, Sivaraj C, Arumugam P
Abstract
The objectives of the study were to assess the total phenolic content and flavonoid content, and to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of carrot peel extracted with methanol and acetone. Total Phenolic content and Flavonoid content was higher in carrot peel acetone extract (AE) i.e. 106.36 µg/mg of GAE and 27.83 µg/mg of QE respectively than methanol extract (ME). Carrot peel acetone extract showed greater antioxidant capacity for DPPH radical scavenging activity whereas  methanol extract showed better result for FRAP reducing power and Phosphomolybdenum assay.  Both AE and ME could inhibit the growth of Shigella flexneri, E coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia. This study substantiates the potential of carrot peel to be used as a novel functional food ingredient, natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

14. Evaluation of Invitro Antioxidant Activity of Flowers of Tagetes Erecta
Siddhu N, Saxena J
Abstract
Tagetes erecta (T. erecta) is an herbaceous species, having wide ethno medicinal and traditional uses. It demonstrates different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti depressant. The present study deals with the estimation of antioxidant properties of four solvent extracts of flowers of T. erecta. The study aims to discover potent extracts as a novel source of natural antioxidant. The crude extracts; Petroleum ether (PE), Chloroform (CF), Ethyl Acetate (EA) and Methanol (MET) were screened for their free radical scavenging capacity and reducing powers using DPPH, Superoxide and Reducing power assay. Ascorbic acid was used as standard. All the extracts show considerable antioxidant potential. However, methanolic extract can strongly scavenge DPPH and superoxide radical with significant IC50 value range 30.08 ± 0.98 µg/mL and 64.22±0.04 µg/mL respectively. The IC50 value of the extracts follows the order; MET<EA<PE<CF. Lowest IC50 value indicates highest antioxidant potential. The reducing power of extracts were in the order; CF<PE<EA<Met.

15. Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Amino Acids in Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae)
Agbadi R K, Kaukhova I E, Terninko I I, Sirichenko T I
Abstract
Background: Amino acids and chemical elements play a lead role in all physiological processes in the human body. The consistency of their composition is one of the most important and critical conditions for normal functioning and development of organisms. The variation in composition of amino acids and elements in the body leads to deterioration in health status. One possibility of timely correction of violations of elemental and amino acid homeostasis in the human body is the use of extracts from medicinal plants. Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Noni, contains essential amino acids for life. Methods: A total of fourteen essential, conditionally essential and nonessential amino acids were examined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Two categories of extraction solutions; aqueous extraction and 1% HCl extraction, were prepared. Total quantity of amino acids in the fruits, leaves and roots of noni were investigated by spectrophotometric method of analysis with glutamic acid solution prepared as a standard. Result: The TLC analysis showed presence and absence of amino acids in the parts investigated. The leaves extracts of noni showed the highest content of amino acids whereas the roots demonstrated the least amino acid content. Methionine, an important ingredient for tissue development and growth were found in the 1% HCl sample extraction analyzed with the leaves and roots of noni. Leucine, a muscle building compound was observed in the fruits of the aqueous sample extraction of noni. Total content of amino acids in alcohol extraction from the roots, leaves and fruits of crude extraction of Morinda citrifolia was much lower than in aqueous extractions. Conclusion: This study confirmed the presence of amino acids in noni. Higher total content of amino acids was observed in aqueous medium as compared to ethanol medium. In conclusion, therefore, aqueous extraction of noni presents an optimal amount of amino acids which play crucial antioxidative roles in living organisms.

16. Antidiabetic Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Syzygium cumini Seeds in Puducherry Region, South India
Kandan Prabakaran, Govindan Shanmugavel
Abstract
Syzygium cumini is widely used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes in India. The present study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemical bioactive compounds from Syzygium cumini seed extract and its invitro anti-diabetic activity. The phytochemical screening showed appreciable amount of flavonoid and steroid in the seed extract. The infrared spectral data obtained revealed the presence of characteristic functional groups of alcohol, hydroxyl, aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, nitro compound and aliphatic amines etc. The extract exhibits the dose-dependent increase in the inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase enzyme upto 95.4%. The result suggested that significant amount of flavonoid in Syzygium cumini seed is responsible for antidiabetic properties and it is further confirmed by higher intensity of alpha amylase inhibitory effect.

17. Fluorescence Detection of Phytoconstituents in Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. by Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis
Sasikala M, Sundaraganapathy R
Abstract
Introduction: The medicinal plant water spinach is applicable for many therapeutic activities like anti cancer, anti oxidant, etc. the plant is used for purification of metals and waters of different categories. The benefit of hydroalcoholic extract in this study is non toxic, preservative and high yield of extract from the herbal powder. Thin layer chromatographic analysis is one of the best analytical methods for the separation and identification of phytoconstituents from the crude extract. The spots separated on the stationary phase could be detected by using the non destructive fluorescence method. The detection will be done at shorter and longer wavelength in UV cabinet. Aim and Objective: The aim was to separate and identify the various active metabolites present in the crude extract of the herb of interest using Rf value by thin layer chromatographic analysis. Method: The thin layer chromatographic parameters were set by trial and error method. Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Water (10.0:1.35:1.0 v/v/v) for alkaloids, Ethyl acetate: Pyridine: Water (5.0:1.0:4.0 v/v/v) for glycosides, Toluene: Acetone: Formic acid (4.5:4.5:1.0 v/v/v) for tannins and Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9.3:0.7 v/v) for triterpenoids were the mobile phases for the individual constituents. The constituents were identified at 365nm.  Results and Discussion: Nearly 24 various constituents of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, triterpenoids and tannins were separated using respective mobile phases through Rf value. Conclusion: The mentioned TLC profile for the plant of interest will hopefully help the researchers in herbal field to develop more herbal medicines requiring the particular constituent or its extract.

18. Hepatoprotective Activity of Hydroalcohilic Extract of Annona squamosa  Seeds
Shuchi Dave Mehta , Sarvesh Paliwal
Abstract
Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Traditionally, Annona Sqamosa Linn. has been used for treatment of cancer, diabetes, microbial infection,  cardiac disease, jaundice and other liver related disorder. Hence the current work aims to explore the hepatoprotective  of the Annona Sqamosa (AS) seeds. Aim of the study: The main objective of study is to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of  Annona Squamosa Linn. using the carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in rats. Material and methods: The activity was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the levels of serum enzymes such as SGOT, ALP, SGPT and total bilirubin for liver function tests. Six groups of rats were used (n=6) and administered orally once daily with normal saline (normal control), carbon tetrachloride (toxic control), or ASE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction. Results: The extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400mg /kg b.w by decreasing the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and total bilirubin as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions: The hydroalcoholic ASE extract have potential of liver protection which could be attributed for further investigation.

19. Antimicrobial Activity of Chromolaena odorata Against Selected Pyogenic Pathogens
Hridhya K V, Kulandhaivel M
Abstract
A study of antimicrobial activity of the solvent extracts of Chromolaena odorata against the selected pyogens such as Staphlylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albican. The plant materials were organoleptically evaluvated and pulverized. Using petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water the plant material was subjected to Successive Solvent Extraction method. These extracts were screened for phytochemical components and tested for antimicrobial properties against the pyogens. The efficacy of the plant extracts was compared with the commercial antibiotics. When comparing all the extracts of C.odorata, the ethanolic extract showed more efficacy than the other extracts.

20. HPLC Analysis of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Green and Colored Varieties of Vegetables
B Thirupathi, S Gangadhar Rao, V Swapna
Abstract
Lutein and zeaxanthin was estimated in green and colored varieties of vegetable.Basella alba L.(Indian spinach),purple and green varieties,.Cucurbita pepo var.cylindrica (Zucchini)green and yellowvarieties,Brassicaoleracea.var. capitata L. f. alba ),Cabbage green and  purple varieties,Zaleyadecandra.Lgreen and purple varieties,Trianthemaportulacastrum Linn, Green and Purple varieties,The concentration of lutein was maximum in all plant when compared to zeaxanthin.Maximum lutein concentration was reported in Basella alba (504 ppm purple variety), in Brassica oleracea var. capitata (314.9 ppm green variety)and in Zaleyadecondra (309.28 ppm green variety).Lowest content of lutein was recorded in Zaleyadecondra(60.91 ppm red variety).The content of lutein was reported to be high in purple, green colored varieties of all plants.Maximum content of zeaxanthin was reported in Brassica oleracea var. capitate (147.38 ppm green variety) ,lowest concentration was reported in Cucurbita pepo var .cylindrica(0.90 ppm red variety), and (0.70ppm in yellow variety).The concentration of zeaxanthin was recorded high in purple, green, varieties of all plants.

 

21. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Mentha pulegium Essential Oil from Central Morocco Against Larvae of Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)
Fouad El-Akhal, YassineEzzoubi, Taghzouti Khalid, Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami
Abstract
Background: In Morocco, the species Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) has developed resistance to the synthetic insecticide. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides, as natural herbal biocides. Objective: The essential oil of Mentha pulegium grown the North center of in Morocco has been analyzed and their larvicidal activity on Culex pipiens was determined. Methods: The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oilobtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts were tested against early fourth-instar larvae of Culex pipiens. The repellent efficacy was determined against of mosquito species (Culex pipiens) at six concentration’s (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 ppm) under the laboratory condition. The mortality was observed 24h after treatment; data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the Lethal Concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 percent of the treated larvae of tested species. Results: The major constituents of Mentha pulegium essential oil were identified as pulegone (53.23%), α-pinene (12.1%), piperitone (9.62%), menthone (9.26) and piperitenone (6.6%). The LC50 and LC90 were estimated at 25.45 ppm and 98.66 ppm respectively. Conclusion: This investigation indicates that the Mentha pulegium essential oil could serve as a potential larvicidal and could be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Culex pipiens.

22. A Review on Ethnomedicinal Plants of Nimar Area in Madhya Pradesh
Pragati Jaiswal, Bharti Jain
Abstract
Medicinal plants are a boon for disease. Nature has provided a rich botanical wealth with diverse plantation in different parts of India. Medicinal plants are useful for human ailments because of the presence of bioactive constituents or phytochemicals which are secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponin, glycosides, lactones, steroids etc. Due to the rapid extension of side effects of allopathic medicines, Herbal medicines are becoming popular day by day as Herbal drugs are safe, cheaper and easily available with therapeutic properties. In Nimar region of Madhya Pradesh, lots of common medicinal plants are available that are used by Nimari people and tribes as remedy to cure diseases. Nimar is the south western region of Madhya Pradesh state in west central India. The present paper provides information on 52 medicinal plants of Nimar area.

23. Chemical Composition and Toxicity of Ocimum sanctum L. Var. Cubensis Essential Oil Up-Growing in the Eastern of Cuba
Chil Núñez I, Escalona Arranz J C, Berenguer Rivas C A, Mendonça P M, Mateo Pérez K, Dutok Sánchez C M, Cortinhas L B Silva C F, Carvalho M G, Queiroz M M C
Abstract
Ocimum sanctum L. var. cubensis (OS) is a valuable medicinal plant. Some varieties have been reported and some of them remain almost unstudied. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the chemical composition and the in vitro/in vivo toxicity of the leaves essential oil from O. sanctum, up growing wild in the Eastern region of Cuba. The essential oil was extracted by in a Clevenger type apparatus and characterized by its chemical components helped by a Gas Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS). For the evaluation of cytotoxicity, primary cultures of embryonic cardiac cells (ECC) were obtained from Swiss mice and purified, uninfected ECC cultures were exposed to compound studied at 37 ºC for 24, 48 and 72 h (up to 1200µg/mL). The cell death rates were measured by the PrestoBlue colorimetric assay. For the studies of Oral Acute Toxicity and Dermal Acute Toxicity, Sprague Dawley rats were used as biological models, fulfilling the guides 423 and 402 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Research Ethical Committee. The essential oil from the leaves of O. sanctum L. var. cubensis up growing wild in the eastern region of Cuba presented 20 compounds defined as the major components: Eugenol (21.96%), β-caryophyllene (20.79%) and Bicyclogermacrene (20.38%). At the maximum concentration the OS essential oil barely provokes the 5% of cell death, meaning that this substance does not result toxic for ECC at the concentration evaluated. In vivo studies also classified OS essential oil as not toxic do not showing any acute or oral toxicity (dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight). The obtained result indicates that the oil can be considered safe; harmless topically and orally showed no in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies.

24. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of  Alcoholic Leaves Extracts of Spatholobus  parviflorus (Roxb.Ex Dc.) Kuntze
Jesy E J, Beena Jose
Abstract
Objective: To investigate the total phenolics, antioxidant , antimicrobial and  cytotoxic, activities  of  ethanolic and methanolic leaves extracts of Spatholobus  parviflorus (Roxb.ex Dc.) kuntze. Methods: The current study was focussed on broad parameters namely total phenolics, phytochemical analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and antioxidant properties in order to characterize the alcoholic extracts of  Spatholobus parviflorus as apotential free radical quencher. Results: The phytochemical screening of alcoholic extracts of  Spaholobus parviflorus showed the presence of various secondary metabolites. Spatholobs parviflorus was proved to be an effective radical scavenger in all antioxidant assays. The gas chromatographic- mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of bioactive compounds in varying percentage. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Spaholobus parviflorus has potential of antioxidant,antibacterial and cytotoxic activity  that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.The remarkable activity showed by the plant extract could be attributed to the synergic effect of the active compounds present in it.

25. Pharmacognostic Studies of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. (Putranjivaeceae)
Minj E, John Britto S
Abstract
The present investigation focuses on the pharmacognostic features of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. (Putranjivaeceae). Plants have been studied from different perspectives of macroscopic, microscopic, powder analysis, histochemistry and extractive values. Macroscopic analysis revealed shape, size, odour and taste of leaf, bark, root and seeds. They showed shiny, smooth and rough texture with pungent and bitter taste. Microscopic analysis revealed the presence of upper epidermis, lower epidermis, cortex, vascular bundles, pericycle and pith region of the transverse sections. Histochemical analysis showed the presence of lignins, starch, alkaloids, tannins and calcium oxalate crystals. Saponins are present in leaf, root and stem except in seeds. pH analysis revealed the acidic and basic property of different plant extracts. Leaf, bark, root and seeds extracts showed pH values below 7. Among methanolic extracts, leaf, bark and root showed higher value. Among aqueous extracts root and bark showed higher value. Fluorescence analysis of plants showed different colours in the UV and visible light due to presence of secondary metabolites.

26. Phytochemical Analysis and GC-MS Determination of Lagenaria breviflora R. Fruit
Adeyemi M A, Ekunseitan D A, Abiola S S, Dipeolu M A, Egbeyale L T, Sogunle O M
Abstract
The fruit of Lagenaria breviflora R. was obtained and subjected to methanol extraction. The chemical compound in the extract was analyzed using a Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotomter (GC-MS). The screening of the fruit extract revealed important phytochemicals such as Phenols, Alkaloids Carotenoids and Flavonoids. The analysis of the GC-MS revealed that hydrocarbons as the most abundant compound in the extract and a total of 30 compounds were identified. The major components are octadecane (19.25%), hexacosane (10.9%), docosane (9.15%0, 2 methyl-E,E-3,13-octadecadienol (8.33%), heptadecane (8.18%), tricosane (4.36%), tridecane (3.71%), 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester (3.63%), tetracontane, 3,5,24-trimethyl- (3.38) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (2.64%). Some of the compounds obtained have been reported to have potentials for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of diseases in both man and animals.

27. Identification of Isolated Flavonoid Glycoside From Methanolic Extract of Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. (Fruit)
Suman Lata, Sanjiv Kumar Mittal
Abstract
The present study was objected to investigate isolated flavonoid glycoside from methanolic extract from fruits (Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb.) as well as identification. Methanolic extract was already screened for the presence of flavonoid glycoside which was strong antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent. It was first time to isolate these by column chromatography with increasing polarity like Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate and Methanol solvents of different ratios. Each 20ml elute was collected, analyzed with pre coated Merck F254 TLC plates to compare similar spots and Rf values for same category of contents. The similar elutes were pooled, concentrated dried by vacuum distillation with rotary apparatus. The chloroform ethyl acetate fractions (sticky dark brown mass) were analyzed by pre coated F254 TLC plates and then visualized under visible light, UV 254nm and UV366nm. The developed pre coated TLC plates was further derivatized with 0.5% solution of anisaldehyde – H2SO4 acid and again visualized under visible light and UV366nm.TLC, HPTLC and LCMS methods were used to found and estimate polyphenolic compounds. Spectroscopic methods (IR, 1D and 2D NMR and Mass spectrometry) were used to confirm and elucidate the structure. The concluded structure of flavonoid glycosides was quercetin- 3-rutinoside-7-rhamnoside (M Wt: 756.663g/mol) and plaid with literature data.

 







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research