1.Pharmacognostic Study and Establishment of Quality Parameters of Leaves Of Bombax insigne Linn.
Pandya D J, Desai T R, Nadpara N P, Mehta H A, Modi A M
Bombax insigne Linn. syn. Salmalia insignis (Family – Bombacaceae) is found commonly in India. No detailed pharmacognostic study or establishment of quality parameters has been done on any species of Bombax. The present investigation deals with the qualitative and quantitative microscopic evaluation of the leaf material and establishment of its quality parameters, including physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation. Chief characters of transverse section include primary and secondary vascular bundles surrounded by pericyclic fibres and a sheath of calcium oxalate cluster crystals. Chief characters of powder include xylem vessels having reticulate or annular thickening, pericyclic fibres, calcium oxalate prisms and clusters, and starch grains. Various physicochemical parameters were also established. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of many therapeutically important classes of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, cardiac sterols, triterpenoids, saponins and carbohydrates. Such a study would serve as a useful tool in standardization of the leaf material, isolation of medicinally important phytoconstituents, performing pharmacological investigations and ensuring quality formulations in the future. It would also help in distinguishing the plant material of Bombax insigne from its related species, Bombax ceiba.
2. Antiulcer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Stem Bark
Panchal Siddharth, Panchal Kailash, Vyas Niraj, Modi Karuna, Patel Vimal, Bharadia P, Pundarikakshudu K
The methanolic extract of Ziziphus mauritiana stem bark was evaluated for its antiulcer activity using two models. Models are ethanol induced gastric ulcers model and aspirin induced gastric ulcer model in mice. It was found that the methanolic extract of stem bark have significant antiulcer activity in dose dependent manner where 3 different oral doses prepared (100 mg/kg of body weight, 250 mg/kg of body weight and 500 mg/kg of body weight). Evaluation was done on both models comparing with reference standard ranitidine (80 mg/Kg/ p. o.). The compounds like alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, flavanoids and tannins were detected by usual chemical test in methanolic extract. The above result shows that Ziziphus mauritiana stem bark probably contains some active ingredients that could be developed for above mentioned abnormal condition as have been claimed by traditional system of medicine.
3. Phytochemical Screening and Anthelmintic Activity of Crotalaria pulchra (Andr).
Rama Devi M, Siva Subramanian N, V R M Gupta, Sree Giri Prasad B, Srinath K R, Naveen Kumar L
Chloroform and methanolic extract from the leaves of Crotalaria pulchra Andr. were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against pheretima posthuma and ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-50mg/ ml) of each extract were tested in bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Both the extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest
4. Antiasthmatic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Sphaeranthus Indicus
M S Prajapati, M B Shah, A K Saluja, U D Shah, S K Shah
Sphaeranthus indicus auct. Non L. (Asteraceae) commonly known as Gorkhmundi. It is used for various ailments in Indian system of traditional medicines. Methanolic extract of aerial parts was evaluated for antiasthmatic activity. Histamine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs and egg albumin induced bronchospasm in guinea pig model were performed and various parameters were investigated like PCD time, serum bicarbonate level, differential leukocytes count and histopathological changes in lung. Biochemical estimation like glutathione (GSH) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total proteins were also checked. The result showed that it significantly increased preconvulsion dyspnoea (PCD) time, decreased differential leukocyte counts and serum bicarbonate level. It decreased the oxidative burden by reducing the MDA level and increasing the GSH level which was imbalanced in asthmatic condition, also shown significant action on total protein level. The drug also reduced the inflammation and dilated the bronchioles. All these data suggested that S. indicus is having promising antiasthmatic activity.
5. Extraction and evaluation of roots of Decalepis hamiltonii for antidiabetic activity
Sumalatha G, Vidya Sagar J, Ragini V, Suresh K
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of various extracts of the Decalepis hamiltonii (F: Asclepediaceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The fall of blood glucose levels after administration of aqueous, methanol and pet ether extracts at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight were found to be 69.43 %, 62.04%, and 49.61%, respectively, after 4hr of oral administration. At the same dose the acute oral administration of aqueous extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose loaded normoglycemic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies suggest that D. hamiltonii root extracts has direct insulin like effect which can enhance the peripheral utilization of glucose by rat hemi diaphragm.
6. Isolation, Characterization and Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Rubus racemosus
P R Kumar, V Vaidhyalingam
The structure of new compounds Compound I – 1-[20, 21 – dodeacylnanone] – α-1→6-D-glucotetraose-6’’’(P-hydroxy) benzoate. Compound II-9, 10 epoxynonacosane have been isolated from the methanolic aerial extract of the Rubus racemosus. The methanolic extract was subjected to anticonvulsant activity by MES induced epilepsy and determination of neurotransmitter concentrations in rat brain after induction of epilepsy.
7. Anti-ageing Ability of Terminalia species with special reference to Hyaluronidase, Elastase inhibition and collagen synthesis In-vitro.
Satardekar K V, Deodhar M A
Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared from bark of Terminalia arjuna and dried fruit rinds of Terminalia chebula were examined for their effects on enzyme Hyaluronidase and Elastase activity. The extracts were also studied for the effect on fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in vitro. Both the extracts showed to inhibit enzyme Hyaluronidase and Elastase in a dose dependent manner. In addition to their antielastase and antihyaluronidase effect, the same concentrations of the extracts also stimulated fibroblast proliferation and synthesis of total soluble collagen in vitro. These results suggest potential of Terminalia extracts for facilitating delay in skin aging. These extracts not only provide an active ingredient that inhibits hyaluronidase and elastase enzymatic activities, but also to provide the necessary supplies for the cells to maintain and promote their proliferation and to produce their constituents like collagen.
8. Fatty Acid Glucosides from Roots of Cichorium intybus Linn.
Rajkumarai, Ali M, Aeri Vidhu
Three new fatty acid glucosides, identified as n-octadec-9-enoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), n-octadec-9-enoyl-β-Dglucopyranosylo (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), n-octadec-9-en-12-ol-1-oyl- β-D-glucopyranoside (4) along with a diglyceride phosphate have been isolated from methanolic extract of the roots of Cichorium intybus. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions.
9. Sedative Properties of Methanol Extract of Rhizome of Cyperus tegetum Roxb.
Chaulya N C, Haldar P K, Mukherjee A
In this study, the methanol (MeOH) extract of rhizome of Cyperus tegetum Roxb, belonging to the family Cyperaceae was prepared by successive extraction procedure (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol) in Soxhlet apparatus and subsequently, the extract was evaluated for its phytoconstituents and pharmacological activity. Comparatively, higher yield (5.4%) of methanol extract was obtained. Phytochemical tests revealed the presence of alkaloid, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and saponins in the extract. The methanol (MeOH) extract of the rhizome of was used to evaluate the pharmacological properties. The extract does not possess either anesthetic or paralysing effect on test animals but spontaneous motor activity is significantly reduced by the extract. When associated with pentobarbitone sodium or diazepam, the MeOH extract facilitates sleep inductin and increases total sleeping time .These observation suggests that the rhizome of C tegetum has pharmacological properties similar to those of sedatives.
10. Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Efficacies of Some Mauritian Traditional Preparations Commonly Used Against Cardiovascular Disease
Neergheen V S, Bahorun T, Pugo-Gunsam P, N Foong Lin D, Ramful D, Aruoma O I
The surge of interest in traditional medicine has prompted research into the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Adansonia digitata, Catharanthus roseus, Eugenia uniflora, Phyllantus emblica and Terminalia arjuna which are commonly used as traditional remedies against cardiovascular diseases in Mauritius. The polyphenolic profiles of these 5 herbal preparations (prepared according to traditional medicine sellers’ recipe) were screened. HPLC analyses showed that the plant extracts had complex flavonoid profiles with interesting amounts of quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol conjugates. Flavan-3-ol derivatives such as (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin, catechin gallates, procyanidins B1 and B2 were identified in most preparations. The highest total phenolic (34.9 ± 0.92 mg/g FW) and proanthocyanidin (15.0 ± 0.416 mg/g FW) contents were measured in T.arjuna whilst E.uniflora had the highest flavonoid composition (7.8 ± 0.04 mg/g FW). The antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential were evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant assay (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), scavenging of hypochlorous acid, deoxyribose assay and inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation. T.arjuna extract exhibited the most powerful antioxidant capacity in the systems studied with a TEAC value of 306.92 ± 2.37 µmol/g FW and calculated IC50s of 1.5 ± 0.09 mg/ml and 0.2 ± 0.01mg/ml in scavenging hypochlorous acid and in inhibiting microsomal lipid peroxidation respectively. The antioxidant activities correlated strongly with the total phenolic content of the plant extracts.
11. Hepatoprotective Activity of Extracts From Stem of Calycopteris floribunda Lam. Against Carbon tetrachloride Induecd Toxicity in Rats.
M Chinna Eswaraiah, T Satyanarayana.
Calycopteris floribunda Lam, (Combretaceae) a scandent woody shrub. The present study was conducted to evaluate the Hepatoprotective activity of chloroform fraction and methanol stem extract of Calycopteris floribunda (CF) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats. Chloroform fraction and methanolic extract of CF (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg .p.o.), were administerd respectively, Silymarin (25 mg/kg.p.o.) was given as reference standard. The stem extracts were effective in protecting the liver against the injury induced by CCl4 in animals. This was evident from significant reduction in serum enzyme, Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Total bilirubin (TB).Various pathological changes like centribular necrosis and vacuolization were observed in CCL4 treated rats, which were significant protective activity in groups treated with CF and silymarin. It was concluded from the study that chloroform fraction and methanolic extract of CF possess hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.