International Journal of

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 4873

p-ISSN: 2961-6069

Peer Review Journal

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1.Herbal Ink: Safe, Easy and Ecofriendly Alternative
Powar P. V, Lagad S B, Ambikar R.B, Sharma P. H.
Nature has gifted us more than 500 colour yielding plants. India is a major exporter of herbal dyes due to forbid on production of some of synthetic dyes in developed countries due to environmental pollution problem. A survey in primary school indicated that few children inadvertently ingested ink, currently it is observed that only synthetic ink are used which may be harmful for children health. Hence for benefit of children, it was thought worth to prepare edible ink. Four herbal inks were prepared from different biological sources such as Beta valgaris (Beet Root) Chenopodiaceae, Citrus limonene (Citrus peel) family Rutaceae, Pentas lanceolata (Butterfly Flow petals) family Rubiaceae  , Bauhinia purpurea (Butterfly tree) family Caesalpiniaceae etc. The herbal inks were evaluated for several parameter such as Color, Odour, Taste, Brightness, Drying time , Flow ability, Non-clogging nature, Viscosity, Permanency of colour, Stability. All inks were found to edible, safe, easy to prepare and stable.

2. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Cassia occidentalis Linn.
Kaur I, Ahmad S and S.L Harikumar
Cassia occidentalis Linn. is an important member of plant family Leguminosae. Commonly known as kasundi or Negro coffee, it is generally found growing in India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Australia, United States of America; and many African countries. Its roots, leaves, flowers, and pods contain anthraquinones either in the free form or as glycosides. Pharmacological investigations have revealed the presence of several activities – antioxidant, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, antidiabetic, anticancer and antidepressant activities. This plant is also an ingredient of a commercially available formulation (Liv-52 produced by Himalaya Drugs, India) and used in treatment of liver disorders. This article is an attempt to present the overview of pharmacognostical, phytochemical, pharmacological and antimicrobial studies reported on C. occidentalis.

3. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Studies of Leaves of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicolson
Sarada K, Mohan V.R, Sakthidevi G
Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicolson is an important medicinal plant of the family Rutaceae. It is commonly known as ‘Mahavilvam’ in Tamil. The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the leaf of the said plant. Pharmacognostic studies include microscopic, physicochemical constituents (ash and extractive values), fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical evaluations

4. Botanical and Genetic Characteristics of Lobularia libyca (viv).C.F.W. Meissn.(Brassicaceae)
Zaghloul S. S., Nematallah K. A., Al-Gendy A. A., Ayoub N.
Lobularia libyca (viv). C.F.W. Meissn. is an annual herbaceous desert plant native to North Africa belonging to Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Study of the botanical features was carried out for the root, the young and old stems, leaf, flower and seed of the plant. L. libyca was characterized by the presence of non-glandular branched unicellular two armed hair in the stem, leaf and flower while the root shows narrow cork and xylem occupies about 80% of the diameter of the root. The flower is characterized by hairy sepals and spherical pollen grains with three germ pores and three germ furrows. The pericarp is characterized by hairy epicarp and presence of fibrosclerides as innermost layer of the mesocarp. The septum shows pitted lignified parenchyma. The seed shows accumbent embryo and the testa is characterized by the presence of pigment layer with reddish brown content. The DNA of the plant was extracted from leaf samples and analyzed using eleven random decamer primers. A total of 89 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were identified. Both the botanical study and the DNA fingerprint helped in the identification of the plant.

5. Preliminary Study on Physiochemical and Fatty Acids Content of Cassia tora Seed Oil
Mankilik. M, Mhya. DH
In this study, physiochemical and fatty acids content of Cassia tora seed oil was investigated. The oil was extracted from the Cassia tora seed kernel using Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether as solvent. Oils obtained from seed oil provide essential components and fatty acids in human diet, and for industrial uses. Reports on fatty acids content from some seed oils have showed good potential; therefore, focus on oil properties and fatty acids content of Cassia tora seed would probably make it useful to our industries, and thereby enhances its economic status. Oil yield of Cassia tora seed kernel was 17.76%, while its fatty acids content were: oleic acid (43.21%), stearic acid (19.37%), palmitic acid (15.83%), and other chemicals constituted 21.59%. Oils with high oleic acid content were regarded as the major healthful oils replacing trans fat in food processing and foodservices. In regard to this, high oleic acid in Cassia tora seed oil may boost its value among the high-oleic oils used by the oil industry. The oil physical parameters determined in this study include; specific gravity (0.88), refractive index (1.43), and pH (4.41) these values were within the ASTM standard specifications. In vantage of these, Cassia tora seed oil could be recommended suitable for industrial usage particularly in regard to its high oleic acid content.

6. Isolation, Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Acacia Nilotica (L) Willd. Leaf Extract.
Jangade N. M., Nagargoje P. B., Dr. P. J. Shirote.
The present study is to systematically evaluate smooth muscle relaxant activity against Acetylcholine and Oxytocin induced contraction in Wistar rats. Methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (L) Willd leaf extract were carried out by soxhlet extraction and separation of phytoconstituents by using Thin Layer Chromatography. Identification of phytoconstituents was done by using different physicochemical parameters and smooth muscle relaxant activity was observed against Acetylcholine and Oxytocin induced contraction. The results of the present study concluded that the methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (L) Willd leaf extract has smooth muscle relaxant activity against both Acetylcholine and Oxytocin induced contraction on duodenum and uterus respectively. Triterpenoid present in the methanolic extract responsible for smooth muscle relaxant activity.

7. Moringa oleifera Extracts Induce Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Apoptosis by Induction of Reactive Oxygen Species Production
Leelawat S, Leelawat K
To date, there are no effective chemotherapeutic treatments for cholangiocarcinoma. The anticancer effects of Moringa oleifera extracts have been demonstrated in various kinds of cancers. Therefore, we evaluated the anticancer effects of M. oleifera extracts on cholangiocarcinoma cells. In this study, RMCCA1 and KKU100 human hilar cholangiocarcinoma cell lines were treated with Moringa extracts and examined for cell viability and apoptosis. Factors that contribute to cancer-cell survival in response to stress were assayed, including mitochondrial membrane potential changes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The results showed that Moringa extracts inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. In addition, treatment with Moringa leaf and seed extracts (MLE and MSE) induced a marked decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Consequently, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidative agent, completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of MLE and MSE in both cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In conclusions, these results indicate that the Moringa extracts induce cytotoxicity in cholangiocarcinoma cells through the induction of ROS accumulation and mitochondria dysfunction. These findings suggest that after future studies, M. oleifera may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for cholangiocarcinoma.

8. Quantitative Analysis of Tannic Acid in Crude Drug and its Ayurvedic Formulation by UV Spectrophotometry
Surya Prakash Gupta, Gopal Garg
A simple and reproducible UV- spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of Tannic acid in Bhuvnesvara vati (BV) were developed and validated in the present work. The parameters, precision, accuracy, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation were studied. In this present study a new, simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and economic spectrophotometric method in ultraviolet region has been developed for the determination of Tannic acid in laboratory ayurvedic formulation of Bhuvnesvara vati (BV). Each ingredient was purchased from the local market and identified morphologically and microscopically and compared with standard pharmacopoeial monograph. The concentration of tannic acid present in raw material is found to be 6.1%±0.27w/w in Emblica officinalis, 8.7%±0.31w/w in Terminalia belerica, 14.05%±0.29w/w in Terminalia chebula, 4.8%±0.94 in Aegle marmelus and 0.67±0.49 in Trichyspermum ammi and in three identical laboratory batch of Bhuvneshavara vati BV-I, BV-II and BV-III 4.90%±0.42, 4.79%±0.86, 4.85%±0.75w/w respectively with mean value 4.85%±0.53 w/w. Tannic acid has the maximum wavelength at 276 nm and hence the UV spectrophotometric method was performed at 276 nm. Tannic acid was found to follow beer lambert’s law in concentration range 2-20μg/ml. The mean of %RSD value was found to be 0.399 with the mean standard error were 0.275.The content of Tannic acid in ayurvedic formulation was determined. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method. Hence the proposed method can be used for the reliable quantification of Tannic acid in herbal formulations.

9. Evaluation of Anti-Arthritic and Immunostimulatory Activities of Chloroform Extracts of Leaves of Vitex negundo L.
Amrutha V. Audipudi, P.Hari Brahma Reddy, Madhuri Vajha, C.V.S Bhaskar
To search for anti-arthritic bioactive with immunostimulatory activities of chloroform extracts of Vitex negundo L. (VCE) were screened for the first time. Chloroform extracts of V.negundo L. leaves were screened for various photochemical constituents and in-vitro anti-arthritic activity along with other Immunostimulatory activities in terms of DPPH assay, %-5-Lipoxigenase assay, α-amylase assay and Brine Shrimp Lethality assay. Levels of Flavonoids and alkaloids of VCE were found to be significantly high. VCE showed 100% anti-arthritic activity at the concentration of100 µg/ml. Antioxidant activity was found to be significantly high (IC50 value of >100 µg/ml) when compared to Vitamin–C.  Crude extracts showed greater value of anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 19.26 µg/ml) and. α- amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 >100µg/ml) when compared to respective standards curcumin (IC50 9.38µg/ml) and Acarbose (IC50 9.88µg/ml).  VCE showed moderate cytotoxicity activity (ED50 76.77µg/ml) when compared with standard Podophyllotoxin (ED 50 2.50µg/ml). Results of current investigation revealed that phytochemical constituents of VCE have strong anti-arthritic potential and further investigation may be advocated for the identification of lead molecule with pharmacological significance.

10. Antibacterial, Antifungal, Insecticidal and Phytotoxicity Activities of Indigofera geradiana
Taj Ur Rahman, Ghias Uddin, Wajiha Liaqat , Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary
In the current study an exertion was done to perform biological investigation of Indigofera geradiana to scientifically authenticate its biological importance. The results obtained showed that all the fractions n-Hexane, EtOAc, Chloroform, Water and residue displayed no antibacterial activities against special bacterial strains. In case of antifungal activities the water fraction (F4) showed 10 % and residue fraction (F5) showed 35 % activity against Callosbruchuanalis. Subsequent the other hand in case of insecticidal activities the chloroform fraction (F3) showed 20% activity against Rhyzopertha dominica and residue fraction (F5) showed 20%, Rhyzopertha dominica and Callosbruchuanalis whereas in case of Phytotoxicity activity all the fractions showed significant phytotoxicity activities at (1000 µg/ml) and moderate activity at (100 µg/ml). Similarly, all the fractions showed low activities at (10 µg/ml).These results indicated that M. ovalifolia is very important from medicinal point of view.

11. Comparative HPTLC Fingerprinting and Antioxidant Activity of the Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni from Different Geographical Sources
Mandal B, MadanS, Gullaiya S
The world today faces a large number of growing maladies that make the normal sustenance of an individual very arduous and challenging. Health concerns related to oxidation in the body is a major concern among these ailments which damages cell membranes and other structures including cellular proteins, lipids and DNA in the human body through free radicals that are produced during this process. Control and cure of these health conditions require a source that can overcome these health concerns and that has a minimal potential to cause adverse effects. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, the nature’s sweetener, is one of the effective sources to combat the damage related to oxidative reactions in the human body. The present study involves comparative evaluation of antioxidant activities of the dried leaves of five varieties of Stevia rebaudiana procured from five different geographical locations of India viz., Delhi, Surat, Kangra, Bangalore and Indore using DPPH radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were also determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and aluminum chloride colorimetric method respectively. A comparative HPTLC fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of all the varieties was also carried out using CAMAG system consisting of Linomat 5 spotting device and Scanner 3 and the content of rebaudioside A was also compared among the different varieties with respect to standard rebaudioside A. The content of rebaudioside A was found to be the highest in the variety procured from Delhi i.e., 1.63% w/w as compared to other varieties. The variety from Kangra showed the most potent antioxidant activity with IC50 of 54 μg/ml among all the varieties.

12. Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis, Stabilization and Characterization by Different Concentrations of Acacia senegal (l.) Willd.Extract and Evaluation of their Antibacterial Activity
Karunakar Rao Kudle, Madhukar Rao Kudle, Y.Prashanthi, Ramchander Merugu, M.P.Pratap Rudra
Metallic nanoparticles are conventionally synthesized using chemical techniques, which use toxic and flammable techniques. The present work reports a cost effective and eco friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of different concentration species of Acacia senegal. Leaf extract. The leaf extract such as triterpenes, eugenol and flavonoids are responsible for the formation of nanoparticles. Absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. The particle size was analyzed using Transmission electron microscope. The Infrared Spectroscopy was performed to identify types of chemical bonds, i.e. functional groups in a molecule. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteria and Gram negative (Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella pneumonia, E.coli by disc diffusion method technique.

13. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Medicinal Plant Piper longum Linn.
Aparna Saraf, Amit Saraf
The plant Piper longum Linn. was screened for secondary metabolites and anti microbial activity. Standardization of the solvent system and quantities required to get maximum separation of individual secondary metabolites was done. The methodology used showed that excellent separation of compounds was obtained. The various extracts of the fruit showed the presence of, 6 Essential Oils, , 3 bitter principles, 13 arbutin,7 steroids, 4 Coumarins, 4 alkaloids, and 4  sterols. The development of such fingerprint for the fruits of Piper longum Linn is useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and also acts as biomarker for this plant in the Pharmaceutical industry. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by Agar ditch, Agar disc diffusion and Agar well diffusion method. The phytochemical extracts obtained after confirmation with HPTLC were examined for anti microbial activity against the pathogens infecting the respiratory tract i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition powder was tested for its minimum inhibitory concentration and further solvent fractions were tested for the zone of inhibition. Klebsiella pneumonia was the most resistant bacteria, while Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible.

14. Effects of 12 Weeks of Interval Versus Continuous Aerobic Exercise on Some New Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease in Overweight Female Students
Shamsnia Elham, Rajabi Hamid, Ehtram Hassan
History and objectives:  Inactivity is one of the major factors that lead to many health problems particularly cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of participation in an interval versus continuous aerobic exercise on weight reduction in addition to some selected components of serum blood including CRP and Fibrinogen of female subjects. For this purpose, a total of 45 volunteer subjects were randomly assigned into three groups of interval, continuous and control groups.  The subjects in the exercising condition participated in 12 weeks of exercise program while the control groups did not participate in any regular physical activity.  One day prior to the start of the exercise protocol, the subjects attended a lab where blood sample was collected. After the termination of the exercise program, similar procedure was used to collect blood sample. The exercise program was performed three times per week.  The interval condition included 4 distances of 200 meters interspaced by periods of 1 to 3 minutes of active rest, whereas the continuous group ran the same distance continuously.  The exercise intensity was set to 65 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate.   The running distance was increased by 200 meter per week.  SPSS: PC version 14 was employed to analyze the data by using one-way analysis of variance test.    The results of analysis showed that despite the   changes in the levels of both CRP and fibrinogen, the differences were not significant. However, there was a significant decrease in body weight of the exercising group compared to the control group.  It was concluded that 12 weeks of exercise program regardless of interval or continuous activity is not sufficient to decrease the level of CRP and fibrinogen in young female subjects.

15. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies on Cayratiapedata (Lam)
Rajmohanan T.P, Sudhakaran Nair C R, Padmaja V
Cayratia pedata (Lam.) of family Vitaceae is a woody climber seen widely distributed among most of the tropical Asian countries. Ethnopharmacological literature describes many of its medicinal uses.The current study aims on investigating some the pharmacognostical and phytochemical parameters of the leaves, which may complement some of the findings about the pharmacologic effects of the plant. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of the leaves showed that it contains carbohydrates, tannins and phenolic compounds, terpenes, sterols, alkaloids and flavonoids. Pharmacological and biochemical investigations done on the leaf extracts of this plant by the author suggests that it possess antiinflammatory, anti-arthritic, anthelmintic properties. Moreover, it can down regulate expressions of inflammatory mediators like COX, iNOS and TNFα. (these findings were published by the researcher elsewhere). The terpenes rich fraction of the leaf was studied using column chromatography backed by TLC analysis revealed the presence some important components, which were isolated by preparative TLC. Detailed analysis of these components by HPTC, GCMS and NMR studies were conducted. It was found that compounds like citral, isopuligol, Limonene 1,2-epoxide, Linalyl anthranilate,Verbenol, delphidine, (+)-tans, trans caranol and diethyl Butane-di-oic acid are present in the leaf extracts. It is already established that these compounds contribute to antiinflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of many plants. It is also established that some terpenes can reduce expression of inflammatory mediators.

16. Evaluation of Anti Diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Caralluma umballeta haw in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Gunji Venkateswarlu, J N Suresh Kumar, M. Rajkumar, V. Maithili, T.Swarupa Rani
Indigenous drug Carraluma umballeta Haw  used by different ethnic groups of the world for the treatment of diseases have special significance from long time like diabetes, wounds, cuts, hepatoprotective, etc. No  scientific work  has  been  carried  out  on  the  leaf  of  Carraluma umballeta Haw.The present work is undertaken to produce pharmacological standards and this founding’s may  help  to  proper  identification  and  ensures  the  quality of  the  drug. It may help  this  amazing  plant  grown  on commercial  basis  for  better  use  in  pharmaceutical  herbal The extract of Carraluma umballeta Haw was done by using soxhlet apparatus with ethonal. With Ethanolic extract of Carraluma umballeta Haw the pharmacological actions were observed by measuring anti diabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.The pharmacological experiments was conformed  that ethanolic extract of Carraluma umballeta Haw has anti diabetic activity which was evaluated in streptozotocin induced rats. After inducing diabeties the standard drug Glibincimide showed blood glucose levels 257,226,195,135,116 at the dose of10 mg/kg. Where as the ehanolic extract showed 265,226,166,122,107 at the dose of 400mg/kg at intervels of 0th,5th,10th,15th and 20th day respectively.

17. A Review: Dye Yielding Sources and their Importance
Yadav Rajesh, Yadav Nita, Kharya Murli Dhar
In India, there are more than 450 plants that can yield dyes. In addition to their dye-yielding characteristics, some of these plants also possess medicinal value. Though there is a large plant resource base, little has been exploited so far. Due to lack of availability of precise technical knowledge on the extracting and dyeing technique, it has not commercially succeeded like the synthetic dyes. This review examines some of the existing methods for colouring the hair and skin using natural material (such as henna) and proposes a parallel technology that exists in the dyeing of wool and fabrics to extend the colour range. One of the major problems is the functional part of the herb (i.e. the colouring dyestuff). The chemistry is not always known by the formulator and therefore the concept of a natural dye is rejected. In reality, many of the dyestuffs in natural materials are identified and can be quantified or standardized in the specification for the raw material. The dyeing of hair has been practiced since the time of earliest Man. When it was impractical to dye the hair, then the wearing of wigs was customary, even as early as the period of the ancient Egyptians. The use of natural dyes on the hair has not made very great progress, and this is due to a number of factors that should not be the reason for despair.

18. Review of Alternanthera Sessilis with Reference to Traditional Siddha Medicine
Thomas M.Walter, S. Merish, M. Tamizhamuthu
‘Food as Medicine’ is one of the basic concepts of Traditional Siddha Indian Medicine. The household recipes containing greens are part of Tamil culture.  Even today one can find preparations containing greens (Keerai in Tamil) in the regular diet of south Indians. This tradition is passed through generations because of the immense medicinal properties which the greens posses.  Among the frequently consumed greens Ponnankanni (Sessile joyweed – Alternanthera sessilis) finds an important place in Traditional Siddha Medical literatures.  The specialty begins with its Tamil name which indicates ‘Ponnankanni – Pon aagum kaan nee’ (Literally meaning – Your body will get golden luster). According to Traditional Siddha literatures, this herb contains gold and thereby comes under Kaya Kalpa (Panacea) category also.  Besides it is also rich in anti-oxidants, Sterol compounds, gives cooling effect to eyes & body, relieves neuritis, treats 96 types of eye diseases and aids disease free healthier life.  This review paper gives an overview of all aspects of Alternanthera sessilis including botanical, phyto-chemical, Pharmacognosy and medicinal uses with reference to Siddha Indian Medicine.

19. Development of Quality Standards of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) arn. Root – A Substitute Drug for Liquorice.
Gohil Amit N., Daniel M.
The root of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn. (Family – Fabaceae) is considered as one of the substitute drugs for Liquorice. There is no absolute pharmacognostic data or any quality parameters available for this root. The present investigation deals with the detailed pharmacognostic, physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of roots of Taverniera cuneifolia . The important diagnostic characters include, thin walled cortical parenchyma typically found in a pairs wherein the adjoining walls were straight, distinct groups of fibers adhering to which were cells of crystal fibers containing prisms of calcium oxalate and gelatinized fibers. Chief characters of powder include crystal fibers, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, starch grains, thick walled fibers with narrow lumen and blunt tips, xylem vessels having bordered pits and annular thickening. Various physicochemical parameters were also established. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of good number of phenolic acids such as vanillic, syringic, ferulic, p-Hydroxy benzoic, o-coumaric and melilotic acids of which the last two were characteristic to this drug other compounds were alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins and coumarins. Glycyrrhizin which was identified by some workers, were found absent here. Such data would helpful in standardization and development of quality standards of the root of this plant. It would also help in distinguishing the plant material from genuine Liquorice.

20. Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts – An Ethnomedicinal Boon
Tatyasaheb Patil, Snehal Patil, Anuprita Patil, Shreedevi Patil
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) belongs to the family Caricaceae and is one of the most well researched plants. It is used widely due to its medicinal properties. This review aims at presenting the current literature on phytochemical preoperties of carica papaya leaves and also its uses in indigenous populations and its therauptic applications and future research directions. For this review literature was compiled from various databases like pubmed, embase, scopus. The Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract contains saponins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, reducing sugars, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins. It is used as an antidiabetic, antiinflamatory, anticancer and also to treat dengue and other diseases due to its wide biological activity. Many scientific studies have been conducted to the same end. Yet there is deficiency and opportunity to enlarge the framework of the research to include research in Parkinsonism and oxidant related damage, research in humans regarding use of c. papaya leaves in management of malaria, dengue fever, heart disorders, diabetes and helminthes.

21. Quantitative and Qualitative Estimations of Phytoconstituents from Root of Sterespermum colais Buch.
Rashid Akhtar, Mohib Khan
The plant chemistry is based on the study of many therapeutically active chemical constituents assiciated with many inert substances like cellulose, coloring agents, and lignin etc. The main active constiuents are extracted from plants and standardized for it’s chemical and biological efficay. The main objective of present study was to find out the active principles from the root of Stereopermum colais Buch. Hence for this study air dried powdered root was utilized for extraction purpose. After extraction, different extracts were subjected for preliminary phytochemical screening for the identification of active functional groups. And it showed presence of many active phytoconstituents like phytosterols,  proteins, Saponins, Lipids and Flavnoids. Further powdered drug was used for the detection of inorganic elements from the ash of the powdered drug and it showed presence of many inorganic elements like iron, chloride and nitrates. For quantitative estimations total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total triterpenoids content was determined. Then for the purification of identified active phytoconstituents, TLC was performed by using two different standard samples i.e. beta sitesterol and lupiol. It showed significant result which is given in the figure.

22. Isolation and Evaluation of Venom Neutralising Fraction from the Areal Parts of Hedyotis corymbosa
Beena Briget Kuriakose, N.A.Aleykutty, R.Kuttan
Hediotys corymbosa is a well known plant used in the traditional medicine. Although it is a well established venom antidote in the folk medicine, its efficacy in this area is not scientifically evaluated. The areal parts of the plant were extracted using traditional method and fractionated using chromatography. The various fractions were then tested in vitro and the promising fractions were subjected to antivenom evaluation using mice. Freeze dried cobra venom (Naja naja) was employed for the study. Snake venom antiserum was used as the standard. Inhibition of coagulant activity, fibrinolytic activity and haemolytic activity were studied in vitro. In vivo evaluation was done for parameters like inhibition of lethality, myotoxicity, defibrinogenating activity, haemorrhagic activity and edema. The fraction showed very good neutralization of various venom activities  in low concentrations.

23. Phytochemical and Antioxidant Studies on Methanolic Extract of Gmelina asiatica Linn Stem
Netala Silvia, T. Satyanaraya
To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Gmelina asiatica stem which is locally used for the treatment of various diseases. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannin, alkaloid, steroids, glycosides and saponins. The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 18.38 and 78.18µg/mL respectively. The reducing power of the extract was 84.15 µg/mL. The total phenolics content of the methanolic extract of stem was 4800±24.53 and the total flavonoid content was 28.54 ± 0.18 QE/g. Our findings provide evidence that the crude methanolic extract of Gmelina asiatica is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicine.

24. Chemical Examination of the Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre
Yadava .R. N., Chakravarty Archana
The present paper deals with chemical  examination of  defatted  seeds of  the  plant Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Which has been found to consist of five sugars viz D-mannose , D-glucose, D-xylose , Raffinose , L-fructose  along with five amino acids, Alanine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine acid , Tryptophane, and Threonine .

25. Study of In vitro Immunomodulatory Effect of Flavonoid Isolated from Phyllanthus niruri on Human Blood Lymphocytes and Evaluation of its Antioxidant Potential
Joby Jose, Sudheesh Sudhakaran, Sumesh Kumar T.M, Sony Jayaraman, Jayadevi Variyar E
The aim of this study was to investigate the radical scavenging and immunomodulatory properties of the flavonoid isolated from Phyllanthus niruri. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using various assays such as the 1, 1‑diphenyl‑2‑picryl‑hydrazil (DPPH) radical scav­enging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. In vitro assay of immunomodulatory activity of flavonoid isolated from Phyllanthus niruri was done by using lymphocytes.  The isolated flavonoid exhibited a dose‑dependent enhancement in activity in DPPH assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. In DPPH assay the isolate exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 48.98μg/ml when compared to the IC50 value of the reference standard, ascorbic acid 21.11μg/ml. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay 100μg of quercetin equivalent activity was shown by 468.12μg of isolated flavonoid. Flavonoid isolated from Phyllanthus niruri showed in vitro growth stimulatory effect on isolated normal lymphocytes which was estimated by MTT assay. Percentages of proliferation of lymphocytes at different concentrations were obtained. The results of the present study indicate that the flavonoid isolated from Phyllanthus niruri is a compound having potent antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities.

26. Development of HPLC Method for Estimation of Furonocumarins in Psoralea corylifolia and Ammi majus
Meena Harsahay, Pandey Hemant Kr, Manchanda Aarti, Nasim Mohd.
Furonocumarins are widely used in the treatment of Vitiligo and Psoriasis. The objective of present study was to develop a reliable, accurate and reproducible HPLC method for the simultaneously estimation of four furanocaumarins (psoralen, isopsoralen, xanthotoxin and bergapten) in Psoralea (P.) corylifoia and Ammi (A.) majus plants. The furocoumarins were separated simultaneously on a reverse phase Symmetry C8 (150mm×4.6mm) column in isocratic method of methanol, acetonitrile and water solution as mobile phase having flow rate at 0.8 mL/min and detected with UV detector. Maximum psoralen and isopsoralen (Angelicin) were recorded in P. corylifolia, whereas maximum 8-methoxypsoralen (xanthotoxin) and 5-methoxypsoralen (bergapten) were found in A. majus. P. corylifolia is a good source of furanocoumarins psoralen and angelicin, whereas A. majus is the good source for 5-Methoxypsoralen and 8-Methoxypsoralen. Hence, both plants can be used in the treatment of Vitiligo and Psoriasis. The isocratic HPLC method was found more suitable, accurate, less time consuming and reproducible method for the estimation of above cited four furanocumarins simultaneously from the P. corylifolia, and A. majus plants.

27. Correlation of Tannins Isolated from Several Medicinal Plants against the Inhibition of Alpha Amylase Activity
Sampath V, Mani N
Tannins are class of phenolic compounds which exhibited significant therapeutic effect against various diseases. Here the study was carried out to screen the alpha amylase inhibitory activity of tannins enchanced fraction isolated from the fruit rind of Terminalia chebula, Punica granatum, Embilica officianalis, Aegel marmelos and seeds of Mucuna pruiens. Total tannins content were analysed by UV spectrophotometer. Different concentration was prepared to evaluate the alpha amylase inhibitor activity in each sample and the percentage of amylase inhibition varies with respect to the tannins content. From this study, the tannins fractionated from the Terminalia chebula fruit rind showed highest inhibition of 83.70% was obtained at the concentration of 1000µg/ml and IC50 value of 470.0±1.41 was obtained with respect to the various concentrations (1000,500,250,125,62.5µg/ml). This result indicated that tannins from the Terminalia chebula fruit rind act as an effective inhibitor of alpha amylase enzyme and suggested that it may be a significant antidiabetic agent for the management of diabetes.

28. Quorum Sensing Inhibitory Activity of Calotropis gigantea: A Tropical Indian Medicinal Plant
Dr. Sarada. J, Uma Kranthi. S
Development  of  multidrug  resistant  pathogenic  bacterial  strains  has  become  more  prevalent.  Novel therapeutic  approaches  to  treat  drug  resistant  bacterial  infections  are  gaining  momentum.  Disruption  of  quorum  sensing  (Quorum  Quenching)  attenuates  the  pathogenicity   without  imposing  resistance  in  bacteria.  Preliminary  evaluation  of  QSI  activity  of  certain  medicinal  plants  of  Indian  origin  were  tested  against  an  established  pathogen  of  Pseudomonas  sps.  Out  of  the  plant  extracts  tested  Calotropis  leaf  extract  had  the  potential  QSI  activity.  Calotropis  leaf  extract  could  not  affect  the  growth  proving  that  it  does  not  have  any  antibactericidal  activity  but  at  the  same  time  it  could  reduce  two  out  of   three  virulence  characters  like  pyocyanin  and  protease  activity.  QSI activity was  confirmed  by  a  bio-inidicator  organism  C.  Violecium 12472 as  violacein  inhibition  assay.  Concentration  of  AHL  molecule  were  tested  in  treated  cultures  of  Pseudomonas  using  CV026  as  violacein  induction  assay.  Qualitative  tests  for   phytochemicals  of  the  extract  had  revealed  that  it  has  phenolic  compounds,  terpenoids,  alkaloids  and  saponins.  TLC  and  HPLC  analysis  along  with  fractional  separation  of  phytochemicals  proved  that  it  has  mixture  of  saponins,  alkaloids,  terpenoids  and  phenolics.  Calotropis  leaf  extract  can  be  further  exploited  as  potential  QSI  agent  as  these  phytochemicals  could  decrease  the  drug  resistance  of  certain  clinical  bacterial  isolates  like  Enterococcus  faecalis  and  Proteus  vulgaris.

29. Hepatoprotective Effect of Zingerone [4-(4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxyphenyl) Butan-2-One] in Lipopolysaccharide Induced Liver Injury Mouse Model through Downregulation of Inflammatory Mediators
Lokender Kumar, Sanjay Chhibber, Kusum Harjai
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for causing inflammation leading to septic shock or organ failure. During treatment of infection, high amount of LPS is released in blood circulation due to immediate lysis of bacteria. Since liver helps in clearing LPS from the body, hence it remains the primary target to be stimulated by LPS releasing vigorous amount of inflammatory molecules leading to liver injury. Available anti-inflammatory chemotherapy fails in such situation because it relies predominantly on specific or non specific inhibitors of cyclooxygenase enzyme activity (COX-2) with broad range of hepatic, renal and cardiovascular side effects. There is a need to replace the potential therapies targeting suppression of LPS induced inflammation with those having no or minimal side effects. Active components from dietary medicinal plants like ginger (Zingiber officinale) are potential source of non toxic antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory molecules. In the present study, protective effect of zingerone was evaluated against inflammation induced by LPS in terms of liver histology, serum endotoxin levels, liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP) and inflammatory mediators (malondialdehyde, reactive nitrogen intermediates, myeloperoxidase). Relative mRNA expression of LPS induced inflammatory markers TLR4, TNF-α and iNOS was also evaluated in zingerone treated and untreated groups. Hepatoprotective effect of zingerone was observed leading to significant improvement in liver histology, decreased levels of serum endotoxin levels, liver function markers and MPO, MDA, RNI. It also showed significant down regulation of mRNA expression of TLR4, TNF-α and iNOS suggesting potent anti-inflammatory activity of zingerone against P.aeruginosa LPS induced liver injury.

30. Phamacological Study of Alkaloid Hirsutine-3-o-Glycopyranoside Isolated from Roots of Cocullus hirsutus
A.K Misra, P.Gouda
Cocullus hirsutus belongs to the family Menispermaceae. It is a perennial herb (climber) growing widely in India and is used by the Indian tribes for a wide range of ailments. A good number of alkaloids and terpenoids have been isolated from the aerial parts of the plant. In our present work the root part of the plant have been used for isolation. Characterisation was done by taking their UV, IR, H-NMR, 13C-NMR, mass and elemental analysis. The antifungal and antimicrobial properties of the compounds were studied following standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity against clinically important bacteria such as Escherichia coli (MTCC 1195), Enterobater aerogens(MTCC 2823) , Klebsiella pneumonia(MTCC 2405), Salmolnella typhi(MTCC 733), Proteus vulgaris(MTCC 1771) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa -gram negative(MTCC 2642), staphylococcus aureus(MTCC 1430), Bacillus cereus- gram positive(MTTC 1272) was done. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by agar disc diffusion method. The result showed that the ethanol extract of the roots of Cocculus hirsutus  highly affected the activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. The inhibition against Staphylococcus aerues and Enterobacter aerogens was moderate and remaining bacterial strains had no activity. The study suggests that the roots of Cocculus hirsutus obtained by infusion can be used in the treatment of various bacterial diseases.

31. In-vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Enicostemma axillare Extract against Hela Cell Line
A.Krishna Veni, S.Mohandass
This study was aimed for the evaluation of the anticancer activity of the whole plant of Enicostemma axillare on the HeLa cell line. The whole plant of Enicostemma axillare extract was tested for its inhibitory effect on HeLa cell line. The percentage viability of the cell line was carried out by using Tryphan blue dye exclusion method. The cytotoxicity of Enicostemma axillare on HeLa cell line in concentration range between 31.25 to 1000 µg/ml by using MTT assay. IC50 values of Enicostemma axillare on HeLa cell line were 340 and 320 µg/ml respectively by MTT assay and Tryphan blue dye exclusion technique. From the performed assay, methanolic extract of Enicostemma axillare shows greater activity on HeLa cell line and that mean Enicostemma axillare can be used in anticancer activity.

32. Marker Based Standardization of Extracts and Formulations of Achyranthes aspera
Tatke P. A., Desai S. S., Gabhe S. Y.
There is great demand of herbal medicines in the developed as well as developing countries as they are considered to be effective and safe. Although they are as efficacious as allopathic medicines and safer as compared to allopathic medicines, they are not globally accepted. The major reason behind this fact is that they lack proper standardization technique.  The present paper discusses a new, simple, accurate and reproducible analytical method using betaine as marker. This developed and validated method was applied for marker based standardization of extracts and marketed formulations containing Achyranthes aspera.  The method employs C18 column as stationary phase and acetonitrile: water (10:90, v/v) as mobile phase. Flow rate of the mobile phase was kept at 1.0 ml/min and   detection was carried out at 205 nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Linearity was obtained over the range of 15-70 µg/ml. LOD and LOQ were found to be 5 µg/ml and 15 µg/ml, respectively. The recovery of betaine was between 107.28 % -108.35 %. The method is reproducible and robust. The developed and validated method can be used as quality control tool for the analysis of extract and herbal formulations containing Achyranthes aspera using betaine as marker.

33. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Evaluation of Citrus Reticulata blanco peel
Apraj VD, Pandita NS
Citrus reticulata Blanco belongs to the family Rutaceae. It is commonly known as Narangi or Santra. Peel is the outer part of the pericarp of the ripe or nearly ripe fruits of Citrus reticulata Blanco. The present study deals with the pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of Citrus reticulata Blanco peel. This study includes the macroscopic and microscopic analysis, physicochemical evaluation and preliminary phytochemical study. Thin layer chromatography of alcoholic extracts has also been performed and results were mentioned as Rf  value. Macroscopy reveals the organoleptic properties of peel and microscopic study shows the presence of oil glands and vessels responsible for essential oil production in rind. Water soluble ash value is more than acid insoluble ash indicates that the amount of acid-insoluble siliceous matter present was less than that of water soluble ash. The preliminary phytochemical investigations indicate the presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, flavonoids, Tannins and Phenolic derivatives, Steroids etc. The entire study provides useful information in the botanical identification, standardization for purity and quality in authentication of the plant.

34. Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Powder Extracts of Psidium guajava L.
Gayathri, V, Kiruba, D.
The plant Psidium guajava is native of South Eastern Asia; grow in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Leaves are dark green, elliptic, ovate or oblong rounded or with an obtuse apex. Guava is commonly known for its food and nutritional values and the fruit considered as poor man apple of tropics. The present study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the leaf powder of guava. The phytochemical study showed the presence of phenol, carbohydrates and cellulose in all the four solvent extracts. Terpenoids were also present in certain solvent extracts. Flavonoids were present in chloroform and benzene extracts.

35. Antipyretic Activity of Methanolic and Ethyl Acetate Extract of Holostemma ada Kodien Schult on Wistar Rats.
Rubesh Kumar Sadasivam, Chenchugari Sridhar, korlakunta Narasimha Jayaveera
Investigation on the antipyretic activity of the traditionally used medicinal plant leaf extracts of Holostemma ada Kodien Schult (Asclepiadaceae); the methanolic (ME-HAKS) and ethyl acetate leaf (EAE-HAKS) extract (200 and 400mg/kg) was challenged against the acetylsalicylic acid (300mg/kg) as positive control for the assessment antipyretic activity on wistar rats; on subcutaneously treated with aqueous suspension 15 ml/kg of 20% w/v brewer’s yeast. Preliminary phytochemical investigation showed the presence of flavonoids; tannins, saponines, anthocyanins, steroids, alkaloids and phenols were the major component in the methanolic extract and ethyl acetate extracts. The methanolic showed the dose – dependence reduction in hyperpyrexia when compared with the ethyl acetated extract and positive control. Hence further investigation on the separation and isolation of active principle will lead to a potent anti-pyretic agent.

36. Review on Yarsagumba (Cordyceps sinensis) – An Exotic Medicinal Mushroom
Sudipta Chakraborty, Sailee Chowdhury, Gouranga Nandi
Cordyceps sinensis, popularly known as Yarsagumba, is a rare age old mushroom that has been valued extensively in traditional Chinese medicine. People of China and Tibet have been using this for various medicinal purposes since emperors’ age. Its unique life cycle and diverse medicinal uses compelled science to show interest during last three decades. The present study reviews about its basic knowledge, claimed uses, their scientific backgrounds and its impact on socio-economic status. Much research work has been carried out leading to isolation of bioactive compounds and many of them undergoing clinical trials too. On the other hand it shows immense effects on the lifestyle and economic status of inhabitants of those high altitude villages where it is found naturally. Despite of its scientific progress, further development is required particularly in formulation of dosage forms and analysis leading to the best utilization of this most costly medicinal mushroom.

37. Gum Guggul: An Ayurvedic Boom
Poonia Priyanka, Mittal Sanjeev K., Gupta Vivek Kumar, Singh Jitender, Sweety
‘Guggul’ a common name for all Commiphora species, is the bioactive oleo-gum-resin responsible for the therapeutic effects. Gum, essential oils, flavonoids, ellagic acid, camphorene, cembrene, diterpene hydrocarbon, diterpene alcohol, Z-guggulsterone, E-guggulsterone, guggulsterol-I, II, & III, cholesterol, etc are present. Guggul was introduced as a medicine in 1966, and but approved as a hypolipidemic drug for marketing in India in 1986. Commercially ayurvedic formulations of guggul are Triphala guggulu, Yogaraj guggulu, Kaishor guggulu, Punavadi guggulu, etc. used for detoxification, treating obesity, arthritic conditions, muscle aches, rheumatism, gout, eliminating fluid, helping heart conditions, and inflammations. Now it  has been used to treat hypercholesterolemia, impotence, bronchitis, catarrh, sores, tumors, wounds bone fractures, facial paralysis, ulcers, anemia, diabetes, and as a tonic for the uterus, etc. The result from clinical and preclinical studies support the therapeutic claims for gum guggul as mentioned in Ayurveda. However, future clinical studies are required to confirm these claims.

38. Study on the Anti-Cancer Activity of Tylophora indica Leaf Extracts on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells
Kanakarajan Vijayakumari Pratheesh, Vijayakumar Jacintha Shine, Jacob Emima, Gopi Lilly Renju, Ramachandran Rajesh
The failure of existing therapeutic interventions and chemotherapy draws the necessity of new and efficient drugs in the treatment of cancer. Plant based drugs always hold pre-eminence owing to the factors like lesser side effects and decreased chances of development of drug resistance. Tylophora indica a plant belonging to Asclepiadaceae is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different aliments as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiviral agents. The lack of scientific evidences regarding the anticancer potential of this plant limits its validation as chemotherapeutic agents. In the current study the anti-proliferative effect of alcoholic extracts of Tylophora indica on HCT-15 colon cancer cell lines was studied in detail. Phytochemical analysis confirms the presence of alkaloids and flavaniods as the major secondary metabolites present in ethanolic extracts. Invitro free radical scavenging assays confirms significant antioxidant activity. Dose dependent invitro studies confirm an IC50 value of 40 mcg/ml with MTT and neutral red uptake assays. Increased LDH leakages shows increased membrane damage in cells treated with ethanol fractions of Tylophora indica. Apoptosis was determined by EtBr/Acridine orange staining methods which confirmed presence of apoptotic/ necrotic cells upon treatment with extracts. The results suggests therapeutic potential of Ethanolic extracts of Tylophora indica against colon cancer.

39. A Comparative Evaluation of Swertia Species as Potential Substituent of Swertia chirata
Anupam Jamwal
The comparative chemical profile has been generated through TLC fingerprints of five Swertia species viz. Swertia angustifolia Buch Ham. ex D. Don, S. chirata Buch Ham, S. cordata (G. Don) C.B.Clarke, S. lurida (D. Don ex G. Don) C.B. Clarke and S. purpurascens (D. Don) A. Wall ex E.D. Clarke. TLC fingerprint of Swertia species showed a close chemical relationship between S. chirata and S. lurida. In vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei test model in mice and antioxidant activity using DPPH assay have been performed. S. lurida and S. chirata showed maximum antimalarial activity at two different dose levels of 50 and 100 µg/ml using chloroquine (10 µM) as standard. However, only methanolic extract of S. chirata and S. lurida exhibited maximum in vitro antioxidant activity in DPPH assay shown IC50 16.46 and 32.7 respectively using ascorbic acid as standard. The only species exhibiting better and comparable activity than S. chirata was found to be S. lurida. Thus S. lurida act as the best substitute of S. chirata in malarial fever.

40. Pharmacognostical, Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Studies of Leaves of Barleria prionitis Linn.
Kapoor Amit, Shukla Shiwani, Kumar Rajesh, Kaur Rajinder, Lehra Kuldeep Singh, Kapoor Shilpa
Besides the various uses of use of traditional plant Barleria prionitis linn for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by micro-organisms we have to focus on antimicrobial activity of this plant in this paper. The whole plant was subjected to successive Soxhlet extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and with distilled water. The various extracts, were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for different classes of phytoconstituents. Phytochemical study showed that all the four extracts gave positive tests for phenolic compounds & tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, carbohydrates, protein and amino acids, flavonoids and phytosterols. The three different concentrations range from 2.5, 5 & 10 mg/ml of the extracts were tested for antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion assay method against Salmonella typhi, Bacilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and E. coli. Streptomycin was used as a reference drug. The ethanolic extract exhibit highest zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus is 12 mm with 10 mg/ml concentration. Slurry of ethanolic extract is processed with different solvents by increasing polarity to obtain various fractions. All the extracts and column fractions were used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The S. typhi [Chloroform extract, Column fraction]; V. cholera [Column fraction]; E. coli [Chloroform extract, Column fraction] were inhibited at 5 mg/ml level. Staphylococcus aureus [Pet. ether extract] inhibited at 3.33 mg/ml level.

41. Phytochemical Analysis of a Fodder Crop Trifolium alexandrium L.
Bhowal. M., Das. L
Trifolium alexandrium is a winter legume fodder crop with high nutritional value. Leaf, stem and roots of Trifolium alexandrium were screened for its phytochemical analysis. Different extracts of the Leaf, stem and roots of Trifolium alexandrium revealed the presence of alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids, steroids, phenolics, Volatile oils, anthracene glycosides, amino and Chlorogenic acid, Gums and mucilage.

42. Pharmacognostic Evaluation and Metal Analysis on the Leaf of Nyctenthus arbortristis Linn.
G. Prabhakar, K. Shailaja
Nyctenthus arbortristis Linn is a small tree, commonly kwon as ‘Nyctenthus’ and ‘Night Jasmine’ in English, belonging to the family Oleaceae. The leaves are simple, opposite, ovate, acute or acuminate, densely pubescent on both sides. The leaf is hypostomatic, with tetracytic, amonocytic and anisocytic stomata. In surface view the epidermal cells contents dense with calcium carbonate crystals. Trichomes are two types’ viz., Unicellualar conical and Uniseraite conical hairs on adaxial and abaxial side. In Transverse Section (T.S.) the midvein is slightly grooved adaxially, prominently ribbed abaxially. Epidermis is 1 – layered with larger cells on adaxial. Lamina differentiated into palisade and spongy tissue. Vascular tissue of midvein consists of a large crescent shaped vascular bundle at the centre. Quantitative analysis of metals studies were carried by Scanning electron microscope – Energy dispersive Spectroscopy.

43. Gas Chromatography-Sass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Profiling of Heartwood Oil Composition from 15 Years Old Sandalwood Trees
Surendra Singh Bisht, Hemanthraj K.P.M.
One of the most important commercially valued products of sandalwood is its aromatic essential oil obtained from the heartwood. The heartwood oil commercially known as East Indian Sandalwood oil is being extensively used in diversified industries like – perfumery, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and aromatherapy. The heartwood oil content and variation in its composition among the similar aged trees grown in homogenous conditions were studied. Fifteen year old trees growing at Institute of Wood Science and Technology campus were considered and core samples were collected from five trees having different girth (37.5, 42, 50.8, 53.5 and 56cm). Oil content extracted from these cores varied from 11 to 43 mg/g of heartwood. Total 35 volatile metabolites were detected and quantified in term of percentage peak area (% A) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. A chemically diversified alkanes, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene, fatty acids, and alcohols, were observed. The major constituents were α-santalol (33.55-35.32%), β-santalol (17.16-18.96%), epi-β-santalol (2.23-3.51%), epi-β-santalene (0.80-1.69%), α-santalene (0.56-1.6%), β-santalene (1.12-2.35%), and α-bergamotol (4.03-7.77%).

44. Isolation and Characterization of (4Z, 12Z)-Cyclopentadeca-4, 12-Dienone from Indian Medicinal PlantGrewia hirsuta and its Hyperglycemic Effect on 3T3 and L6 Cell Lines
Abirami N, Natarajan B
The current investigation deals with the isolation followed characterization of (4Z, 12Z)-cyclopentadeca-4, 12-dienone from the plant Grewia hirsuta, which possesses significant hypoglycemic potential. The plant leaves were extracted with solvent and its chemical components were separated using different chromatographic techniques such as TLC and column chromatography. The separated fractions were tested for their antidiabetic potential by α-amylase inhibitory assay. Further, the structure of the compound with significant α-amylase inhibitory potential was confirmed by spectroscopic methods including UV, FTIR, 1H, 13C NMR and the accurate mass determination was carried out using the Q-TOF mass spectrometer. In addition, the antidiabetic activity of the purified compound was evaluated on 3T3 and L6 cell line by MTT assay. The results of the study prove that the leaves of the selected plant Grewia hirsuta contains a potent antidiabetic compound (4Z, 12Z)-cyclopentadeca-4, 12-dienone.

45. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Evaluation of the Bulbs of Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.)Voss.
C.P Deepa, Beena Briget Kuriakose
The plant Hippeastrum puniceum is a widely seen ornamental plant. The fresh bulbs of the plant were used traditionally for healing wounds, curing tumours and piles. As till date no relevant scientific studies had been conducted on this plant. So the present study was conducted to scientifically validate the pharmacognostic and physicochemical parameters. The microscopic evaluation of the bulb shows the presence of starch grains, mucilage cells and xylem fibers. Physicochemical parameters like ash values, extractive values, crude fibre content and fluorescence analysis were also established. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, proteins and amino acids. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of various bulb extracts were determined by Folin Cio-Calteau and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. The choloform extract showed highest amount of phenolics and the highest amount of flavonoid was present in ethyl acetate extract.

46. Pharmacological Actions and Phytoconstituents of Amaranthus spinosus Linn: A Review
Guria Tanmoy, Mondal Arijit, Singha Tanushree, Singh Jagadish, Maity Tapan Kumar
This work presents a brief overview of the morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. The available information on the ethnopharmacological uses in traditional medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical practice of Amaranthus spinosus were collected via a library and electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Spingerlink). Phytochemical investigation of this plant has resulted in the identification of more than 20 active chemical constituents, among which betalains, hydroxycinnamates, saponins, steroids and flavonoids are the predominant ones. The plant has desirable effects like cooling, digestible, alexiteric, laxative, diuretic, stomachic, antipyretic, improves the appetite, useful in kapha and biliousness, blood disease, burning sensation, hallucination, leprosy, bronchitis, rat bite, piles and leucorrhoea. This article enumerates an overview of phytochemical and pharmacological aspects that is useful to researchers for further exploration necessary for the development of this potential herb.

47. Invitro Evaluation of Antidiabetic Potential and Phytochemical Profile of Psoralea corylifolia Seeds
Suhashini.R, Sindhu.S, Sagadevan.E
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that occurs due to poor secretion of insulin by pancreas. Insulin helps to metabolize blood sugar. Hence this results in high glucose level in blood. Presently, diabetes is considered as a big killer and is among the most significant diseases in the developed world. The incidence of diabetes is increasing every day and this indicates the increasing need for the treatment of diabetes. The blood glucose level can be regulated by various mechanisms. In vitro antidiabetic assays such as glucose uptake by yeast cells, glucose diffusion assay, alpha amylase inhibition assay and glycosylation of hemoglobin assay are performed. Using these assays, the antidiabetic activity of the plant Psoralea corylifolia is determined. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis reveals all the bioactive compounds present in the crude extract of the plant. Our results show that methanolic extract has an effective activity when compared to ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. Hence methanolic extract of Psoralea corylifolia possess higher antidiabetic activity. The compounds which contribute to its antidiabetic activity were identified, characterized and separated by thin layer chromatography. MTT assay for L6 cell lines was performed and was found that the plant extract showed a minimum toxicity.


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