International Journal of

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 4873

p-ISSN: 2961-6069

Peer Review Journal

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1. Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Beneficial Effects of Green Tea
Rani R, Nagpal D, Gullaiya S, MadanS, Agrawal S.S
Green tea is obtained from the plant Camellia sinensis by minimal oxidation during processing is “natural secret for a healthier life”.  Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, second only to water, and its medicinal properties have been widely explored. The tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is a member of Theaceae family, green tea is produced from its leaves. It is an evergreen shrub or tree. The main constituent present in green tea is Epigallocatechin-3-gallate. This component is responsible for all the biological activities that it shows like anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiobesity, antihypertensive, antistroke, use in skin disorder etc. The present review complies the existing literature related to botanical description, morphology, climate and soil, phyto-chemical constituents, biochemical properties, biological activity of Camellia sinensis.

2. Invitro Antimicrobial Activity, DNA Sequencing and Phytochemical Screening  of A Medicinal Plant- Ruellia patula Jacq
Saranya N,  Sumathra P, Rangabhashiyam S, Elangomadhavan R, Suman P
RuelliapatulaJacq (syn: Dipteracanthus patulus) belongs to the family Acanthaceae, has numerous medicinal properties but is not exploited much in modern medicine. Invitro antimicrobial activity of the Ruelliapatulajacq leaves extracted with Ethanol, Methanol and Acetone was checked for Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger by disc diffusion method. Ethanol was found to be the better solvent that its extract showed more activity against Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis respectively.  Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanolic and methanolic extracts showed positive results for alkaloids, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids. Genomic DNA was extracted from RuelliapatulaJacq leaves using the standard Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide extraction method. The DNA extracted responded well during PCR amplification and RAPD analysis with three gene specific primers and five random Medicinal aromatic plant primers respectively. Chromatographic fingerprinting of the ethanolic extract of the plant leaves was analyzed for compounds present in the sample using analytical type HPLC using a C-13 Column and a UV- detector of the RuelliapatulaJacq for the detection of the chemical constituents in the plant. Analytical type chromatogram revealed the presence of 8 compounds in the extract under scanning at 205 nm. The preparative type HPLC chromatogram revealed the presence of 2 major compounds in the extract. The collected fractions were subjected to FT-IR spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectrum analysis. FT-IR Spectrum studies on RuelliapatulaJacq ethanolic extract showed the possibility of harbouring secondary metabolites with higher pharmaceutical value.

3. Simultaneous Determination of Rutin and Quercetin in Different Parts of Tecomella undulata (Seem): An Endangered Medicinal Plant.
Aparna Saraf, Shweta Sankhala
Simultaneous quantitative determination of two flavonoidal compounds, rutin and quercetin was carried out by using reverse phase -high performance layer chromatography (RP-HPLC) with Uv-visible detector. A simple and rapid chromatographic separation was done by using Zorbax -C18 (5μm 4.6×150mm) column by using isocritical flow with the constituted mixture of water and methanol (60: 40) with the flow rate of 1ml/min. Detection was carried out at 370 nm. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed a good liner relationship with r= 0.996, same for both flavanoids. Comparative study of methanolic and ethanolic extract of leaf, bark and flower of Tecomella undulata (Seem.)  was done. A common trend was observed for both rutin and querecitin in terms of content from the aerial parts, the highest being in flowers followed by leaf and then from bark in both the extracts. Methanol exhibited to be a better solvent for the extraction of both the Flavanoids. However, Quercetin could not be detected in ethanolic extract of leaves while bark exhibited negligible amount of quercetin in both, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. The result of present study supports the view that the arial parts of Tecomella undulata (Seem) could be a potential source of natural antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and other important medicinal drugs.

4. Evaluation of Anti Microbial Antihelminthic Properties and Phytochemical Analysis of Medicinally Important Plant Saraca indica Linn
Aruna S.R., Shimi Suku, Sukanya M.K.
The present study focus on the preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antihelminthic activity of different solvent extracts of leaf and bark of Saraca indica. Various phytochemicals present in bark and leaves are extracted using soxhelt apparatus with different solvents. The antimicrobial activity was checked against different human pathogens (MTCC). Antihelminthic activity was checked against Phertima posthuma. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites. Methanol extract of leaf sample showed the highest zone of inhibition against Bacillus megaterium (18mm) and Enterobacter faecalis(18mm). Ethyl acetate extract of leaf and bark sample showed highest antifungal activity against Rhizomucor species(20mm and 19mm respectively).Butanol extract of leaf extract showed potent antihelminthic property(20 min death) The study shown it has promising antimicrobial and antihelminthic property.This study showed that Saraca indica , a  versatile plant, have many active compounds present which can be successfully used for the development of various potent drugs.

5. Phytochemical Investigation and Antimicrobial Activity Testing of Phyllanthus fraternus Leaves Webster
Gandhi S., Shinde P., Avalaskar A., Rao S.
The present study aimed at the phytochemical evaluation and in vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts from Phyllanthus fraternus Webster. on bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Extraction method used was maceration. Three solvents were used for extraction of phytoconstituents (pet ether, methanol and hydromethanolic). Only steroids were found in pet ether extract while significant presence of steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids was found in methanolic extract. Hydromethanolic fraction also showed presence of steroids, glycosides and alkaloids. The fractions of methanolic extract of Phyllanthus fraternus were isolated by column chromatography by using solvent system in which polarity was increased gradually. Antimicrobial activity of all the fractions from column chromatography was then checked by agar well diffusion method which shown inhibitory effect for methanolic extract.

6. Evaluation of Anticancer Activity Using Hexanic Extract of Vitex trifolia on Two Different Cancer Cell Lines
Vasanthi.V. J., Radhjeyalakshmi. R., Nasrin. F.
The  present  study was  designed  to  evaluate  cytotoxicity  of  n-Hexane  fractions  of  Vitex trifolia in two cancer cell lines viz., Hep G2 and HeLa. Different concentrations such as 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 μg/ml of extract were tested for cytotoxicity using MTT Assay. Based   on  our   previous   research   findings   on   qualitative   and   quantitive   analysis   of phytochemicals  in Vitex  trifolia,  it  was  evident  that  phytochemicals  in Vitex  trifolia  had strong antibacterial activity. Hence in the current study anticancer activity was tested using Vitex  trifolia  extracts.  Concentration  required  for a 50% inhibition of viability (IC50) was determined  graphically.  MTT  Assays  showed  that  hexanic  extract  of  Vitex  trifolia  were highly effective against both Hep G2 and HeLa cancer  cell lines at a concentration  of 80 μg/ml.  This conclude  that  Vitex  trifolia  can  be potent  drug  for  cancer  treatment  and  an alternative medicine.

7. Evaluation of Anti-Diarrhoeal Potential of Methanol Extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn. Leaf and Mangifera indica Linn. Stem Bark and Root Bark
Mahalakshmi M, Parimala M, Shoba F.G
The aim of the study was to determine the antidiarrhoeal effect of methanolic extract of two commonly used medicinal plants, Ficus bengalensis – leaf and Mangifera indica – stem bark and root bark using swiss albino mice against castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening and subsequent TLC analysis for the identification of active phytoconstituents. The mice were treated with the extract at a dose of 3, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg b.wt. p.o. Castor oil was administered after 30 minutes. The stool consistency was observed for a period of 4 hours. Phytochemical analysis of the methanol plant extracts proved the presence of steroids, flavonoids, triterpenes, phenols, sugar and tannins. The methanol plant extracts significantly reduced the total number of stool and number of diarrhoeal stool in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the untreated control. The phytoconstituents responsible for antidiarrhoeal activity may have acted by increasing colonic water and electrolyte reabsorption or by inhibiting intestinal motility. Thus the plants have shown to exhibit potent antidiarrhoeal activity proving its ethnomedicinal usage

8. A Comprehensive Study on an Endemic Indian Genus – Strobilanthes
Preethi F, Suseem SR
Plants are used in different traditional systems of Indian medicine. Strobilanthes is the second largest genus in the family Acanthaceae with  350 species restricted to the hills in tropical Asia of which 150 species are distributed in the Indian subcontinent  with 44 are endemic to the Western Ghats. Most are frost-tender and require protection in frost-prone areas. The present study reveals certain salient features of a few plants endemic to India.

9. Secondary Metabolite Studies of Some Selected Plants of District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan
Khan A.S., Hassan M., Ali S.
Five medicinal plants belonging to families, Cupressaceae, Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae, Polygonaceae  and Saxifragaceae were investigated for the presence of secondary metabolites namely alkaloids, amino acids, anthraquinone (free and as glycosides) ascorbic acid , carbohydrates, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics, proteins, saponins and steroids in their aqueous, ethanolic and benzene extracts.  Cichorium intybus L (Family Asteraceae), Delphinium brunonianum Royle (Family Ranunculaceae) and Rheum speciforme Royle (Family Polygonaceae) gave positive tests for alkaloids. Whereas Capparis spinosa L (Family Cupressaceae) and Bergenia stracheyi Hk (Family Saxifragaceae) showed negative tests for alkaloids. Capparis spinosa L fruits, gave positive results for carbohydrates and phenolics. Cichorium intybus L stem, had anthraquinone (free), carbohydrates, coumarins and phenolics.  Delphinium brunonianum Royle, stem and leaves, showed positive results for amino acids, anthraquinone (as glycosides), carbohydrates, coumarins, phenolics, proteins and saponins. Rheum speciforme Royle, roots, had anthraquinone (free), ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins and steroids. Bergenia stracheyi Hk, roots showed  positive tests for  amino acids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates,  phenolics and saponins.

10. Comparative Study between Percolation and Ultrasonication for the Extraction of Hibiscus and Jasmine Flowers Utilizing Antibacterial Bioassay
Rasha Saad, Gayathiry Murugiah, Junainah Abdulhamid, Eddy Yusuf, Mohd Fadli
Different extraction techniques can produce extracts of divergent active compounds from plants. Percolation with soxhlet and ultrasonication were used with ethanol solvent to extract hibiscus and jasmine flowers. These extracts were tested for antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with susceptibility test. The study was conducted by extracting the flowers with soxhlet and ultrasonic apparatus using ethanol as solvent. The extracts were separated from the solvent by evaporating the solvent with rotary evaporator. Discs of 6 mm were prepared from filter paper and were impregnated with the extracts. Sub-cultured test organisms, E. coli and S. aureus were swabbed on Mueller Hinton (MH) agars for susceptibility testing. The prepared discs were placed on the swabbed MH agar plates. Commercially prepared jasmine oil and hibiscus tea extracts’ discs were used as standards. Gentamicin discs were used as positive control and ethanol impregnated discs were used as negative control. Observations were recorded after 24 hours of incubation at 37 ⁰C. Soxhlet and ultrasonic extracts of hibiscus flower showed antibacterial effect on E. coli and S. aureus. The hibiscus standard did not produce any effect on both E. coli and S. aureus. Soxhlet and ultrasonic extracts of jasmine flower showed no effect E. coli. Soxhlet and ultrasonic extracts of jasmine flower showed antibacterial effect on S. aureus. The jasmine standard showed antibacterial effect on both E. coli and S. aureus. Based on the results, it can be concluded that different extraction techniques administered on plants will yield different extracts. These extracts will display varying effects on bacteria like E. coli and S. aureus.

11. Evaluation of In vitro and In vivo Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Gliricidia sepiumFlowers in Rats
Kola Phani Kumar1, Vadite Siva Naik, V.Bhuvan Chandra, R. Lavanya, K. Narendra Kumar, V.Bhagyasree, B.Soumya , Lakshmi Sudeepthi N
The present study was aimed for scientific evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Gliricidia sepium linn. (fabaceae) flowers  by in-vitro and in vivo models.The anti-inflammtory activity of aqueous extract obtained by decoction was evaluated by in vitro HRBC membrane stabilization assay and in vivo carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino wistar rats. Aqueous extract showed dose dependant anti-inflammatory activity in human red blood cell membarane stabilization method at different concentrations (100-500 µg/kg) with a percentage protection of 7.15, 11.25, 22.71, 24.83 and 26.95 compared to standard diclofenac 32.09% at 10 µg/kg. Diclofenac sodium at 10 mg/kg, aqueous extract administered at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. at 1, 3, 6 and 8 hours significantly (p<0.05) decreased and increased the volume of paw edema & % protection compared to carrageenan group and dicclofenac, respectively. The aqueous extract has shown a significant (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001) percentage inhibition of paw edema 69.81±2.93 and 78.07±3.19 on 8th hour at 250 and 500mg/kg, respectively.These results provide a scientific basis for the use of the flowers of Gliricidia sepium as an anti-inflammatory agent.

12. Antimicrobial and Anthelmentic Activity of Punica granatum Fruit Peel Extracts
Mahajan DC, Satyapal US, Tatke PA, Naharwar V
Punica granatum fruit is the widely consumed fruit in India. Peels of these fruit are used by traditional healers for treating stomach ailments and have many significant other medicinal effects.  The present paper discusses antimicrobial and anthelminthic activity of Punica granatum fruit peels (PGFP) extracts prepared using different solvents (petroleum ether, ethylacetate, methanol, methanol:water and water) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity was tested against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri), gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginos and Escherichia coli) and a yeast (Candida albicans). Antimicrobial activity of these extracts was evaluated by using ditch plate method and agar well diffusion method. Ethylacetate, methanol, methanol:water and water extract inhibited bacterial and yeast growth at all concentrations. Anthelmentic activity was evaluated against Pheritima posthuma (Indian earthworm). Methanol extract of PGFP was found to possess maximum anthelmintic activity among all the extracts in dose dependent manner.

13. Influence of Cooking Methods on Chlorogenic Acid Content of Potato Peels (Solanum tuberosum L.)
Sukrasno, Yuce Mutiara Sari, Siti Kusmardiyani
One of the major phenolic components of potato peels is chlorogenic acid. In this experiment, the influence of cooking methods on the content of chlorogenic acid in potato peels and the distribution of chlorogenic acid in the whole potato tuber was studied. Cooking methods employed include boiling, steaming, frying and baking. The chlorogenic acid was analyzed by HPLC. Chlorogenic acid in potato peel under studied was 1.007 mg/g. Its content after boiling, steaming, frying and baking was 56 %, 161 %, 98 % and 21 % compared to fresh peel. The chlorogenic acid was distributed throughout the potato tuber tissue with the highest distribution in the peel but not in the epidermal layer. Methanol extract obtained from all part of potato tissue exhibited radical scavenging activity tested using DPPH method. The radical scavenging capacity was still retained in extract obtained from potato peels after treatment with various cooking methods.

14. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies on Leaf Extracts of Chloroxylon swietenia
G.V Sampath Kumar, N.Anusha, D.Ramadevi
Pharmacognostic studies were conducted on leaf extracts of Chloroxylon swietenia DC and were shown in figures1 to 8 and Tables1 to 4. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis of the test extracts of Chloroxylon switenia were determined by standard protocols. Thus the qualitative chemical testing indicated that the methanolic extract, hexane, ethyl acetate fractions of Chloroxylon switenia leaves were found to possess glycosides, carbohydrates, alkaloids, sterols, flavoniods considerably. All the four extracts does not contain glycosides, proteins, amino acids, fixed oils, gums and mucilages as per the preliminary qualitative tests performed. The results were given in the Table 5.The Quantified phenolic contents of Chloroxylon swietenia extracts were ranging from 16.42±0.36 to 26.38±0.18 (mg/gm). The methanolic extract has more phenolic content i.e 26.38±0.18. The alkaloid content ranging from 14.28±0.42 to 30.23± 0.38. The methanolic extract has more alkaloid content i.e 30.28±0.38. The results were showed in Table 6.

15. Cichorium intybus Linn: its Role in Hepatoprotection
Mathur Neha, Katare Pandey Deepshikha, Aeri Vidhu
Liver plays a major role in detoxification, metabolism and excretion in the body; any impairment in its function may lead to implication’s on one’s health. Medicinal plants are now considered to be effective therapeutic aids for various hepatotoxicities. In India there are about 33 herbal formulations and Cichorium intybus is one of the significant component of some of these formulations. The ethnobotanical studies have reported the widespread uses of this plant in cardiac injuries, diabetes, hyperlipidemic disorders. It is also used for its anti-fungal and anti-cancer properties. This review focuses mainly on the hepatoprotective ability of Cichorium intybus and various scientific studies conducted on it. In Laboratory many chemicals have been known to induce hepatotoxicity in experimental animals like carbontetrachloride (CCl4), galactosamine, thioacetamide, paracetamol, antitubercular drugs, d-galactosamine lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS), arsenic etc. Scientific studies conducted were studied and analysed. From various scientific studies it was found that the Cichorium intybus is effective in imparting hepatoprotection. Various studies reported on Cichorium intybus and its presence in various existing formulations proves its role in hepatoprotection. Further, its various parts like stem, leaves, roots, bark etc can be explored for better hepatoprotection alone or in combination with other plants for developing more efficacious and targeted formulations for the treatment of liver disorders.

16. Effects of Combined Therapy of Ethanolic Extract of Trigonella foenum graecum or Gymnema sylvestre on the Hypoglycemic Activity of Metformin in the Regulation of Alloxan Induced Hyperglycemia and Associated Adverse Effects.
Sharma N, Kar A
The present study was designed to explore the combined effects of a conventional antidiabetic drug, metformin (MET) and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) or Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG) extract in alloxan (ALX, 150 mg / kg body weight, IP)-induced swiss albino mice. Other than serum glucose, changes in total serum cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), urea, α-amylase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were examined. In addition alterations in tissue biochemical indices such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were also studied in liver, kidney and heart. A daily administration of MET (50 mg/kg body weight)  alone or their combination with the herbal extracts for 15 days showed a significant reduction in glucose, TC, TG, urea, ALP, LPO, LOOH and AOPP with a concomitant increase in SOD, CAT, GSH and GPx. However, when both MET and either of the plant extracts was administered simultaneously the beneficial effects were more pronounced as compared to their individual effects.

17. Protection of Radiation-induced DNA Damage in Albino Rats by Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent.
D. S. Thokchom, L. Shantikumar, G. J. Sharma
Development of radioprotective agents has been a subject of intense research to ameliorate the aftermath of exposure to radiation exposure. The aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant and radioprotective potentials of the fruit extract of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. Free radical scavenging activity of O. indicum fruit extracts was determined through DPPH and superoxide assays. Ascorbic acid, total flavonoid and total phenolic contents were determined spectrophotometrically.  In vitro experiments on protection of DNA from radiation-induced (5 and 10 Gy) damages were done using pBR322 plasmid DNA. Albino rats injected intra-peritoneal with 1-2 g/kg of 60% ethanol extract and exposed to 1, 3 and 5 Gy were screened for radio- protective effects using comet assay. 60% methanol extract exhibited highest antioxidant potentials followed by 60% ethanol extract. Treatment with 60% ethanol extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced radiation-induced DNA damage in pBR322. Significant reduction of comet tail DNA and length (P < 0.05) in rat bone marrow cells was also observed. The results demonstrate that O. indicum fruit has tremendous antioxidant potentials and can protect DNA from radiation-induced damages in both in vitro and in vivo models without recognizable toxic effects.

18. Anti Candidal Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Synthesised from Leaves of Azadirhacta indica and Their Anti Biofilm Effect against Clinical Isolate of Candida albicans
S.Karthick Raja Namasivayam, Beninton.B.Christo, S.M. Karthigai Arasu K. Arun muthu kumar, K. Deepak
Skin infections caused by fungi, such as Trichophyton and Candida species, have become more common in recent years. This upward trend is concerning,considering the limited number of antifungal drugs available because prophylaxis with antifungals may lead to the emergence of resistant strains and various virulence factors produced by the organism inactivate the drugs. Exploitation of principles of nanotechnology mainly biogenic nanoparticles has the wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, and electronic fields In the present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by leaf extract broth of Azadirhacta indica (L.) and the synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated against  biofilm of clinical isolate of Candida albicans.Silver nanoparticles were synthesized  by the leaf extract broth and synthesized particles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy,scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy. Synthesized particles were tested against biofilm of Candida albicans under  biofilm inhibition spectrophotometric crystal violet  assay.Synthesis was primarily confirmed by colour change of the reaction mixture into brown colour. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver nanoparticles by yielding the typical silver plasmon absorption maxima at 420 nm and SEM micrograph indicates the uniform spherical particles within the size range of 40-50 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) of the nanoparticle confirmed the presence of elemental silver signal as strong peak.Biofilm inhition study revealed that all the tested concentration of silver nanoparticles inhibited biofilm and maximum inhibition was observed in 100µg/ml concentration. Biochemical composition of Biofilm matrix mainly total carbohydrates and total protein was highly reduced in the nanoparticles treatment.

19. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Plumbago rosea Linn. : A Comparative Study
Datta Sanjana, Sarangi Babita, Mishra R N
Plumbago zeylanica Linn. is a useful medicinal plant. The root of the plant contains active constituent Plumbagin, a napthoquinone and other principles, hence constituents exhibits various potential therapeutic activities.  Plumbago rosea Linn. is shrubby perennial which also contains same active constituents as Plumbago zeylanica Linn. .The aim of present study is to evaluate the physicochemical properties and the in vitro antioxidant activity of hydroehtanolic extracts of both the species of Plumbago. Determinations of their in vitro antioxidant activity were carried out by using    1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method and reducing power assay method. Results of the present study indicated that that the hydroethanolic extract of Plumbago rosea Linn. is better antioxidant in comparison to Plumbago zeylanica Linn.

20. Studies on Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Potential of Trichodesma indicum
K.Anusha, Shwetha Balakrishnan, S.Sindhu, P.Arumugam, Sekar Babu Hariram
The current study is focused on investigating the antioxidant effect of Trichodesma indicum. The plant leaves were shade dried powdered and extracted serially using solvents of increasing polarity such as hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The antioxidant potential of obtained extracts was studied using DPPH assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, metal chelating assay and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Assay. The extracts are then subjected to phytochemical screening which showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins in ethyl acetate extract of the plant. Since the results are promising, this work forms a firm base for the further researches to explore the antiproliferative characteristic of the selected plant to discover a potent herbal drug for cancer.

21. Simultaneous Estimation of Taraxerol and Taraxasterol in Root Callus Cultures of Taraxacum officinaleWeber.
Kiran Sharma, Rasheeduz Zafar
A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the first time for the simultaneous estimation of Taraxerol and Taraxasterol, in natural root and root callus cultures of Taraxacum officinale (TO), maintained on MS media using hormone combinations, MS+IAA+BA (2ppm+1ppm) and MS+IAA+BA+2,4 D (0.5ppm+1ppm+0.5ppm). Column of ODS, C8-3 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d, partical size 5 μ) was used for the separation with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 0.1% phosphoric acid in methanol (70:30: v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min, detection was carried out at 210 nm. The retention time of taraxerol and taraxasterol were 4.975, 3.5 min. respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification. The proposed method can be used for estimation of these compounds in herbal formulations as well in crude drug extracts.

22. Powder and Physico-Chemical Analysis of Amaranthus retroflexus
Jyoti Pandit, S. Ramachandra Setty
Amaranthus retroflexus is an under-exploited medicinal plant, although its biological screening is in progress, the present paper shows its specific microscopic powder characteristics and few physical constants. As the powder contains fibres hence it was also subjected to fiber analysis to lay basis for possible utility.

23. Metabolic Profiling of Tomatoes with Pest Infestation Using GC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy
Hema Bisht, Deepa Bhagat,M. K. Bhatnagar
Fearly economic losses occur in the agricultural industry worldwide due to insects and pests. The monitoring of health and detection of various infections in plants is therefore critical for sustainable agriculture. Detecting early information on crop health and pest infestations can facilitate the control of these all too often devastating infections through proper management strategies such as vector control with the application of pesticides, fungicides and specific chemicals which can improve productivity. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyse indicated that pest infestations significantly affect the primary as well as secondary metabolism in the plants. Here we have reviewed work of the last ten years related to metabolic profiling of tomato plant including fruit by using techniques of NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS

24. Isolation of Orientin and Vitexin from Stem Bark of Parkinsonia aculeata (Caesalpiniaceae) and their Successive Blending on SheepWool Fiber
Sharma K. K., Sharma A. K., Sharma M. C., Tanwar K.
The benzene fraction from defatted ethanol extract of the stem bark of Parkinsonia aculeata (Caesalpiniaceae) afforded α-amyrinacetate (I), β-amyrinacetate (II),  α-amyrin (III), 6-hydroxytritriacontan-3-one (IV),  6-hydroxypentacosylpentanoate (V), ethylnonadecanoate (VI), orientin (VII) and vitexin (VIII).  The structures of isolated compounds were ascertained using various spectral (IR, 1HNMR, 13C NMR, MS) techniques. Compound VII and VIII were examined as natural dye constituents over sheep wool fibers furnished yellow and brown colours, respectively on wool fibers with good fastness properties.

25. Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk by GC-MS Method
Anand.D, John Wyson.W, Saravanan.P, Rajarajan.S
Plants have been an important source of medicine since ancient era. Eclipta alba has an important role in the traditional Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani systems of Medicine. The aim of the present study is to determine the potential bioactive components of leaves of Eclipta alba using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). The chemical compositions of methanol extract of plant leaves was investigated using Perkin – Elmer GC-MS while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the leaf extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology library. The GC-MS analysis provided peaks of eight different phytochemical compounds namely 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (25.89%), c-Sitosterol(18.94%), 9,19- Cyclocholestan-3-ol-7-one,4a-dimethly-[20R] (12.14%), Dodecanoic acid, 10 methyl, methyl ester (11.61%), Tridecanol, 2-ethyl-2-methyl (10.20%), 1,2 Benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl octy ester (10.13%), 1-Heptatriacotanol (7.46%), Oleic acid, eicosyl ester (3.58%). This will be further considered for pharmacological activities and isolation of individual components would however, help to find new drugs.

26. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanol Extract of Leaves of Debregeasia longifolia Linn.
Sathak Sameer S.M, Manigandan P, Sivaraj C, Sekar Babu H, Arumugam S.P, Sindhu.S
The current study was aimed at evaluation of Antioxidant & Anti proliferative potential of the methanol extract of Debregeasia longifolia leaves and to elucidate its phytochemical profile using antiproliferative activity. The methanol extract of leaves of D. longifolia was screened for its antioxidant potential by dot-plot assay, DPPH radical scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Since the results were quite encouraging, it stimulated the investigators to proceed further to screen the phytochemical profiles by qualitative and quantitative methods which were further extended to thin layer chromatography, and antiproliferative activity. The result indicates that the methanol extract of leaves of D, longifolia showed significant radical scavenging activity, potent toxicity to liver cancer cells. Since the results are promising, D. longifolia could be considered as a significant source of Antioxidant and Anti proliferative agents.

27. Pharmacognostical Study and Quality Control Parameters of Dillenia indica Linn. and Dillenia pentagynaRoxb.: A Boon of Ethnomedicinal Herbs of India
Dipal Gandhi, Priti Mehta
Dillenia indica Linn. and Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. are two plants which are found to be widely growing plants in many forest regions of India. The quality parameters are set for assuring the standards of plant species. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters are developed which ensures the quality of drug as well as differentiate both plant species. Bark of both plants differentiated morphologically by its colour as well as texture while leaves of both plants differentiated by its size, shape. Microscopically, bark can be differentiated by presence of stone cells, cork, pigments and raphides of Ca-oxalate and leaves based on its trichomes, raphides etc. Physicochemical parameters (extractive values, ash values, foreign matter, moisture content) were determined to ensure quality of plants. Phytochemical screening is performed to have an idea about active phytoconstituents present in plants. Results of heavy metal and microorganism revealed that plants are safe to use further for separation of phytoconstituents. Phytochemical screening of different extracts of bark and leaves revealed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, phenolics etc.

28. A Review on the Herbs in Practice among the Tribal Communities of Nilagiri District for Gynecological Problem.
Jeyalakshmi.G, Nithyananthi.M, Jayashree.R, Yuvaraj .D, Sekar Babu Hariram
Female infertility problems are common among the urban population when compare to rural and tribal population.Many works have been attributed to investigate the female infertility problems but very little scientific work has been done to explore the efficacy of natural remedies to correct the gynecological problems in women. From the earlier literature it is evident that the living style, society, occupation, insecuracy, nutrition and environment factors are the few reasons for increased number of female infertility among the urban zone. It is also evident only few causes can be corrected whereas remaining causes cannot be eradicated in the preset polluted world. Hence many pharmaceutical companies started marketing therapeutics such as hormone therapy, nutrional supplements and other drugs at very high rates. There are innumerable reports available regarding the side effects of the synthetic drugs in practice to correct gynecological problems. Although there are many reports available regarding the ayurveda and siddha therapy but very little work has been done regarding the tribal treasure of therapeutics for gynecological problem. Since the available information lack of scientific authentication it is remained unexplored. Hence the present review has been done to bring out the potent herbs in practice among the various tribal communities of  Nilagiri district. This review form a base for the further researchers to explore the potency of rare tribal herbs through scientific authentication to bring out a safe drug for gynecological problems.

29. Phytochemical Screening, Total Flavonoid Content and Antimicrobial Study of M.spicata (Dalz.)Nicolson.
Karpe D.G, Lawande S.P
Medicinal plants have been playing a vital role on the health and healing of man since down human civilization. Inspite of tremendous development in the field of allopathic medicines during the 20th century, plants still remain one of the major sources of drugs in modern as well as in traditional system of medicines. Moullava spicata having potent antioxidant activity and many more medicinal properties. In present investigation phytochemical analysis, total flavonoid content and antimicrobial studies were carried out. It shows presence of phenolic compounds, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and alkaloids. Ethylacetate extract shows antibacterial as well as antifungal activity. Flavonoid content in hydroalcoholic extract of m.spicata is also reported in present investigation.

30. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Polyherbal Marketed Formulation
Deshpande S. G., Dr. Kasture V.S., Gosavi S.A, Dr.Bhalke R.D. Ajage R.K., Inamke S.R., Kolpe J.B.   Jadhav G.P.
Marketed polyherbal tablet contain Shankhpushpi and Brahmi main ingredient. The polyherbal formulation widely used in Ayurvedic clinical practice to improve the memory and intellect by their action .There is no modern methods of standardization was not reported for analysis of this formulation. Hence the study highlights the physiochemical characterization, dissolution, stability and HPLC profiling which can be applied for authentification of this polyherbal formulation. The polyherbal tablet contain a Shankhpushpi (Evovoulous alsinoide), Brahmi (Centela asiatica),Gulab (Rosa centiofolia),Vaj (Acorous calamous ) .The main ingredients authenticated botanically .Ayurvedic polyherbal tablet formulation subjected to standardization according to official guideline. The standardization of the formulation was carried out as per official guidelines in which the polyherbal tablet formulation was subjected physiochemical characterization Standardization parameter would serve as the identity of this polyherbal formulation.HPLC fingerprinting profile was developed serve as fingerprint for the identification of the formulation. The proposed method for standardization of polyherbal formulation is simple, rapid and effective method .The developed quality standard can be used as quality check for polyherbal formulation.

31. A Review on:   Nerium oleander Linn. (Kaner)
Chaudhary Kiran, Prasad D.N.
Nerium oleander is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocyanaceae. It is commonly known as oleander but has many other names like Nerium indicum mill. and Nerium odorum soland. It bears flowers in clusters with white, pink, yellow and red colours. It contains plumericin, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol,  kaempferol,  cardioactive glycosides named Odorosides A-H obtained  from the root bark. Leaves contain  the cardiac glycosides kaneroside, neriumoside, digitoxigenin, alpha –L-olendroside -5α-adynerin and other glycosides. Odorosides are cardioactive glycosides. Gentiobiosyl –oleandrin, Odoroside A and Oleandrin were the main glycosides identified. It has potent cardiotonic activity, digitalis like effect on heart. It has been reported to have effective against skin diseases,wound infections, cancer, diabetes, inflammation and CNS depression. All parts of the plant are poisonous in nature which can be treated by the use of activated charcoal.Topical preparation containing Nerium extract  can be used as antiageing cream.

32. Antioxidant Activity of Boerhavia Diffusa Extract
Patel M., Verma R., Srivastav P.
In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Boerhavia diffusa (Nyctaginaceae) was evaluated by studying superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, nitrous oxide radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing ability and Fe+2 chelating ability using standard procedure. Identification and quantification of the boerhavinone B, one of the active constituents of the Boerhavia diffusa plant extract, was carried out by HPLC analysis. Result of the present study indicates that the Boerhavia diffusa extract shows high amount of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and ascorbic acid contents. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Boerhavia diffusa effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed potent antioxidant potency and effects were in a dose-dependent manner. Boerhavia diffusa extract possess potent antioxidative properties.

33.Use of Citrus Limon L. (lemon) in Treating Blood Pressure Sudden Rises
Avello M, Jofré P, Pastene E, Fernández P.
Popularly and from different information sources it is mentioned that the Citrus limon L. juice is useful to lower blood pressure. This could be due to the presence of both flavonoids and vitamin C. The aim of this work was to analyze the use of C. limon juice in the management of blood pressure sudden rises. In order to achieve this, the chemical composition of C. limon fruits available at Concepción city by means of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. In order to characterize the use of the juice, a survey was applied to 506 hypertensive patients from the Dr. Víctor Manuel Fernández Family Health Center CESFAM in Concepción city. A pilot study with five hypertensive patients was also carried out to assess the effect of the juice against a sudden rise of blood pressure. As outcomes, polyphenols present in the C. limon juice were identified. Among these, erioctitrin, heperidin and diosmin can be mentioned. With respect to data collected from the survey, 95.2% of the surveyed population has ever used C. limon juice against a sudden blood pressure rise, with an improvement in the symptoms in about 30 minutes. In the pilot study, a decrease in the blood pressure of hypertensive patients was observed. This decrease tends to be sustained over time, unlike in normotensive patients. The use of C. limon juice against a sudden blood pressure rise is widely rooted in popular culture and it was concluded that this juice decreases blood pressure by means of a non established action mechanism, probably related to the content of polyphenols and vitamin C. Antihypertensive effects have been attributed to these compounds

34. Pharmacognostical Profiling on the Root of Rauwolfia Serpentina
Rungsung W, Dutta S, Mondal DN, Ratha KK, Hazra J
Each medicinal plant and the specific plant part used as crude drug material contain active or major chemical constituents with a characteristic profile that can be used for chemical quality control and quality assurance. So the increasing demand for herbal medicines has inevitably led to maintaining the quality and purity of herbal raw materials and finished products. WHO acknowledged that Pharmacognostical standards should be proposed as a protocol for the authentication and quality assurance of herbal drugs. The important histological features of Rauwolfia serpentina are the cork, composed of alternating layers of broad and narrow cells giving a somewhat spongy and friable exterior to the drug; secondary cortex composed of several rows of parenchymatous cells, filled with starch grains and brown resin masses; secondary xylem consisting of vessels, tracheids, xylem parenchyma and wood fibres traversed by xylem rays, and showing annual rings; secondary phloem consisting of sieve cells, companion cells and parenchymatous cells containing starch grains, rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and occasionally some brown resin masses.

35.Herbal Excipients: Pharmaceutical Applications
Khawnekar S, Bhatia V, Shashtri K, Yadav M, Pandey S.
As in every field there is a transformation to improve the performance and satisfy the demand of consumer, in pharmaceutical word, need of “Excipient” have been changed from inert and cheap substance which forms bulk of formulation to a material which has potential to be placed in formulation as it accomplished the desirable objective of treatment. Herbal excipients are plant and plant-based materials, extracted from various parts of plant. Herbal excipients are beneficial as freely available, less expensive, stable and easily biodegradable and can be used to overcome the trouble of toxicity, chemical in compatibility of synthetic excipients in various drug delivery systems. Extracted materials from plants can be processed to certain extent and incorporated in dosage form to achieve the specific performance by formulation. The article reviews on herbal excipients which includes plant polymers, herbal penetration enhancers.

36. Antioxidant Activity of Ethnomedicinally Used Flowers of West Bengal, India
Archana Banerjee, Bratati De
The present study reports medicinal uses and the antioxidant potential of  a large number of flowers of West Bengal, India. Total 115 flowers were reported to have medicinal and / or aromatherapeutic properties. 100 Flowers were measured for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging property and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Four flowers e.g. Acacia nilotica, Mangifera indica (two varieties), Punica granatum and Woodfordia fruticosa, were found to have very high activity. The extracts of these flowers were further studied for their other antioxidant properties e.g. superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, DNA damage prevention properties and lipid peroxidation prevention properties. Phenol contents were determined. Major active constituents, quercetin and gallic acid were also identified and quantified by HPTLC in the four flower extracts.

37. In silico Docking Analysis of Secondary Metabolites of Bauhinia variegata and Garcinia cambogia With Retinol Binding Protein4 as Target for Obesity.
K. Vijayalakshmi, K.Nadhiya, D. Haripriya, R. Ranjani
Bauhinia variegata and Garcinia cambogia are traditionally used for treating different diseases. The present study was focused on in silico analysis to elucidate the inhibitory activity of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) using compounds from GC-MS analysis of Bauhinia variegata and Garcinia cambogia. The present study was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from Bauhinia variegata and Garcinia cambogia by GC-MS analysis. These compounds were docked with Retinol binding protein 4. These chemical components having anti-lipidemic activity were subjected to in silico analysis. This study evaluates the inhibitory activity of compounds with Retinol binding protein 4 using Argus lab software.  Compounds like Octadecanoic acid, Tertradecanoic acid, Hexadecanoic acid and Trans-Geranylgeraniol of Garcinia cambogia and compounds like phytol and Hexadecanoic acid of Bauhinia variegata were docked with RBP4. GC-MS analysis reveal 31 compounds from Garcinia cambogia while, Bauhinia variegata exhibit 9 compounds. In silico analysis showed that Tetra decanoic acid has interaction energy -9.08kcal/mol, followed by Hexadecanoic acid (-9.64Kcal/mol) and then Octadecanoic acid has -9.88Kcal/mol. Trans-geranylgeraniol showed -16.45Kcal/mol. But there was no interaction with protein and ligands of Bauhinia variegata like Hexadecanoic acid and Phytol was studied for insilico analysis.  Phytol has -3.78Kcal/mol of interaction energy similarly hexadecanoic acid has -9.88Kcal/mol. But phytol did not show any hydrogen bond between the protein and ligand but Hexadecanoic acid shows hydrogen bond.  While comparing these compounds Octadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and tetradecanoic acid shows better interaction with RBP4 compared to Phytol and Trans-geranylgeraniol. Molecular docking analysis proved that secondary metabolites of Garcinia cambogia had better inhibitory activity against RBP4 than Bauhinia variegate and so these compounds from Garcinia cambogia may act as better drug models for obesity.

38. Pharmacological and Phytoconstituent Profile of Desmodium Gangeticum-An Update
Ganjhu R.K., Mudgal, P.P., Arunkumar, G.
Several plants have been used and documented in the traditional and folklore system of medicine. The uniqueness of herbal medicines is their origin, which being nature itself, renders them compatible to human physiology. Another remarkable feature of the herbal plants is their composition. Plants constitute a variety of chemical compounds, which exert different actions and thereby exhibit surprising effects inside the human body. Unlike synthetic molecules, which work in a single-target centric manner to correct the physiological anomaly, phytoconstituents present in herbal medicines exert a multi-targeted mode of action, in a concerted fashion, thus regaining the physiological equilibrium. In this way, herbal plants heal a pathological state moderately, in a holistic fashion, without disturbing the cellular homeostasis. This review is on one of the plants, Desmodium gangeticum (DG), present in the popularly used Ayurvedic preparation, Dasamula kvatha, a dietary supplement. Among the ten constituent roots, which gives Dashmoola its name, one of the roots is from DG. DG, an indigenous plant, has been studied extensively by Indian researchers and the outcome is noteworthy as DG has established its potential in treating disorders originating in almost all the major organs, including brain, heart, liver and gastrointestinal tract. Owing to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, DG, also marks a potential role in treating wounds, nociception and arthritic inflammation. So varied are its uses, that it led researchers to explore its phytoconstituent profile, which imparts DG the special characters to cure variety of ailments. In this review, we have tried to consolidate the pharmacological studies on DG done so far, along with a detailed documentation of its phytoconstituents and their reported pharmacological actions.

39. Comparative Anatomical and Histochemical Studies of Achyranthes aspera L.  and Cyathula prostrata L. Blume, Source Plants of the Drug Apamarga
K Sereena, K Sreeja
Apamarga is one of the important raw drug used in Ayurveda.  Achyranthes aspera is used as the genuine source plant of the drug apamarga. The main properties and uses of apamarga is, it is very useful in digestive system disorders, it alleviates vomiting, it is a good source of potassium so it will also good for heart problems etc. The present study deals with the comparative analysis of morphological, anatomical and histochemical characters of A. aspera and C. prostrata. These two plants show similarities and differences between them at morphological, anatomical and histochemical levels. This study helps to identify the genuine plants of the drug apamarga for the preparation of ayurvedic medicine.

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