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Anatomical Features of the Transverse Sections of the Leaves of Loranthaceae in Nigeria

Ibrahim J. A1*, Kunle O. F1, Ayodele A. E2

1Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, PMB 21, Garki, Abuja. Nigeria
2Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria

 Available Online: 20th April, 2015

The anatomical characteristic of the transverse sections of leaves of the Nigerian parasitic family of Loranthaceae were investigated as a contribution to the taxonomy of the family especially in species identification and delimitation. The study revealed presence of palisade tissues for all the species except Tapinanthus bangwensis and T. globiferus. Second layer of palisade cells of Englerina gabonensis and Phragmanthera capitata with wavy outline. Prismatic crystals were present in most of the species and they were either associated with sclereids only or with sclerieds and xylem fibers. Acicular crystals were diagnostic to onlyAgelanthus bruneus. The presence of brachysclereids and astrosclereids are diagnostic features in the family. The anatomical features observed from the study could be utilized for taxonomic purposes especially as diagnostic features for easy identification of the species even when leaf material is in fragment. The information could also be used in monograph preparation for these medicinally useful species.

phytochemistry

Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic and Toluene extract of Dipteracanthus prostratus Nees.

Kumar U.*1, Sagar R.2, Bhandari A.1, Srivastava A K.3

1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
2 Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
3Sapience Bio-analytical Research Lab, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Available Online: 15th April, 2015

The present study was conducted with the objective of phytochemical investigation, safe dose determination and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the toluene and methanolic extract of whole plant of Dipteracanthus prostratus Nees.. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was performed after the successive extraction of whole plant of Dipteracanthus prostratus and found to contain a rich amount of important bioactive compounds. The dose determination studies were carried out according to OECD guidelines no. 425 on Wistar albino rats and the safe dose determined was 2000 mg/kg. Hence on the basis of toxicity studies two dose level i.e. 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, body weight were selected for the present anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model. The percentage reduction in paw volume observed against carrageenan induced paw edema for toluene extract was found to be 20.68% and 25.86% at the dose level of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, body weight respectively whereas in methanolic extract it was 17.24 % and 22.41% at the dose level of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, body weight respectively. The data were found statistically significant by using one way ANOVA (P<0.05). Although both the extracts were able to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity as compared with standard drug Diclofenac Sodium but the overall effect of toluene extract of whole plant of Dipteracanthus prostratus at the specified dose level of 200 mg/kg, body weight was found to be more statistically significant compared to methanolic extract.

ijpps

Isolation and Characterization of Compounds from Fruits of Anamirta cocculus (Linn.)

Satya .V1*, Paridhavi .M 

1Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India – 641021
2Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy, Trikaripur, Kasaragod, Kerala, India – 670310 

Available Online: 15th March, 2015

Compounds from fruits of Anamirta cocculus were isolated and characterized. The    phytoconstituents present in fruits were isolated by soxhlet extraction with methanol. The compounds were separated by column chromatography and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. These compounds were identified as sesquiterpenoids and aliphatic amides  containing carbonyl and hydroxyl functionalities namely, 5, 8 ‐ dihydroxy ‐ 12 ‐ methyl ‐ 2 ‐  oxo‐6‐(prop‐1‐en‐2‐yl)‐3, 11‐dioxatetracyclo, dodecane‐7carboxylicacid (CompoundA1), 1 -hydroxy-14-(2‐hydroxypropan‐2‐yl)‐13‐ methyl‐ 4,7,10‐ trioxapentacyclo,tetradecane‐6,11‐dione (CompoundA2) & Methyl 1, 6 – dihydroxy ‐ 2 ‐ methyl ‐ 5 ‐ oxo ‐ 10 ‐ (prop ‐ 1 ‐ en ‐ 2 ‐ yl) ‐ 4, 8‐dioxatetracyclo,dodecane‐11‐carboxylate (Compound A3) and two aliphatic amides namely  (2Z,4Z)‐N‐ methyltetracosa‐2, 4‐dienamide (Compound A4) & N –Ethyl-5-O -..-d -Glucopyranosyl  butanamide (CompoundA5) were isolated and characterized.

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International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research