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Volume4,Issue3

1. Evaluation of Antibacterial Effect of Vernonia anthelmintica Seed Extract and Its Synergistic Effect with Antibiotics on Resistant Bacterial Strains
Gauthami Ravula, Sudhakara Reddy. Goluguri, Karthik. Konanki
Abstract
Development ofdrug resistance by various microbes is an emerging problem now-a-days and the use of several antibiotics has been ineffective in solving the widespread problem.The scope of this study was to investigate an alternative approach to combat resistant bacterial strains, which was evaluated by an in-vitro interaction between a plant extract i.e., Methanolic extract of Vernoniaanthelmintica seeds and known antibiotics such as streptomycin and ampicillin. Three different bacterial strainsie.,E.coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus were used for evaluating the antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of Vernoniaanthelmintica seeds, using disc diffusion method after evaluating its phytochemical profile. Standard antibiotics like streptomicin and ampicillin were used to determine the synergistic effect. The bacterial strainsselected were tested for their resistance towards antibiotics i.e., ampicillin and streptomycin. The results of the study were found to be additive and the extract has shown synergistic effect which was greater on the resistant bacterial strains.

2. Preliminary Pharmacognostical & Phytochemical investigation of Bark & Leaves of Lannea coromandelica Houtt. Merrill.
Kaur R, Jaiswal M.L., Jain V.
Abstract
LanneacoromandelicaHoutt. Merrill. belongs to family Anacardiaceae. The bark & leaves are known for medicinal properties, such as in ulcerative stomatitis, diarrhoea dysentery, sprains and bruises, wound, eruptions etc. The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical analysis and physicochemical evaluation & HPTLC profile using methods given in Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash value, acid insoluble ash value and water soluble ash value were determined which were 10.08% w/w, 0.77% w/w, 1.80% w/w respectively. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of extracts were carried out. The results were positive for flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids etc. These secondary metabolites are the active constituents of and it may be responsible for its pharmacological activities. Chief characters of transverse section of leaves include collenchymatous cells, Schlerenchymatous cells, endarch xylem, phloem fibers non-lignified, unicellular trichomes etc. & stem contains spherical secretary cells, stone cells etc.

3. Presence of the Indole Alkaloid Reserpine in Bignonia capreolata L.
Clark. T,  Lund. K.C.
Abstract
Bignonia capreolatais a perennial semi-evergreen vine from the Southeast United States that was used as a medicine by the Native Americans but has since fallen out of use. A preliminary screen of B. capreolata suggested the presence of the indole alkaloid reserpine. This analysis was undertaken to 1) verify the presence reserpine using LC-MS referenced with an analytical standard of reserpine; and 2) if verified, quantitate the level of reserpine in B. capreolata leaf. LC-MS analysis has confirmed the presence of reserpine in B. capreolata, which makes this the only known plant outside the Apocynaceae family to contain this indole alkaloid

4. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Studies on Roots of Agave americana (Agavaceae)
Kadam P. V, Yadav K. N, Deoda R.S, Narappanawar N. S, Shivatare R.S, Patil M. J
Abstract
Now-a-Days medicinal plants found on earth have renowned medicinal significance and their usages are increasing day by day in our daily life. Different researches are going on to explore the beneficial, pharmacological and medicinal properties of herbal drugs. Sophisticated modern research tools for evaluation of the plant drugs are available today but microscopic method is one of the simplest and cheapest methods to start with for establishing the correct identity of the source materials. Agave americana L commonly known as Century plant has been described as a useful remedy for various medicinal uses, but the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standardization of the roots were not validated till date. The present study deals with pharmacognostical parameters for the root of Agave americana L which mainly consists of macromorphology, microscopical characters, physio-chemical constants and phytochemical screening. This information will be of used for further pharmacological and therapeutical evaluation of the species and will assist in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.

5. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Leaf. Family, Elaeocarpaceae.
Sameja Krunal, Rao Priya Shaival , Rao Shaival K , Jivani N P
Abstract
The present study was carried out in an attempt to study the pharmacognostical characteristics of the leaves of Elaeocarpus ganitrus, Family: Elaeocarpaceae, commonly called as “Rudraksh”. Rudraksh beads have been used since ancient times as an adornment to ward off evil spirits and omens.

6. A Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Momordica cymbalaria Hook fenzl.
Ramanath.B, Amar Kumar.G
Abstract
Objective: A Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Momordica cymbalaria Hook Fenzl. Method: Distilled water and methanolic crude extracts of leaves of the plant were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method and also done MIC, MBC and MIC index on eight reference microorganisms Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Shigellasps, Klebsiellasps, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Proteus vulgarisand Candida were used as test organisms. Result:Momordica extracts may be useful as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Methanolic and Distilled water extract of Momordica exhibited potent activity against all set of micro organisms used. It showed better action against Staphylococcus and least action on Pseudomonas. Conclusion:Leaf extracts of M.cymbalaria demonstrated antimicrobial activity on tested microorganisms. It is having bactericidal property on all used micro organisms.

7. Improved Yield Of 3’, 5-Dihydroxyflavone-7-O-Β-D-Galacturonide-4’-O-Β-D-Glucopyranoside; A Known Rifampicin Bioavailability Enhancer From Cuminum Cyminum Using Microwave Assisted Extraction And Flash Chromatographic Separation
Sachin BS, Patil AA, Lamkanikar SS, Satti NK, Suri KA, Sharma SC, Johri RK, Shinde DB,Wakte PS
Abstract
3’, 5-dihydroxyflavone-7-O-β-D-galacturonide-4’-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (CC-I) is a flavonoid glycoside from Cuminum cyminum. After co-administration, CC-I improves the poor oral bioavailability of rifampicin in rats. Existing conventional hot percolation extraction followed by activity guided open column chromatographic separation method for CC-I isolation have disadvantages like high extraction period and low recovery; hence an efficient method is needed. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) followed by flash chromatographic separation (FCS) methodology was optimized for the isolation of CC-I from C. cyminum seeds. The CC-I content of samples was determined by HPLC. Conventional extraction of C. cyminum seeds yielded 93.9 ± 4.6 mg CC-I in approximately 840 min. MAE-FCS technique resulted in 178.4 ± 16.9 mg CC-I recovery in an extraction period of 49 min. The MAE-FCS enhanced the CC-I yield by 89.98 % and reduced the extraction period effectively. On the basis of yield and extraction time, MAE-FCS technique was found to be more efficient for the isolation of therapeutically important CC-I from C. cyminum.

8. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvestre, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus reticulatus of Siddarabetta, Tumkur district, Karnataka
S. M. Gopinath, C. K. Rakesh, T. P. Narasimha Murthy, K. S. Dayananda
Abstract
The Ethno medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents of vital importance in the health application at an affordable cost and study of such ethanomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. In keeping this view in mind the present investigation is carried out in Gymnema sylvestre, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus reticulatus leaves collected from Siddarabetta, Tumkur district. Karnataka, India. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of three plants confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and Quinone. The bioactive compounds from different solvent extracts suspected of anti-diabetic properties.

9. Importance of Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Panchavalkala
Vyas Palak  R.,  Harisha C.R.,  Prajapati P.K
Abstract
Among the various cell contents, calcium oxalate crystals of different types are found in different organs of the plant. They may be present in almost all parts of the plant. They give protection to the plant against birds and animals. They have great diagnostic value. Presence and absence of crystals, and dimensions are useful in correct identification of crude drugs. Help in detection of adulterants. Panchvalkala is the combination of five different plants of two families viz. Vata -Ficusbenghalensis (Moraceae), Udumbar – Ficusglomerata (Moraceae), Ashwattha – Ficusreligiosa (Moraceae), Parisha – Thespesiapopulnea (Malvaceae) and Plaksha – Ficuslecor (Moraceae). Members of moraceae and malvaceae family are extensively used in many of the medicinal preparation in Ayurveda. Panchavalkala is one of the ideal combinations for a vast range of therapeutics focused in Ayurveda like vranaprakshalana&ropana, shothahara, upadanshahara, visarpahara, etc. The author Pharmacognostically studied the powder characteristics, presence of rosette & prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are very common in the above mentioned plants.

10. Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Heavy Metal Studies on an Ethno Medicinal Plant Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottl. & Wild.) Clarke.
Umadevi U., Kamalam M
Abstract
Leaf, stem and tuber powder of Corallocarpus epigaeus were investigated for its pharmacognostical, phytochemical and heavy metal properties. Analytical value (loss on drying, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash), solubility percentage, fluorescent analysis, extractive value using different solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water), qualitative phytochemical analysis for detection of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, proteins, amino acids, saponins and terpenoids. HPTLC studies of glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and heavy metal analysis for the accumulation of lead, copper and cadmium were studied. Analytical value, extractive value and solubility percentage exhibited marked difference between the leaf, stem and tuber powder of C. epigeaus. Fluorescent analysis does not differ among the selected plant parts under normal and UV light. Qualitative analysis of acetone and water extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, phenol, fats and fatty acids. HPTLC studies also confirmed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Heavy metals present in the plant parts are lower than the permissible level.

11. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of Dry Rhizome Extract of Astilbe rivularis
Pratik Adhikary, Roshan K.C , Deepika Kayastha, Dinesh Thapa, Rajan Shrestha, Tirtha Maiya Shrestha, Rajendra Gyawali
Abstract
Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of methanol crude extract of Nepalese species Astilbe rivularis has been evaluated. Methanol crude extract of Astilbe rivularis showed marked antimicrobial properties against E. coli. In comparison with standard antibiotic, it had moderate activity. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, coumarin, and glycoside as the main phytochemical group. LC50 values were calculated by using brine shrimp lethality test. The LC50 value for Astilbe rivularis was found to be 92.01 ppm. The MIC of methanol crude extract of Astilbe rivularis was found to be 0.0011% w/v or 0.011mg/ml. Thus we can say methanol crude extract of Astilbe rivularis showed strong antibacterial activity against E.coli. Use of Astilbe rivularis locally for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery is justifiable.

12. Biochemical Characterization of Selected Plant Species and Investigation of Phytochemicals for In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity
Sindhu.S.Nair, Nithyakala C.M, Ronilla.V. Rozario, Jennifer. J, Somashekharaiah B.V3
Abstract
The phytochemical analysis of the plants Anethum graveolens, Betel leaf (Piper betel), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Wheat grass andJack fruit leaf (Artocarpus heterophyllus)was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Alcoholic extracts of the leaves was subjected to in vitro antioxidant activity screening models such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity, reduction of ferric ions, metal ion chelating activity, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard for superoxide anion radical scavenging, reduction of ferric ions and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. EthyleneDiamineTetraAcetic acid (EDTA) is used as a standard for metal ion chelating activity. Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) is used as standard for anti-lipid peroxidation activity and for nitric oxide scavenging activity Gallic acid was used as standard. In all the models studied, the extracts showed potent antioxidant activity, thereby indicating its potential to treat or prevent certain medical conditions.

13. Preliminary Phytochemical Investigations on Roots of Nerium oleander, Linn.
Jyoti S. Kawalekar,  Varsha P., Vijayalakshmi N
Abstract
In most of the developing countries drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines since ancient times. Traditional systems of medicine continue to be widely practiced on many accounts. Population rise, inadequate supply of drugs, prohibitive cost of treatments, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases have led to increased emphasis on the use of plant materials as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments. . This study such as ethnomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. Thus Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the Globe. The herbal products today symbolize safety in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment. The drugs are derived either from the whole plant or from different organs, like leaves, stem, bark, root, flower, seed, etc. Some drugs are prepared from excretory plant product such as gum, resins and latex.. It is now very much evident that plants have bio-active chemicals called Phytochemicals which have physiological effect on human body. Today these phytochemicals have formed the bases of modern drug industries. Keeping this into mind the present investigation is carried out in the roots of Nerium oleander Linn

14. Pharmacognostic, Preliminary Phyto Chemical and Pharmacological Studies on the Roots of Achyranthes aspera
R.B. Desi Reddy, P. Narisi Reddy, N. Prathibha, T. Madhu Mounica,  A. Phanikumar, M. Ravindra.
Abstract
The present study deals with pharmacognostic, preliminary photochemical and pharmacological investigations of Achyranthes aspera. In this, pharmacognostical studies are concerned for the determination of physicochemical constants like ash values, extractive values, and loss on drying .The roots were subjected to soxhlation using petroleum ether, alcohol, water and the extracts thus obtained were studied for preliminary photochemical screening for detection of presence of various classes of chemical principles viz., carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and lignin.. Pharmacological studies were carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity and anti microbial activity.The results obtained in the present investigation reveal that one or more extracts of A.aspera has shown anti cancer, anti diabetic, anti inflammatory, anti spasmodic, anti bacterial, diuretic and antileprotic activities.

15. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies of Root Tubers of Asparagus gonoclados Baker.
Tijare R D, Beknal A B, Mahurkar N, Chandy V
Abstract
Asparagus gonoclados Baker., commonly known as ‘Shatavari’ belonging to family Liliaceae, comprises of 100 species of wide spread distribution. Alcohol and aqueous extract of root tubers of the same was proved for antioxidant activity. Literature survey indicates that no pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies were carried out, hence present study was undertaken for the same. Root tubers of Asparagus gonoclados were collected, authenticated by botanist and powdered. Pharmacognostical investigation of selected part was carried out to study its macro and microscopical characters. Transverse section, fresh drug maceration and powder characters were studied. Secular outline T. S. showed exodermis, hypodermis, raphide bundles, endodermis, pericycle, proto and meta xylem and sap containing cells. Maceration and powder microscopy showed the presence of parenchyma, vessels, fibers and tracheids. Alcohol and water extracts were obtained using maceration with 70% ethanol and chloroform water respectively. Phytochemical evaluation showed the 03.98% w/w total ash, 01.033% w/w acid insoluble ash, 01.40% w/w water soluble ash, 41.09% w/w alcohol soluble extractives, 31.26% w/w water soluble extractives and 10.91 % loss on drying. Qualitative evaluation of successive solvent extracts showed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, phenolic compounds, proteins and flavonoids. Histochemical studies showed the presence of starch, tannins and lignin. HPTLC studies were carried out for finger printing of Shatavarin IV a steroidal saponin. Chromatographic analysis was performed on Camag HPTLC system, Switzerland, using standard Shatavarin IV, alcohol and aqueous extracts of root tubers on silica gel G 60 F254 plates, using a solvent system ethyl acetate: methanol: water (75: 15: 10 v/v/v). Detection was done by densitometric scanning at wavelength of 425 nm after post derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent. The Rf of standard Shatavarin IV was 0.35 and has not shown fluorescence at 366 but showed yellow colour under visible light. Alcohol and aqueous extract also showed the prominent peak at Rf 0.34, corresponding to Standard Shatavarin IV in both extracts, which was further confirmed by overlaying spectra of Standard Shatavarin IV with spectra of alcohol and aqueous extract. Current study reveals the presence of various constituents that helps in screening the same drug for various activities.

16. Preliminary Phytochemical Investigation and Wound Healing Activity of Jasminum sambac (Linn) ait. (Oleaceae) Leaves
Sabharwal S, Aggarwal S, Vats M, Sardana S
Abstract
In the Present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of Jasminum sambac leaves were evaluated for its wound healing activity in the ointment dosage form in excision wound model using albino mice. The leaves of Jasminum sambac L. (Family Oleaceae) were subjected to continuous extraction with solvents; ethanol and water. The extracts were tested for various preliminary phytoconstituents and screened for wound healing activity at two dose level (200 mg/kg B.W. and 400mg/kg B.W) by dermal route. Aqueous extract had shown significant increase in wound contraction, hydroxyproline content and decreased epithelization period in excision wound model as compared to ethanol extract. The enhanced wound healing activity of aqueous extract may be due to free radical scavenging action and antibacterial property of the phytoconstituents(viz; tannins and flavonoids) present in it.

17. Pharmacognostic Studies of Cadaba Trifoliata Roxb (Capparaceae) Leaves
Aradhana Rajuri, Sanjay.P, Rajender.K, Ragini.C, Vijay kumar. A, Raju.G
Abstract
CadabatrifoliataRoxb.is a rigid wiry unarmed shrub. Leaves are palmatelytrifoliata and the leaflets are oblong and is belongs to Capparaceae family. The study was aimed at establishing pharmacognostical profile for the leaves of CadabatrifoliataRoxb. Establishment of pharmacognostical profile of the leaves helps in standardization. The present study deals with pharmacognostical examination of morphological and microscopical characters of CadabatrifoliataRoxb. leaves including determination of leaf constants, ash values, extractive values, loss on drying and powder microscopy.This paper brigs out the expatiate information of CadabatrifoliataRoxb.

18. Estimation of Colchicine in Tubers of Gloriosa superba L. Originated from Different Agroclimatic Zones of Odisha, India
Basak U.C, Dash D, Mahapatra A.K.
Abstract
Colchicine is an important alkaloid used in the treatment of cancer, gout and plant breeding work for inducing polyploidy. Recently there has been an increased demand of this alkaloid obtained from natural sources but no information is available on the colchicine content in the tubers of Gloriosa superba L. (glory lily) grown in Odisha. Present study estimated colchicine content in the wild and cultivated tubers of G. superba belonging to 4 different locations under 3 agroclimatic zones of Odisha, India. The colchicine content in tubers varied from 0.14% to 0.56% (dry wt.). There is appreciable difference in colchicine content found in both wild and cultivated tubers. The highest colchicine content (0.56% ) was observed in the cultivated tubers originated from Ganjam district under East-Southeastern Coastal Plain (ESECP) agro-climatic zone of Odisha, India.

19. HPLC Profiles of Standard Phenolic Compounds Present in Medicinal Plants
Gupta Mradu, Sasmal Saumyakanti, Majumdar Sohini, Mukherjee Arup
Abstract
Many phenolic-flavonoids found in plants exhibit antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory & antioxidant properties. Twelve phenolic compounds namely Ellagic acid, Catechol, Gallic acid, Quercetin, Resorcinol, Tannic acid, Vanillin, Salicylic acid, Acetyl Salicylic acid, Benzoic acid, Phloroglucinol and Ascorbic acid were taken up for qualitative and quantitative HPLC analysis. The objective of this research was to determine the standard HPLC chromatograms of twelve prominent phenolic compounds found in medicinal plants using four mobile phases having different elution gradients and run times. Six mg of each standard compound was dissolved in 10 ml Methanol, sonicated and passed through Membrane Filter (0.45µm & 47mm diameter) before injecting 20 µl in Column: Symmetry C18 (5µm, 4.6*250mm) & flow rate 1.0 ml/min. UV-detection at 280 360 nm was performed using 515 HPLC pumps and 2489 UV/VIS detectors. Four HPLC methods using different mobile phases were used. Methods A & B used varying ratios of Methanol and Acetic acid as solvents, the runtime being 22 and 25 minutes respectively. Similarly methods C and D used Acetonitrile and Phosphoric acid, run times being 30 and 45 minutes. All the methods resulted in similar pattern and sequence of elution of these phenolic compounds as unique chromatographs when analyzed individually and together. These HPLC fingerprints of standard phenolic compounds could be used as benchmarks for comparison during the qualitative and quantitative analysis of unknown compounds present in any plant sample. Use of multiple methods involving different phases would increase the validity and reliability of results.

20. Phytochemical Investigations of Heliotropium eichwaldi Stued. Ex DC. Roots
Sharma Surendra Kr, Goyal Naveen
Abstract
In the present study the methanol was used to extract of dried root of Heliotropium eichwaldi giving four compounds whose names are glyceryl-1,2,3-triarachidate, stigmast-5,23-dien-3β-ol, n-tetracont-17-enoic acid and n-undecanyl-ndocosanoate. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.







International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research