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Volume6,Issue1

1 Histochemical Studies of Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal. & Henry – An Endemic, Endangered and Threatened Medicinal Plant of Seshachalam Hill Range of Eastern Ghats of India.
Savithramma N, Linga Rao M, Venkateswarlu P
Abstract
Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal. and Henry (Burseraceae) is a potential medicinal tree used traditionally in the treatment of ulcers, inflammation, arthritis, obesity and diabetes. The present study aimed at locating and identifying the phytochemical constituents present in medicinally useful parts of Boswellia ovalifoliolata.  The results indicate that the distribution of secondary metabolites like tannins, polyphenols, crystals and starch grains in various regions of leaf, stem, stembark and root of Boswellia ovalifoliolata by using different chemicals or reagents (FeCl3, Iodine solution, toluidine blue reagent and HCl).  The results showed that the bluish black, purple or blue, bluish green and dark black colours indicate the presence of tannins, starch grains, polyphenols and crystals respectively in various regions like epidermis, endodermis, midrib, cortex and vascular bundle of leaf, stem, stembark and root of Boswellia ovalifoliolata. Histochemical studies are helpful in drug adulteration and systematic Hierarchy of taxon.

2. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Thespesiapopulnealinn
S.Narendhiran, S.Mohanasundaram, J.Arun, R.V.Rannjith, L.Saravanan, L.Catherine, M.Subathra
Abstract
The current study was carried out to determine the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of Thespesiapopulnea. Here the antimicrobial activity of thespesiapopulnea was studied by analyzing it under various conentrations. At higher concentrations extract from petroleum ether of Thespesiapopulnea showed significant antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, kebsiella sp., pseudomonas sp., and bacillus subtilis. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was tested by well diffusion assay and thereby measuring the zone of inhibition (ZOI).

3 Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Evaluation of the Flowers of Butea monosperma (Flame of Forest)
Apte Madhavi
Abstract
There has been worldwide renewal of interest in herbal system of medicines. Side effects of allopathic drugs have scared people all over the world and there is a consorted effort to find an alternative therapeutic method. In Indian traditional system like Ayurveda various herbs are used for the treating various alignments. Ayurveda is well recorded and documented system of medicine. Due to commercialization in production there is need of standardization of herbal medicine.standardization and quality evaluation of plants and herbs steel remains the challenging task. Butea monosperma (Lam.) (Fabaceae) popularly known as ‘flame of the forest’ has been widely used in the traditional Indian medical system of ‘Ayurveda’ for the treatment of a variety of ailments  including liver disorders. In this article pharmacognosy and phytochemistry of the flowers of Butea monosperma is studied.

4 Comparative Analysis of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Traditional Medicinal Plants of Shimla and Solan, Himachal Pradesh.
Vipasha Sharma, Harsh Vardhan Sharma, Disha Mehta, Bhavna Chhabra, Deepika Thakur, Anuradha Sourirajan, Kamal Dev
Abstract
Human race is in great danger due to the development of drug resistance in pathogens. Medicinal plants produce an array of secondary metabolites to protect themselves against pathogens and can be exploited as phytomedicines for humans. In view of the benefits of medicinal plants, 41 medicinal plants of ethnomedicinal importance, belonging to 33 plant families were collected from Solan and Shimla regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. The ethanolic extracts of different parts (flowers, leaves and barks) of these plants were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, prokaryotic bacterial pathogen and Candida albicans, an eukaryotic fungal pathogen using agar well diffusion assays. Collectively, the medicinal plants exhibited 2 fold more antimicrobial activity against prokaryotic pathogen (S. aureus) as compared to the eukaryotic pathogen (C. albicans). For S. aureus, 40 medicinal plants and their different parts exhibited antimicrobial activity whereas for C. albicans only 21 medicinal plants showed antifungal actvity. Amongst all medicinal plants, Hypericum perforatum (flowers) extract showed highest antimicrobial activity against S. aureus with the zone of inhibition of 19 mm and found bactericidal. On the other hand, Cymbopogon citrate (leaf) extract showed highest antifungal activity of 10 mm and fungicidal effect. The extracts of H. perforatum, C. citrate and T. arjuna were strong antimicrobial against both pathogens. It is hypothesized that phytocompounds present in these three plants might be following the same mechanism of action causing death of S. aureus and C. albicans. These findings have an implication for the development of phytomedicines/ drugs with pathogen-specific effect.

5 Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Piper nigrum Leaves Against DLA in Swiss Albino Mice
Shanmugapriya K, Peer Mohammed S, Saravana PS
Abstract
The ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum leaves against Dalton lymphoma ascites in Swiss albino mice scheduled on phytochemical analysis and various pharmacological activitieswere investigated. Phytochemicals analysis, Antimicrobial and antioxidant activitieswere evaluatedby the standard methods.Anticancer activity was evaluated by liver histopathology, serum biochemical parameters.The phytochemicals analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent found to be 4.78 mg/g of phenolic content and flavonoid content was about 4.88mg/g. It showed a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Anticancer activity was evaluated by liver histopathology, serum biochemical parameters. The specific 25 compounds were identified by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometryanalysis. Biochemical and histopathological observations indicated that it exerted remarkable hepatoprotective efficacy to its antioxidant mechanisms. The present study suggested that anti-cancer activity of ethanolic extract might be mediated through scavenging of free radicals and it has a significant potential to use as a natural antioxidant agent due to its significantly higher amount of phenolic content.

6 Evaluations of Wound Healing Activity of Herbal Gel Containing the Flower Extract of Butea monospermaLam.
Vaishali B, Niranjan Goud Kotla, Naresh K, Humera N
Abstract
The back ground and aim: In spite of tremendous advances in the chemical drug industry, the availability of substances capable of stimulating the process of wound repair is still limited. The present work was aim to investigate wound healing efficiency of Herbal gel containing ethanolic and aqueous extract of flower of  Butea monosperma (Lam.) on excision wound model and incision wound model. Excision wound measuring about 500 mm2 was created on the albino rats placed in four groups (n=6) and the gel applied topically on the wounded area which was measured at interval of 3 days until epithelization and complete wound closure. Blank gel and Soframycin Framycetin sulphate cream (FSC) 1% w/w served as the control and standard treatment respectively. Treatment group received topical application of aqueous extract and ethanolic extract (10%w/w) gel. Topical application of aqueous extract gel on excision wound in rats caused a significant (P<0.01) higher rate of wound healing (98.43%) and reduced epithelization period. In incision wound model, aqueous extract gel significantly (P<0.01) increased the breaking strength as compared to control (429.33±3.42) than ethanolic extract (383.66±2.53).  The results  proposed that treatment with aqueous extract gel of B. monosperma flowers had beneficial influence on the various phases of wound healing like wound contraction and resulting in faster healing than ethanolic extract.The observations and results obtained in this study indicated that the aqueous extract gel of B. monosperma flowers significantly stimulated wound contraction. These findings could justify, role of this plant material as folkloric accounts in the management of wound healing.

7 Pharmacognosy of Ecbolium viride: A Review
Keerthana Diyya, Veda Priya Gummadi, Ganga Rao Battu
Abstract
In India use of different parts of several medicinal plants to cure specific ailments has been in vogue from ancient times. Although the traditional system of medicine has large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological properties and are yet to be discovered which represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Ecbolium viride (Forssk).Alston belonging to the family Acanthaceae is a perennial woody under shrub. Traditionally different parts of this plant like roots, leaves, and stem as well as whole plant are used in folklore medicine for various ailments like tumors, jaundice, menorrhea, rheumatism, inflammation. Apart from the research and pharmacological properties of Ecbolium viride, its synonym Ecbolium linnaenum is also succinctly discussed here. Some of its medicinal properties have been mentioned in Siddha, Ayurveda and Unani system of medicine. This review attempts to encompass the adequate information to develop suitable therapeutics and bioactive molecules out of these plant parts.

8 To Estimate the Antiulcer Activity of Leaves of Musa sapientum Linn. by Ethanol Induced Method in Rats.
Atul Kumar Gangwar, Ashoke K.Ghosh
Abstract
Musa sapientum linn. commonly known as kela (English-Banana), belonging to Musaceae family,  is extensively cultivated throughout India. By literature survey different parts of Musa sapientum have been studied for antiestrogenic, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, wound healing, antacid, hypoglycemic, diuretic activities. The pill, stem and leaves extract of banana was found to have analgesic property. But, there is no evidence in literature for antiulcer activity of leaves of Musa sapientum linn. by ethanol induced method. Hence the present investigation was undertaken to study antiulcer activity of chloroform extract (CEMS) and ethanolic extract (EEMS) of leaves of Musa sapientum linn. by ethanol induced method. CEMS and EEMS (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, orally) significantly (P<0.05) reduction in the number of ulcer and ulcer index as compared to ranitidine.

9 In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Ficus bengalensis Lam.
Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
Abstract
Ficus bengalensis belongs to the family Moraceae. This plant is used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and piles, teeth disorders, Rheumatism, skin disorders like sores, to boost the immune system and as a hypoglycemic agent. The present study was designed to investigate antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves of Ficus benghalensis. The extract was screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity by the disc diffusion method. The highest zone of inhibition was found in the concentration of 200µg/ disc for Klebsiella species (18mm) and Alternaria Sp (20mm). The results confirm that Ethyl acetate extracts possessed moderate antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial and fungal strains. Ficus benghalensis showed strong activity against all the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Hence, this plant can be used to discover new antimicrobial products.

10. Assessment of Anti-Inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenger Activities of Selected Scorzonera Species and Determination of Active Components
Özlem Bahadır-Acıkara, Esra Küpeli-Akkol, Ä°pek Süntar, Burçin Ergene, Gülçin Saltan-ÇitoÄŸlu, Tülay Çoban
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the S. latifolia, S. mollis ssp. szowitsii, S. suberosa, S. tomentosa and yakı sakızı. Carrageenan, PGE2 and  serotonin- induced  hind  paw  edema  and  12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced  mouse  ear  edema  models were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity. Antioxidant capacities were measured using superoxide anion and DPPH radical scavenging methods. Chemical composition of the tested extracts was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively by using RP-HPLC method. S. latifolia, S. mollis ssp. szowitsii, and S. tomentosa exhibited notable inhibition in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. S. latifolia and S. tomentosa also showed potent activity against PGE2-induced hind paw edema model as well as in (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema model. All extracts were found to have scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. Chlorogenic acid was detected as major compounds in yakı sakızı and all the species investigated. Hyperoside was determined as major constituents of aerial part extracts.

11 Scavenging Effect, Anti-Inflammatory and Diabetes Related Enzyme Inhibition Properties of Leaves Extract from Selected Varieties of Phoenix dactylifera L.
Laouini S Eddine, Ladjel Segni, Gherraf Noureddine, Ouahrani M Redha, Mokni Sonia
Abstract
In this study we investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic leaves extracts of three selected varieties of Phoenix dactylifera L. namely: “Ghars”, “Deglet Nour” and “Hamraya”. The assessment of the antioxidant potential of crude leaves extracts, using superoxide anions inhibition, DPPH and total antioxidant activity essays, was carried out. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production. Moreover, the antidiabetic effect was evaluated by inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The total phenolic content measured by Folin-ciocalteu method was as well conducted. The raw leaves extracts of the selected varieties was found to contain a high content of total phenolic content (342.45 mg GAE/ gDW for GE) and therefore exhibited a higher antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of radicals scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion (IC50=7.44 μg/mL and 39.11 μg/mL respectively). The three varieties exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects using in-vitro inhibition of NO (IC50=240.28 μg/mL for GE). The extracts also displayed high inhibition actions against α-amylase. The results suggest that the leaves of the three selected varieties of Phoenix dactylifera L can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammation drugs as well as potent antidiabetic medicine.

12 Antioxidant and Anti-Inflamatory Activities of Phenolic Constituents from Primula elatior L. Aerial Part
Fouad A. Mostafa, Mohamed A. Gamal, Ibrahim R. M. Sabrin, Elkhayat S. Ehab
Abstract
Eight phenolic compounds were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the aerial parts of Primula elatior L. (Primulaceae) cultivated in Egypt. Their structures were established as kaempferol (1), quercetin (2), 5-hydroxy pyrogallol (3), gallic acid methyl ester (4), gallic acid (5), 4`-methoxy kaempferol-3-O-β-glucuronopyranoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-β-glucuronopyranoside (7), and quercetin-3-O-β-glucuronopyranoside (8). Three of these compounds (6-8) have been isolated for the first time from the genus Primula. Their structures were confirmed by comparison of their chromatographic properties, chemical and spectroscopic data (UV, 1H, and 13C NMR) with those reported in the literature. The isolated flavonoids 1, 2, and 6-8 were found to exhibit significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This is the first report about the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 6-8.

13 The Anti-Bacterial Activity of Various Parts of Punica granatum on Antibiotics Resistance Escherichia coli
Frdoos AlFadel, Shaza Al Laham, Racha Alkhatib
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effectiveness of the extracts which are prepared from different parts of Punica Granatum) L (from the family Punicaceae) which grows in Syria against Escherichia coli type(1) which reveal resistance toward the studied antibiotics. This study has shown the presence of antibacterial effectiveness of the extracts prepared from different parts of Punica Granatum (L), whereas the studied antibiotics have not shown any antibacterial effectiveness. Different parts of punica granatum (pericarp, leaves, flowers, seeds) were extracted by water, absolute alcohol, then ether using soxhlet device and rotary vacuum evaporator.   767 samples of dead calves (liver or intestines) were investigated for Escherichia coli, using blood agar, and biochemical tests (oxidase, catalase, indole). Antibiotic susceptibility testing for E.coli by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was conducted. Then for stereotyping antibiotic resistance’s E.coli API20E technique, and many selective culture media were used. At last extracts susceptibility testing for E.coli type(1) was studied. E.coli type(1)  was 35.67% of the total number of samples. The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial effectiveness against E.coli except Amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness 10.34% of the total number of samples.  However, The alcoholic extracts prepared from different parts of Punica granatum revealed different antibacterial activity against E.coli type(1) ,which affected calves, and had shown antibiotics resistance . Pericarp extract was the best.  Whereas the water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial effectiveness.Ethanol extracts of punica granatum (pericarp, leaves, flowers, seeds) have antibacterial effect against E.coli type(1 ) which has shown resistance to all studied antibiotics.

14 Pharmacology of Tectona grandis Linn.:  Short Review
Ramesh B. Nidavani, Mahalakshmi AM.
Abstract
Tectona grandis Linn. (T. grandis Linn.) (Family – Verbenaceae) is one of the most famous timber plant in the world and is renowned for its, extreme durability, dimensional stability and hard which also resists decay even when unprotected by paints and preservatives. T. grandis Linn.is commonly called as teak and locally known as sagon, sagwan. It is moreover considered as a major constituent in many of the traditional medicines. A variety of interesting but limited compounds have been isolated and identified from T. grandis Linn. T. grandis Linn. was screened out for its various pharmacological activities. Overview pharmacological investigations on the T. grandis Linn. is presented in this review.

15 Enzyme Inhibitor & Antimicrobial Phytochemicals from Aerial Parts of Sida glutinosa
Niranjan Das, Manash Chandra Das, Biswanath Dinda
Abstract
Glutinoside (compound 1) & 24(28)-dehydromakisterone A (compound 2) were isolated from an annual herb called Sida glutinosa Roxb. syn S. mysorensis Wight and Arn. (Malvaceae) through phytochemical investigation which were later on characterised and structural elucidation were done through NMR, MS & other spectroscopic methods. Biological activity (In vitro) of these compounds were studied for identifying their role on enzymes that generally used as marker for hepatic function like  aminotransferases & alkaline phosphatases,  lipid metabolic enzyme activity and antibacterial function. In all enzyme expression profile study optimum concentration of these isolated molecules on enzyme were found out along with the pattern of enzyme kinetics through statistical tools. In vitro biochemical analysis shows significant reduction in enzyme expression in their optimum inhibitory concentration, both compound 1 & 2 also shows antibacterial property both against positive & negative bacteria as compared with standard drug Gentamicin.

16 Antioxidant Activity of Tuber of Ruellia tuberosa L.  (Acanthaceae)
Rajendrakumar N, Vasantha K, Murugan M, Mohan VR
Abstract
In vitro antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of Ruellia tuberosa (Acanthaceae) was evaluated by studying 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power using standard procedure. Among the solvents tested, methanol and ethanol extracts of tuber of R. tuberosa showed potent in vitro antioxidant activities. The results clearly indicated extracts of tuber of R. tuberosa is effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be a powerful antioxidant.

17. Preliminary Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Solanum khasianum Berries
Sunitha K, Swapna D
Abstract

The present investigation was carried out for the evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of berries of Solanum khasianum Clarke. Antioxidant activity by nitric oxide and DPPH methods reveals that methanolic extract of Solanum khasianum shows maximum percentage of inhibition when compared to the standard drug, Ascorbic acid. Antibacterial activity by Agar well diffusion method reveals that methanolic extract of berries of Solanum khasianum shows maximum zone of inhibition when compared to the standard drug.

18 Comparative Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Aqueous Extracts of Sapindus mukorossi, Phyllanthus emblica, Acacia concinna by In vitro and In vivo Methods.
Radha Madhuri. P, Gouthami E, Swathi .G, Sharvana Bhava.B.S, Venkateshwar Rao J, Venkateshwarulu Eggadi
Abstract
The  location  of  the  eye  and  its  anatomy  predisposes  it  to  exposure  to  a variety  of  environmental  conditions  and  substances  on  a  daily  basis  and  they  can  be exposed  to  cosmetic  products.  Injury  from  ocular  exposure  to  a  variety  of  chemical  agents  can  lead  to  a  range  of  adverse  effects  with  the  most  extreme  being  blindness.  The  evaluation  of  eye  irritation  potential  for  a cosmetic  product  and  its  ingredients  is  essential  to  provide  reassurance  that  a  product  is  safe  for  consumers.  Aim:  Present  study  is  to  evaluate  the  eye  irritation  potential  and  compare  irritation  index  of  aqueous  extracts  of  fruits  of  Sapindus  mukorossi,  Phyllanthus  emblica  and  pods  of  Acacia  concinna  by  in  vitro,  Hen’s Egg Chorioallantoic Membrane Test (HET-CAM) and  in  vivo  acute  eye  irritation  test  in  rabbits.  Materials  and  Methods:  HET –CAM  assay  uses  the  CAM  of  a  10-day-old  fertilized  hen’s  egg.  The  CAM,  a  membrane  which  surrounds  the  developing  chick  embryo  is highly  vascularized  extracts  of  above  plants  were  delivered  to  the  CAM  surface  and  end  points  were  observed  are  hemorrhage,  lysis,  coagulation  for  a period  of  300  seconds  and  irritation  index  is  calculated.  Acute eye irritation test is carried out in albino rabbits.  0.1mL of extract applied in conjunctival sac of one eye.  Results:  The irritation  score  of  S.mukorossi,  P.emblica,  A.concinna  were  8.56,  0.38,  3.29,  respectively.  Conclusion: S.mukorossi  is  categorized  under  2B  and  both  P.emblica  and A.concinna  doesn’t  comes  under  either  category  1  or  2  as  per  the  harmonized  integrated  classification  system.

19 In vitro Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activity of Various Flower Extracts of Couroupita Guianensis
Pusapati Madan Ranjit, V.Harika, Soumya. M, Y.A.Chowdary, K.Phanikumar, T.Bhagyasri, B.Sunitha, Girijasankar Guntuku
Abstract
The present study was focused on the screening of the phytochemical, in vitro cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of various flower extracts [ethanolic (ECG), Ethyl acetate (EACG) and aqueous (ACG)] of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Family: Lecythiadaceae). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids. In vitro cytotoxic activity was performed against MCF-7 cell lines by using MTT assay. All these extracts (12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200µg/ml) in dose manner showed a significant percentage inhibition of cancer cells. Antimicrobial activity was performed using cup-plate method at concentration of 50μg/ml, 100μg/ml, 200μg/ml and 300μg/ml in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) against selected strains of the National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms Sparfloxacin was used as the reference standards. The IC50 values of ECG (59.95), EACG (64.81), ACG (685.6) against standard tamoxifen (37.79) was determined. All extracts of Couroupita guianensis flowers were treated on MCF-7 cell lines which observed, both ethanolic extract (ECG), ethyl acetate extract (EACG) showed in vitro cytotoxic activity.Similarly all these extracts also showed good antimicrobial properties in dose dependent manner. The results suggested that Couroupita guianensis flowers are a potent natural source of new chemical agents, further studies are needed for isolation of pure chemical constituents and establish their molecular mechanism of cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties.

20 A Review on Multipurpose Plant: Psidium Guajava
Neeta Chaudhary, Shalini Tripathi
Abstract
Psidium guajava Linn. (Guava) is used not only as food but also as folk medicine in subtropical areas around the world because of its pharmacologic activities. In particular, the leaf extract of guava has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-allergy, antimicrobial, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antispasmodic, cardioactive, anticough, antidiabetic, antiinflamatory and antinociceptive activities, supporting its traditional uses. Suggesting a wide range of clinical applications for the treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis, diarrhoea and diabetes.

21 Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Studies for the Establishment of Quality Parameters of Leaf ofAchyranthes aspera Linn.
Saraf Aparna, Samant Aruna
Abstract
Achyranthes aspera Linn., Fam. Amranthaceae (Apamarga) is extensively used herb in the Indian systems of medicine. This plant removes the vitiated doshas from the body hence the name Apamarga. Large numbers of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant which possesses activities like antiperiodic, diuretic, purgative, laxative, antiasthmatic, hepatoprotective, and anti-allergic. Standardization of this drug is the key factor in regulating the therapeutic efficacy. The current work was undertaken to standardize the leaf material using simple pharmacognostic techniques, detailed microscopic evaluation and to develop a HPTLC fingerprint profile of leaf of Achyranthes aspera  Linn.  The present investigation deals with physico-chemical study, use of light microcopy and SEM studies of the plant for the establishment of quality parameters. The present work can serve as a useful tool in the identification, authentication and standardization of the plant material.

22 Investigation of Phytoconstituents, TLC Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extract ofAsparagus racemosus willd. Roots
Rajeshwar Y, Sreekanth T, Shyamsunder A, Tejaswi Divya B
Abstract

The present study is aimed at the development of the phytoconstituents and to investigate the medicinally active substances present in methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR) Willd. roots.  The roots of the plant material was successively extracted with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol.  Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of steroids/triterpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, lactones, phenolic compounds and mucilages.  Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profile was performed for MEAR in order to identify the bioactive compounds.  In the present study, the most suitable TLC system for analysis was shown to be chloroform:methanol with the largest discriminating power. Derivatization of TLC plates was done by UV light at 254nm.  Different bands were observed and corresponding Rf values were determined.  Rf values of each spot was calculated as Rf = Distance travelled by the solute (in cm)/Distance travelled by the solvent front (in cm). The effect of MEAR roots was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against various gram positive and gram negative organisms.  It was found that MEAR at a concentration 200µg/ml exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms.  The extract showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella dysenteria, and Vibrio cholera.  However, their activity against Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas auruginosa, and Solmonella typhi was found to be significantly less.  The antimicrobial activity of MEAR was compared with the standard Chloramphenicol at a concentration 10µg/ml

23 Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Effects of Curcumin (Turmeric) Against Scopolamine Induced Cognitive Impairment in Mice.
Sunanda BPV, Latha K, Rammohan B, Uma Maheswari Ms, Surapaneni Krishna Mohan
Abstract
To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin (turmeric) aqueous extract in scopolamine induced cognitive impairment in mice. To compare the neuroprotective action of curcumin (turmeric) against standard drug (Donepezil 50µg/kg). After obtaining Institutional Ethical Committee approval, Swiss albino mice (18-25g) of either sex were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each. Except the control group, other groups received scopolamine (0.05mg/kg) for 14 days. On 14th day, each animal were checked for cognitive impairment by using elevated plus maze (EPM). Dried powder of curcumin (turmeric) was boiled with distilled water, cooled, filtered, placed on hotplate for complete evaporation, finally weighed and stored. The control group, scopolamine control, test group and standard drug groups received saline, scopolamine (0.05mg/kg), curcumin (turmeric) extract (150 & 300 mg/kg), Donepezil (50 µg/kg) respectively by oral feeding. The neuroprotective effect was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) in mice. In elevated plus maze (EPM) models, It implies that curcumin (turmeric) 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) decreases the duration of first retention transfer latency and second retention transfer latency. The current study demonstrates statistically significant neuroprotective activity of curcumin (turmeric) in dose independent manner.

24 Phytochemical Examination of Corchorus Fascicularis Roots
D.Ramadevi, K.Lakshmi sirisha, D.Dhorababu, G.V. Sampath kumar
Abstract
From the root extract of Corchorus fascicularis, β-sitosterol, lupeol, kaempferol, quercetin, oleanolic acid, 2-methylanthraquinone and fusidic acid were isolated and characterized by spectroscopy.

25 Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorophytum Species Leaves of Melghat Region
Ghorpade D.S, Thakare P.V.
Abstract
Aqueous extract of Chlorophytum species leaves of eight plants were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of leaves of the Chlorophytum species plant was studied against bacteria E. coli, S aureus, P. vulgaris, B.substilis and fungi A.niger, C. albican .Leaves of C. tuberosum show excellent antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi tested. Aqueous extract of C.  borivilianum, C. arundinaceum, C. nimmoni and C. kolhapurens exhibits good activity against all tested microorganisms while other plants C. breviscapum, C. bharuchae, and C. glaucum showed moderate antimicrobial activity. A zone of inhibition of antibacterial activity compared with standard ampicillin and antifungal with griseofulvin. The preliminary phytochemical screening of leaves reveals the presence of starch, proteins, sugars, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and mucilage. Microscopy and Microscopy of transverse section of leaves of Chlorophytum species show characters similarities with the same species






International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research